Weather With You

Report
Weather With You
Research 1.5
4 credits
To go with Geostuff Resources
WEATHER WORD MAT
The Elements Of The Weather
Precipitation
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Rainfall
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Snow fall
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Sleet
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Hail
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Drizzle
Humidity
Sunshine Hours
Wind Strength
Wind Direction
Cloud Amount
Cloud Type
Temperature (⁰C)
Measuring Apparatus
Thermometers
Rain Gauge
Hygrometer
Campbell Stokes Recorder
Anemometer
Weather Vane
Stevensons Screen
Barometer
Some Weather Extremes
Tornados
Hurricanes
Fog
Sleet
Hail
Lightening
Thunder
Snow Storm
Freezing Rain
Storm Force Wind
Meteorology = The scientific study of the Earth's
atmosphere, especially its patterns of climate and
weather.
Descriptions Of Weather
Humid
Foggy
Misty
Windy
Breezy
Calm
Cloudy
Overcast
Sunny
Frosty
Depression or Low Pressure
Anticyclone or High Pressure
Cold front
Warm Front
Warm Sector
Persistent
Prevailing
Beaufort Scale
Convectional Rain
Orographic Rain
Frontal Rain
Oktas
Weather Terms
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Complete the mix and match activity
Air Mass
Meteorologist
Climate
Anemometer
Meteorology
Cloud
Anticyclone
Precipitation
Cold Front
Atmosphere
Forecast
Isobar
Atmospheric Pressure
Front
Low pressure
Barometer
Thermometer
Depression
Wind
Wind Vane
Beaufort Scale
Weather
High Pressure
Fog
Humidity
Cyclone
Weather Station
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
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Climate is the average weather over a long time period
(30 years) for a particular region. The climate affects a
number of environmental factors within the region
including the type and growth of vegetation and wildlife.
Weather describes the short-term state of our
atmosphere. This may include information about the air
temperature, precipitation, air pressure and cloud cover.
Our local weather changes daily due to the movement of
air in our atmosphere. The Earth rotating around the sun
causes seasonal changes giving us hotter summers and
cooler winters.
Tourism in Queenstown New
Zealand
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Using the data below construct a climate
graph for Queenstown.
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Temp
⁰C
22.6
22.7
19.9
16.1
11.9
8.6
8.2
10.3
13.5
16.2
18.6
20.7
PPT
mm
78
58
80
75
89
82
65
73
69
95
72
77
Read the 10 sentences below. Place the sentence
letter on the climate graph drawn in Task 1, in the
place it is mostly likely to occur.
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Most accommodation is booked
People expect long queues at the ski lifts
The local emergency Department is dealing with large numbers of
broken limbs
Ski Season is coming to an end
Ski instructors are hired
Local Council and DOC assess the environmental damage on ski slopes
Adventure tourism activities (rafting, bungee, etc) increase with more
favourable weather conditions
Bookings of the TSS Earnslaw on Lake Wakatipu are at yearly high
Cafes move tables outside so customers can begin to enjoy alfresco
eating
The Remarkables are beginning explored by trampers
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From New Zealand’s Thermal
Wonderland to the
Mediterranean!
Task
Imagine a young adult, aged 22, who
lives in Rotorua, New Zealand, is going
on his OE. His first destination is
Marseille in the South of France. You
have been asked to give him a factual
and accurate account of how the climates
are different. It is important that you use
a comparative style to write this account.
Marseille, France
Rotorua, New Zealand
Latitude 43°27'N Longitude 005°14'E Elevation 36m
Latitude: 38°07'S Longitude: 176°19'E Elevation: 287m
Annual Average Precipitation Graph
Annual Average Precipitation Graph
Annual Temperature Graph
Annual Temperature Graph
Cyprus: Geographical Information
Researching the Types of
Rainfall
TYPES OF CLOUDS
TYPES OF CLOUDS
LOW CLOUDS: STRATUS CLOUDS
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Stratus clouds are uniform grayish clouds that often
cover the entire sky. They resemble fog that does not
reach the ground. Usually no precipitation falls from
stratus clouds, but sometimes they may drizzle.
Nimbostratus clouds form a dark gray, "wet" looking
cloudy layer associated with continuously falling light
to moderate rain or snow.
MIDDLE CLOUDS: ALTO
CLOUDS
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Clouds with the prefix "alto" are middle level clouds that have bases
between 2000 and 7000 m (6500 to 23,000 ft.).
Altocumulus clouds are middle level clouds that are made of water
droplets and appear as gray, puffy masses, sometimes rolled out in
parallel waves or bands. The appearance of these clouds on a warm,
humid summer morning often means thunderstorms may occur by late
afternoon.
Altostratus clouds are gray or blue-gray middle level clouds
composed of ice crystals and water droplets. These clouds usually
cover the entire sky. In the thinner areas of the cloud, the sun may be
dimly visible as a round disk. Altostratus clouds often form ahead of
storms that will produce continuous precipitation.
HIGH CLOUDS: CIRRUS
CLOUDS
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Cirrus clouds are thin, wispy clouds blown by high winds into long
streamers. They are considered "high clouds" forming above 6000 m
(20,000 ft). Cirrus clouds usually move across the sky from west to
east. They generally mean fair to pleasant weather.
Cirrostratus clouds are thin, sheet like high clouds that often cover
the entire sky. They are so thin that the sun and moon can be seen
through them.
Cirrocumulus clouds appear as small, rounded white puffs. The small
ripples in the cirrocumulus sometimes resemble the scales of a fish. A
sky with cirrocumulus clouds is sometimes referred to as a "mackerel
sky."
CLOUDS WITH VERTICAL
DEVELOPMENT: CUMULUS
CLOUDS
Cumulus clouds are puffy clouds that sometimes look like
pieces of floating cotton. The base of each cloud is often flat
and may be only 1000 m (330 ft) above the ground. The top
of the cloud has rounded towers. When the top of the
cumulus resembles the head of a cauliflower, it is called
towering cumulus. These clouds grow upward, and they can
develop into a giant cumulonimbus, which is a
thunderstorm cloud.
Cumulonimbus clouds are thunderstorm clouds that form if
towering cumulus clouds continue to grow vertically. Their
dark bases may be no more than 300 m (1000 ft) above the
Earth's surface. Their tops may extend upward to over
12,000 m (39,000 ft). Tremendous amounts of energy are
released by the condensation of water vapor within a
cumulonimbus. Lightning, thunder, and even violent
tornadoes are associated with the cumulonimbus.
HOW MUCH OF THE SKY IS
COVERED BY CLOUD?
Meteorologists measure the amount of the sky
covered in eighths or oktas.
1 okta
2 oktas
Not quite About a
cloudless. ¼ of the
sky
covered
in cloud.
3 oktas
4 oktas
Just
½ the sky
under ½ covered.
of the sky
covered
by cloud.
5 oktas
6 oktas
7 oktas
8 oktas
Just over
½ of the
sky
covered
by cloud.
¾ of the
sky
covered
in cloud.
Only a
tiny
portion
of blue
sky
showing
No blue
sky
overcast.
Observing the Clouds
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In this activity you will need to make observations about the
clouds and the weather for one week.
Use the table to record the observations you make about the
following cloud and weather conditions each day for one week:
Make a note of the day, date and time you made your
observations
Observe how much of the sky is covered which cloud (use oktas)
What type[s] of cloud are in the sky
Describe the weather conditions
Comment on your observations. For example were certain types
of clouds associated with specific weather. Did the weather and
cloud type and cover change much over the week, etc?
Observing the Clouds
Day
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Comments on my observations -
Time
Oktas
(sky covered by cloud)
Types of cloud
Weather conditions
What are fronts?
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Fronts are the boundaries between air
masses off different temperature, and
appear on the weather maps as a line with
triangles or semicircles attached.
Cold Front
A cold front is the leading edge of an advancing colder air mass and is
marked by a line with triangles pointing to where it is moving. It
brings cloud (cumulonimbus) and precipitation (often heavy may
have thunder and lightning) with strong winds. These conditions are
followed by a drop in temperature and/or humidity, pressure rises and
the wind changes direction. It is over quite quickly.
Warm Front
The leading edge of an advancing warmer air mass and is marked by a line
 semicircles pointing to where it is moving. It usually brings cloud and
with
precipitation followed by increasing temperature and/or humidity. The
pressure steadies and the wind changes direction. May last several days.
Warm Front
 A warm front is defined as the transition zone where a
warm air mass is replacing a cold air mass.
 When a warm front passes through, the air becomes
noticeably warmer and more humid than it was before.
 Fronts that bring warm air are referred to as warm
fronts. As this warm air approaches it is lifted upward
above the cooler air. As the air in the warm air mass
rises, it expands, causing it to cool down. As it cools,
water vapor can condense creating precipitation.
Occluded Front
An occluded front occurs when a cold front overtakes a warm front, so that all that
remains of the original warm air is trapped above, where it cools making dense cloud and
rain. It is marked by a line with triangles and semicircles on the same side, pointing to
where the front is moving. It usually brings patchy rain with decreasing winds; pressure
falls with little change to air temperature.
Stationary Front
A stationary front has little movement. It is marked by a line with alternate triangles
and semicircles on opposite sides, the triangles protruding into the warmer air-mass
and the semicircles protruding into the cooler air-mass. It takes a while for a
stationary front to pass by with rain clearing slowly and little change in temperature
and pressure.
Reading Weather Maps
Met Service Links
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A Satellite Image
shows the
location of the
low and high
pressure areas
and the fronts.
You can predict
wind direction
and strength,
cloud and rain
using the
pressure charts.
http://www.metservice.com/national/maps-rain-radar/maps/tasman-sea-nz-colour-latest
http://www.metservice.com/national/maps-rain-radar/rain-radar/rain-mahia-last-8-hrs
Rain Information
Reading Weather Maps
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What is an Air Mass?
An Air Mass is a large body of air with
similar temperature and humidity
characteristics throughout. The air mass
gets these characteristics from spending
days or weeks over the same part of the
earth.
A tropical airmass consists of
warm
air
from the tropics
A maritime air-mass
consists of
moist air
flowing
from over a
large
sea area
A polar air-mass
consists of
cold
air
flowing from
Polar Regions
A continental
air-mass
consists of
dry air which
has come from
a large land
area
Complete extra weather sheets tasks
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Dot to dot!
What is air pressure?
Air pressure is the weight of the Earth's atmosphere pressing down on everything at the
surface.
How is air pressure shown on a weather map?
Isobars - Contours of equal air pressure. Air pressure is measured in millibars.
What can the isobars tell us about the weather?
Isobars give information about the wind ie winds blow almost directly along the
isobars, the closer the isobars, the stronger the winds and the further apart the more
gentle the wind.
When isobars enclose an area of high pressure this is called a High or anticyclone and its
centre is labelled on a weather map by an 'H'. In a high pressure air descends, there are
no clouds, dry conditions, and outward moving gentle anticlockwise winds in the
Southern Hemisphere (clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere).
When isobars enclose an area of low pressure this is called a 'Low' or 'depression' and its
centre is labelled on a weather map with an 'L'. A low pressure system is like a giant
funnel of clockwise wind (in the Southern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in the
Northern Hemisphere) spiraling inwards and upwards forcing warmish air in the centre
to rise. As air rises it cools and clouds and rain bands form.
Forecasting The Weather
Issued by Met Service at: 1:51pm 9 April 2011
Weather Forecast For Over The Coming Hours For New Zealand
At present there is a High Pressure system in the Tasman Sea. The system is moving in an easterly direction
towards the west coast of the North and South Island. The pressure is 1030 with winds of 10 knots. As this high
approaches its descending air will mean that there are no clouds, dry conditions, and outward moving gentle
clockwise winds. Meanwhile approaching the South Island is a Cold Front. The air behind will be a Maritime
Polar air mass. As the cold front approaches it will bring cloud (cumulonimbus) and precipitation (which will be
quite heavy with possible thunder and lightning). The winds will be strong as indicated by the isobars being close
together around this front. The front should pass quickly and it will be followed by a drop in temperature. The
pressure will rise and the wind will change direction. This front should continue to make its way up the South
Island over the next few hours.
EFFECTS OF WEATHER
CONCEPT MAP
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This activity examines the problems caused by
heavy snow fall and uses the October 2009
snow showers on the Napier-Taupo Road as an
example.
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Read the information on Concept Maps.
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Read the information cards.
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Place the cards in a logical order on the A3
concept map template provided.
See if there are any interactions between any
cards.
Once you have decided on an order stick the
cards onto your A3 sheet of paper.
Draw in arrows to show how the cards interact
and write words or statements to describe this
interaction.
Try to come up with more information cards
and add these to your concept map.
CONCEPT MAP
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What do you mean when you say, I
understand?
Does it mean the same thing to you as it
does to another student?
How can you demonstrate your
understanding?
Constructing a concept map provides a way
to represent, reflect on, deepen, and share
your understanding.
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What is a Concept Map?
A concept map presents the relationships between information.
Concept maps offer a method to represent information visually. It is a
tangible way to display how your mind ‘sees’ a particular topic. In a
concept map, the concepts (ideas/statements) are connected to other
concept by arrows. A word or brief phrase, written by the arrow,
defines the relationship between the connected concepts. Major
concept boxes will have lines to and from several other concept boxes
generating a network. Concept maps are a form of graphic organizer.
This is an example of a very simple Concept Map:

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