Integrating Technology in the ESL Classroom

Report
Integrating Technology
in the ESL Classroom
By: Lorraine Vazquez
Fall’12/Spring ‘13
Dr. O’Conner-Petruso
Table of Contents
O
O
O
O
O
O
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………..……………..3
O
Statement of the problem………………………………………………….………... 4
O
Review of related literature…………………………………………………...……5-6
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Statement of the hypothesis …………………………………………………………7
Methods……………………………………………………………………………………….8
O
Participants…………………………………………………………………………….8
O
Instruments………………………………………………………………………….…8
O
Experimental Design……………………………………………………………...…..8
O
Threats to Internal and External Validity……………………………………..…..…9
O
Procedure………………………………………………………..…………………..10
Results……………………………………………………………………………..……11-14
Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………..15
Implications ………………………………………………………..…………………...…..16
References……………………………………………………………………………….....17
Abstract
O This Action Research Project focuses on the
implementation of technology into the curriculum on
a daily basis to increase literacy levels for the
ESL/ELL populations. This project was conducted at a
pre-school located in Brooklyn, NY, with five – five
year old English as a Second Language learning
students. By using technology in the classroom to
create digital stories, four times a week for forty-five
minutes in the afternoons, the students we able to
achieve higher scores in their vocabulary and
grammar weekly test. The students were supplied
with laptops and digital cameras to create their
weekly digital-stories.
Statement of the problem
O The inclusion of technology in ESL/ELL
classrooms when done correctly helps
students achieve higher literacy and
comprehension levels on their newly
acquired language (Materson (n.d.) Morgan,
2008). This Action Research Project focuses
on the implementation of technology into
the curriculum on a daily basis to increase
literacy levels for the ESL/ELL populations.
Review of Related Literature
O Approximately 5 million ESL/ELL students were enrolled in the
O
O
O
O
2003-2004 school year (McKeon, 2005).
With numbers this high teachers must find different modalities
of teaching.
It is no longer contained to a specific group, more ESL/ELL
students are joining the mainstream class. (FreedsonGonzalez, Lucas, & Villegas, 2008, p. 129).
We should not rule out any kind of technological tool which will
enhance our behavioral objective.
Students are growing in the 21st century, teachers bear the
responsibility to not only prepare students with social and
character skills, but also prepare them to work in the global
age which necessitates literacy in the tools of technology.
Review of Literature cont.
O Students “need to hear language, write language, speak
O
O
O
O
language, and read language” (Ybarra, 2003).
Items like computers, tablets, podcast, radio, televisions
and over head projectors can be used to enhance
literacy.
Carrol (2001) says that “teachers have been colonized
by dominant models of technology, but do not use them
effectively in the classroom” (p. 27).
Teachers need to be trained more in order to use
technology to its full capacity in the classroom.
Morgan (2008) says that “money can be invested or
wasted on technology if the teacher is not fully literate
on the technology available”.
Statement of the Hypothesis
O HR- Incorporating digital stories in class five
times a week for forty-five minutes during
the afternoon over a four week period will
motivate five ESL prekindergarten students
from an urban private pre-school in
Brooklyn, New York to increase their literacy
levels.
Methods
O Participants-(N)- Five prekindergarten ESL/ELL
students from a private pre-school in Brooklyn,
New York.
O Instruments- computers with internet, digital
cameras, the world wide web.
O Experimental Design-this projects design fits the
characteristics of a one- shot case study; it will
be a single group that will be exposed to a
treatment (x). This treatment will ultimately help
the desired outcome through the completion of
a designated project (o). The symbolic design
would be: xo
Threats to Internal and
External Validity
O History
O Ecological Validity
O Instrumentation
O Generalizable
O Mortality
O Statistical
Regression
O Differential
Selection of
Subject
Conditions
O Specificity of
Variables
Procedures
O Students were introduced to Digital Stories in
class the first week.
O We then began to work on internet based
grammar and vocabulary building websites.
O The children were then encouraged to pair up
and take pictures around the classroom,
together we uploaded the pictures and were
able to create stories based on their pictures.
We used www.Animoto.com to create mini
movies with their pictures.
O Every Friday the children took a grammar and
vocabulary test online.
Grammar Results
Student Grammar Weekly Test Scores
week 1
week 2
week 3
week 4
A
B
C
D
E
4
6
8
10
4
6
7
9
3
5
9
9
6
8
8
9
5
7
9
10
Weekly Grammar Scores
12
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
S
c
o
r
e
s
10
8
week 1
6
week 2
4
week 3
2
week 4
0
A
B
C
D
Student Weekly Grammar Scores
E
Students A Grammar
Correlations
Relationship Between Time Spent on Computers and
Grammar Scores
1
2
3
4
Student A
grammar
test scores
4
6
8
10
Student A Grammar Scores
12
Amount of
weeks on
computers
10
8
6
Series1
4
Linear (Series1)
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Amount of Time Spent on Computers
This Graph shows a positive excellent correlation of
rxy=1. This shows that the more time the student spent
on the computers the better his grammar skills were.
Vocabulary Results
Student Weekly Vocabulary Scores
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
A
5
6
8
10
B
4
6
9
9
C
4
5
7
9
D
7
6
9
10
E
6
4
6
8
Weekly Vocabulary Scores
12
V
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y
10
S
c
o
r
e
s
8
Week 1
6
Week 2
4
Week 3
2
Week 4
0
A
B
C
D
Student Weekly Vocabulary Scores
E
Student C Vocabulary
Correlations
1
Student C
vocabulary
test scores
4
2
5
3
7
4
9
Student C Vocabulary Scores
Amount of
weeks on
computers
Relationship Between the Amount of Time Spent on
Computers and Vocabulary Scores
10
8
6
Series1
4
Linear (Series1)
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Amount of Time Spent on Computers
This Graph shows a positive correlation of rxy= 0.989778.
This shows that the more time the student spent on the
computers the better his vocabulary skills were.
Discussions
O Based on the results collected from the
weekly grammar and vocabulary test the
children show an improvement on their
literacy skills.
O The more time the children spent using the
technology available the higher their levels
were.
O The children were able to use their
imagination to create stories based on their
pictures.
Implications
O After being exposed to technology this group
of children will be able to create longer
digital stories.
O The children can use the internet as a
resource in class.
O The children will further develop their
technology literacy skills if more time and
resources are supplied in our public and
private schools.
O Children in the Early Childhood sector need
a bigger exposure to technology.
References
Carroll, J., (2011). From encyclopedias to search engines: technological change and its impact on
literacy
learning. Literacy Leaning: the Middle Years, 19(2), 27-31.
Coulter, C., Faltis, C. (2008). Teaching English Learners and Immigrant Students in Secondary
Schools. (1)
28-29.
Freedson-Gonzalez, M., Lucas, V. & Villegas, A. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education.
Journal
of Teacher Education, 59(4), 361-373.
Lee,R. (2006). Effective learning outcomes of ESL elementary and secondary school students utilizing
educational technology infused with constructive Pedagogy. International Journal of
Instructional Media, 33, 87-93.
Materson, M., (n.d.) Use of technology with ESL students. Retrieved from:
www.gsu.edu/~mstmbs/IT8420/F99/MaryM1.html
Morgan, M., (2008). More productive use of technology in the ESL/EFL classroom. The Internet TESL
Journal, 14(7). Retrieved from:
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Morgan-Technology.html
O’Connor-Petruso, S. (2010). Descriptive Statistic Threats Validity (power point slides).
Retrieved from:
https://bbhosted.cuny.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_50_1&url=%2Fwebapp
s%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_829166_1%26url%3D
Ybarra, R., (2003) Using technology to help ESL/EFL students develop language skills. The Internet
TESL Journal, 4(3), Retrieved from:
www.//iteslj.org/Articles/Ybarra-Technology.html

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