SHORT STORY UNIT GRADE SEVEN GENRE • Is a word that means type. • If someone is talking about a literary genre, he /she is simply referring to a type of literature 1. 2. 3. 4. Common genres in fiction are. The short story The poem The novel The play . The Short Story One of the most common forms of prose writing . Can be usually read in one sitting. Longer than an anecdote, shorter than a novel Will have at least one character, a setting( time and place of the action) and a plot( events that happen in the story. It will also have a conflict of some kind and a theme or main idea. 1500-2000 words Four main elements of a Short Story 1. 2. 3. 4. PLOT CHARACTER SETTING THEME PLOT • Is the element of the short story that must be given the most attention when introducing the short story. • Plot in literature simply means the particular arrangement of incidents to bring about a desired ending. • The author usually knows what he/she is trying to do and he arranges his material as best he/she can to achieve this purpose. • Plot must have unity( a planned arrangement of events) and conflict (a problem or struggle). PLOT DIAGRAM • Introduction: introduces characters, setting and plot • Rising Action: conflict and suspense • Climax: • Falling Action • Resolution PLOT • Introduction: Introduces the storyline, characters and setting of the story. • Rising action: Introduces the conflict and builds suspense as the story unfolds Plot organization continued • Climax: the highest moment of suspense. The most exciting moment in the story. • Falling Action: the events which follow the climax. The purpose to tie things together or to clarify unresolved issues. • Resolution: the end of the story. Sometimes the issues and conflicts are resolved. Other times there may be a surprise ending. With the climax, falling action and resolution occurring at the same moment. CHARACTER • Who is important in the story? • Protagonist- most important character • Antagonist- second most important character Another way to refer to characters: main and minor characters How are characters presented? An author may present his/her characters directly or indirectly. Directly: the author tells the reader straight out what a character is like or has someone else in the story tell us what the character is like. continued • Indirectly: the author shows us the character in action. We infer what the character is like by what he/she thinks, does or says. Characterization The method by which an author may reveal or develop a character. Characterization must observe three principals 1. Characters must be consistent in their behavior. They must not behave in one way on one occasion and a different way on another occasion. Unless there is a clearly sufficient reason for the change. Principals of characterization continued 2.We must be able to understand the reasons for what they do, if not immediately then at least by the end of the story. 3.The character must be life like. They must not be paragons of virtue (too good) nor monsters of evil nor the impossible contradiction of contradictory traits Four types of characters 1. FLAT: is characterized by one or two traits. Not well developed. His/her character can be summed up in a sentence. A special kind of flat character is a stock character. This is the type of character who has occurred so often in fiction that his or her nature is immediately known. Ex. Cruel stepmother, handsome brave hero, sinister villian, modest heroine, brilliant detective with eccentric habits 2.ROUND CHARACTER A round character is complex and many sided. This type of character may not be revealed until you have read an entire essay or story. 3. STATIC CHARACTER • Is the same sort of person at the end of the story as he/she is at the beginning( no personal growth). 4. DYNAMIC CHARACTER • THIS TYPE OF CHARACTER IS CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPING • A PERMANENT CHANGE TAKES PLACE IN SOME ASPECT OF HIS/HER CHARACTER, PERSONALITY OR OUTLOOK. The change may be large or small, it may make the character appear for the better or worse. SETTING • The time, place, and circumstance of a story, play or novel. • When, where and what is going on • The importance of the setting is determined by the plot THEME • The main idea of a story • The message the author is trying to get us to think about. • Some themes are implied (hinted at) others are explicit (stated directly). MOOD • The unique way in which the author presents a story. • The feeling you get when reading a story • The happenings which made you feel sad, happy, thoughtful, etc. Point of View • A story or novel may be told from several points of view 1. First Person (I) Minor character: an acquaintance , friend or other observer tells the story from his/her own point of view about the hero. 2. First person (I) Major Character: • The hero tells the story about him/her self. This may be an honest story or a little twisted. 3.Third person (he/she) main character: • The author tells the story but mostly or entirely from the point of view of the main character. 4.Third person (he/she) minor character: • The author tells the story about the main character from the minor characters point of view 5. Author Omniscient (all knowing ) Point of View: • The author knows all • The author may be inside or outside any of the characters • Fly on the wall, God Types of Conflict 1. Internal Conflict: occurs within a character. May include feelings of guilt, moral struggles, anxiety from different sources. Conflict continued 2.External Conflict: occurs between characters and an outside source. This might include nature or an incident that occurs. Conflict continued 3. Interpersonal conflict: occurs between two or more characters when placed in a situation. This type of conflict may take the form of an argument or a physical assault. What is introduced at the beginning of a story? The introduction of a story introduces the plot or sequence of events that make up the story. It also places characters in a setting where the can interact with one another to create conflict which will cause suspense and an eventual climax. As this happens, mood is also created through the use of descriptive language such as adjective, adverb and figurative language. This grabbing of attention gets reader interest and maintains interest in the story. When writing a story • Choose and interesting storyline • Introduce setting, character, conflict, develop suspense which will lead to a climax. • Use descriptive language to make your writing interesting and keep audience attention. • Create images in the readers mind • Solve the conflict or leave the audience hanging at the end. • You may want to use a surprise ending to add to your plot. Writing a Character Sketch • • • • • Organization is important Don’t forget paragraphing Indent Use linking words Skim/scan for suitable content for each paragraph How to write a character sketch… • Paragraph One: name, age, physical appearance, style of dress • Paragraph Two: family, family background, home, friends • Paragraph Three: character traits-personality with evidence • Paragraph Four: Likes and dislikes of the character • Paragraph Five: feelings, voice, fears, values and behavior STYLE • Everyone has a personal style. A way of writing words on paper. We are all unique or different. Some people are more descriptive than others, some use short concise sentences, others use more complex sentences. Others use variety in sentence structure. The Jade Peony Mystery and Wonder Anthology. 1. Describe the setting of the story “The Jade Peony”. 2. Why was the family ashamed of grandmamma? 3. Identify three symbols in the story. State what each represents in the story. 4.What sign did Grandmamma leave that her life had ended well? EXPLAIN. The Jade Peony continued 5. Is this short story a mystery? Explain why? 6. Foreshadowing is a technique used in this story. Discuss three specific examples of this technique. Was it Murder? Mystery and Wonder Anthology 1. Using an organizational chart list the main and minor characters in this story. Label them as static, round, flat or dynamic. 2. Do you think Olive killed her husband? Why or why not? 3. Do you think setting is important in this story? Explain. A Wish Named Arnold Mystery and Wonder Anthology 1. Who is the main character in this story? 2. Stories often contain clues as to the outcome of a story, this is called foreshadowing. Discuss the point in the story where you got an idea of how the story would end. State the sentence which contains this example in your notes. A Wish Named Arnold continued 3.On the audiotape of the story what technique was used to suggest the qualities of the different characters? 4.How did the way the narrator spoke contribute to the mood of the story? The Fog Horn Mystery and Wonder Anthology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the theme of the short story? Explain how dialogue creates mood in this short story. Discuss the mood. How does “The Fog Horn” fit into the classification of a mystery? Explain. McDunn states that ”the ocean’s the biggest snowflake ever.” This is a metaphor. Explain why this statement is considered a metaphor. McDunne states that the fog horn “sounds like an animal”. This is a simile. Explain why this statement is considered a simile. “The Fog Horn” continued 6.The theme of “The Fog Horn” is stated on page 103. state the theme and explain it. 7.The motif of loneliness is repeated in this story. a) Define motif. b) Give three examples of this motif in “The Fog Horn”. The Phantom Dog Team Working Together Anthology 1. In a well written paragraph describe the ghosts of Labrador. What special quality do they have? 2. Describe the ghost “Smoker”. How do they think he got his name? 3. Identify the main conflict in this story. Who was involved in the conflict and how was the conflict resolved at the end of the story? Working Together Anthology 4. What do you think happened that night? 5. Why do you think the boy told the father no other dog team had come in that night?