the short story grade7

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SHORT STORY UNIT
GRADE SEVEN
GENRE
• Is a word that means type.
• If someone is talking about a
literary genre, he /she is simply
referring to a type of literature
1.
2.
3.
4.
Common genres in fiction
are.
The short story
The poem
The novel
The play
.
The Short Story
One of the most common forms of prose writing .
Can be usually read in one sitting.
Longer than an anecdote, shorter than a novel
Will have at least one character, a setting( time and
place of the action) and a plot( events that happen
in the story. It will also have a conflict of some
kind and a theme or main idea.
1500-2000 words
Four main elements of a
Short Story
1.
2.
3.
4.
PLOT
CHARACTER
SETTING
THEME
PLOT
• Is the element of the short story that must be
given the most attention when introducing the
short story.
• Plot in literature simply means the particular
arrangement of incidents to bring about a desired
ending.
• The author usually knows what he/she is trying to
do and he arranges his material as best he/she
can to achieve this purpose.
• Plot must have unity( a planned arrangement of
events) and conflict (a problem or struggle).
PLOT DIAGRAM
• Introduction: introduces characters,
setting and plot
• Rising Action: conflict and suspense
• Climax:
• Falling Action
• Resolution
PLOT
• Introduction: Introduces the
storyline, characters and setting of
the story.
• Rising action: Introduces the
conflict and builds suspense as the
story unfolds
Plot organization continued
• Climax: the highest moment of suspense. The
most exciting moment in the story.
• Falling Action: the events which follow the
climax. The purpose to tie things together or to
clarify unresolved issues.
• Resolution: the end of the story. Sometimes
the issues and conflicts are resolved. Other
times there may be a surprise ending. With the
climax, falling action and resolution occurring at
the same moment.
CHARACTER
• Who is important in the story?
• Protagonist- most important
character
• Antagonist- second most important
character
Another way to refer to characters:
main and minor characters
How are characters
presented?
An author may present his/her
characters directly or indirectly.
Directly: the author tells the reader
straight out what a character is like
or has someone else in the story tell
us what the character is like.
continued
• Indirectly: the author shows us the
character in action. We infer what
the character is like by what
he/she thinks, does or says.
Characterization
The method by which an author may
reveal or develop a character.
Characterization must
observe three principals
1. Characters must be consistent in
their behavior. They must not
behave in one way on one occasion
and a different way on another
occasion. Unless there is a clearly
sufficient reason for the change.
Principals of characterization continued
2.We must be able to understand the
reasons for what they do, if not
immediately then at least by the end of
the story.
3.The character must be life like. They must
not be paragons of virtue (too good) nor
monsters of evil nor the impossible
contradiction of contradictory traits
Four types of characters
1. FLAT: is characterized by one or two
traits. Not well developed. His/her
character can be summed up in a
sentence.
A special kind of flat character is a stock
character. This is the type of character who
has occurred so often in fiction that his or
her nature is immediately known. Ex. Cruel
stepmother, handsome brave hero, sinister
villian, modest heroine, brilliant detective
with eccentric habits
2.ROUND CHARACTER
A round character is complex and many
sided. This type of character may not
be revealed until you have read an
entire essay or story.
3. STATIC CHARACTER
• Is the same sort of person at the
end of the story as he/she is at the
beginning( no personal growth).
4. DYNAMIC
CHARACTER
• THIS TYPE OF CHARACTER IS
CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPING
• A PERMANENT CHANGE TAKES PLACE IN
SOME ASPECT OF HIS/HER CHARACTER,
PERSONALITY OR OUTLOOK. The change may
be large or small, it may make the character
appear for the better or worse.
SETTING
• The time, place, and circumstance of
a story, play or novel.
• When, where and what is going on
• The importance of the setting is
determined by the plot
THEME
• The main idea of a story
• The message the author is trying to
get us to think about.
• Some themes are implied (hinted at)
others are explicit (stated directly).
MOOD
• The unique way in which the author
presents a story.
• The feeling you get when reading a
story
• The happenings which made you feel
sad, happy, thoughtful, etc.
Point of View
•
A story or novel may be told from
several points of view
1. First Person (I) Minor character: an
acquaintance , friend or other
observer tells the story from
his/her own point of view about the
hero.
2. First person (I) Major
Character:
• The hero tells the story about
him/her self. This may be an honest
story or a little twisted.
3.Third person (he/she)
main character:
• The author tells the story but mostly
or entirely from the point of view of
the main character.
4.Third person (he/she)
minor character:
• The author tells the story about the
main character from the minor
characters point of view
5. Author Omniscient (all
knowing ) Point of View:
• The author knows all
• The author may be inside or outside
any of the characters
• Fly on the wall, God
Types of Conflict
1. Internal Conflict: occurs within a
character. May include feelings of
guilt, moral struggles, anxiety from
different sources.
Conflict continued
2.External Conflict: occurs between
characters and an outside source.
This might include nature or an
incident that occurs.
Conflict continued
3. Interpersonal conflict: occurs
between two or more characters
when placed in a situation. This type
of conflict may take the form of an
argument or a physical assault.
What is introduced at
the beginning of a story?
The introduction of a story introduces the plot or
sequence of events that make up the story. It
also places characters in a setting where the can
interact with one another to create conflict which
will cause suspense and an eventual climax. As this
happens, mood is also created through the use of
descriptive language such as adjective, adverb and
figurative language. This grabbing of attention
gets reader interest and maintains interest in the
story.
When writing a story
• Choose and interesting storyline
• Introduce setting, character, conflict, develop
suspense which will lead to a climax.
• Use descriptive language to make your writing
interesting and keep audience attention.
• Create images in the readers mind
• Solve the conflict or leave the audience hanging
at the end.
• You may want to use a surprise ending to add to
your plot.
Writing a Character
Sketch
•
•
•
•
•
Organization is important
Don’t forget paragraphing
Indent
Use linking words
Skim/scan for suitable content for
each paragraph
How to write a character
sketch…
• Paragraph One: name, age, physical appearance,
style of dress
• Paragraph Two: family, family background, home,
friends
• Paragraph Three: character traits-personality
with evidence
• Paragraph Four: Likes and dislikes of the
character
• Paragraph Five: feelings, voice, fears, values and
behavior
STYLE
• Everyone has a personal style. A way
of writing words on paper. We are all
unique or different. Some people are
more descriptive than others, some
use short concise sentences, others
use more complex sentences. Others
use variety in sentence structure.
The Jade Peony
Mystery and Wonder Anthology.
1.
Describe the setting of the story “The
Jade Peony”.
2. Why was the family ashamed of
grandmamma?
3. Identify three symbols in the story.
State what each represents in the story.
4.What sign did Grandmamma leave that her
life had ended well? EXPLAIN.
The Jade Peony continued
5. Is this short story a mystery?
Explain why?
6. Foreshadowing is a technique used
in this story. Discuss three specific
examples of this technique.
Was it Murder?
Mystery and Wonder Anthology
1.
Using an organizational chart list the
main and minor characters in this story.
Label them as static, round, flat or
dynamic.
2. Do you think Olive killed her husband?
Why or why not?
3. Do you think setting is important in this
story? Explain.
A Wish Named Arnold
Mystery and Wonder Anthology
1. Who is the main character in this story?
2. Stories often contain clues as to the
outcome of a story, this is called
foreshadowing. Discuss the point in the
story where you got an idea of how the
story would end. State the sentence
which contains this example in your
notes.
A Wish Named Arnold continued
3.On the audiotape of the story what
technique was used to suggest the
qualities of the different
characters?
4.How did the way the narrator spoke
contribute to the mood of the story?
The Fog Horn
Mystery and Wonder Anthology
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the theme of the short story?
Explain how dialogue creates mood in this short
story. Discuss the mood.
How does “The Fog Horn” fit into the
classification of a mystery? Explain.
McDunn states that ”the ocean’s the biggest
snowflake ever.” This is a metaphor. Explain why
this statement is considered a metaphor.
McDunne states that the fog horn “sounds like
an animal”. This is a simile. Explain why this
statement is considered a simile.
“The Fog Horn” continued
6.The theme of “The Fog Horn” is stated on
page 103. state the theme and explain it.
7.The motif of loneliness is repeated in this
story.
a) Define motif.
b) Give three examples of this motif in “The
Fog Horn”.
The Phantom Dog Team
Working Together Anthology
1.
In a well written paragraph describe the
ghosts of Labrador. What special quality
do they have?
2. Describe the ghost “Smoker”. How do
they think he got his name?
3. Identify the main conflict in this story.
Who was involved in the conflict and how
was the conflict resolved at the end of
the story?
Working Together Anthology
4. What do you think happened that
night?
5. Why do you think the boy told the
father no other dog team had come
in that night?

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