G3-PLC Alliance Technical Presentation

Report
“ G3-PLC Powerline Communication
Standard for Today’s Smart Grid”
October, 2012
Jean Vigneron
General Secretary of G3-PLC Alliance
[email protected]
Kaveh Razazian
Senior Scientist - Maxim Integrated
[email protected]
Choosing a Technology
Platform for the Future
“The biggest challenge facing implementers is how to meet both current and
future smart grid requirements, while ensuring interoperability and openendedness among grid elements”
When evaluating communications platforms, it is important to look for a solution
that:
 Provides cost-effective system architecture - Plug-and-Play
 Provides real-time communications – Robust, long range, two-way link
 Includes security mechanisms - to protect grid assets and theft
 Standards based - to ensure interoperability and open-endedness
 Scalable and field upgradable
 Strong industry support
PLC Evolution
• 1950’s – 10Hz one way communication used managing town
lighting
• 1970’s - X10 low speed (20 bits/s), one way communication for
simple control of devices and appliances
• 1980s - INSTEON using X10 and RF to address inherent
limitations of X10 to penetrate a wider network
• 1990’s - FSK PLC technology became popular providing low data
rate (2.4kbps), two way communication for command and
control applications
• 2000’s – Broadband above 2MHz, PLC communication (OFDM)
for multimedia consumer applications
• 2010’s - G3-PLC low frequency below 500KHz PLC (OFDM)
delivering highly reliable, high speed, secure, two way
communication designed specifically for the Smart Grid
Severe Channel Condition
Preamble
Impulsive Noise
Figure 1
In noisy AC line, there is harmonic noise,
impulsive noise, and frequency selective
attenuation. Therefore signal amplitude
variation is large as shown in Figures 1 & 2
Maxim Confidential
Figure 2
Noise power distribution
between 10kHz to130kHz
is 20-30 dB stronger than
signals above 200kHz
G3-PLC
Defined by Utilities, Developed for Utilities
•
In association with: ERDF (Electricité Réseau Distribution France)
– 100% subsidiary of EDF (Electricité dé France)
– 35M customers
– 1,284,000km of electricity power lines
– Smart grid deployment plan: 2012
•
Technology developer: Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
– Over 25 years in business; 12 years in OFDM PLC
•
Main objective: Communication technology offering a balance of robustness, quality
of service, high data rate and cost
Deliverable: A complete OFDM PLC specification, including PHY, MAC, adaptation layer,
and meter profile
PHY/MAC specification completed: 2009
•
•
G3-PLC - A Global Solution
Robustness
MV / MV, MV / LV & LV / LV
High data rate
IPv6 compliant
Secure
Open specification
Low density areas
High density areas
Smart Grid
and additional
services
Government Regulations
for PLC
FCC section 15 defined 10-490kHz frequency band for PLC in
North America and Canada
ARIB defined 10-450kHz frequency band for PLC in
Asia and Japan
Cenelec EN50065-1 defined a range of low frequency bands for
PLC in Europe
• A-band (3-95 kHz), Frequencies in this band shall only
be used for applications for monitoring or controlling
the low-voltage ,distribution network, including energy
usage of connected equipment and premises
• B-band (95-125 kHz), can be used by all applications
• C-band(125-140 kHz), for home networking systems
• D-band (140-148.5 kHz), specified for alarm-and
security-systems
G3-PLC
Smart Grid Solution Summary
Complete PLC modem for the Smart Grid
(from the PHY to the Application layer)
COSEM
Interface model
Application Layer
•
Files
Application
COSEM AL
Layer
TFTP
SNMP
•
Wrapper
Transport Layer
Compressed UDP
Network Layer
Compressed IPv6
Init
Mngt
•
6LoWPAN Adaptation sublayer
MAC Layer
MAC sublayer
Physical Layer
PHY layer
CPL media
•
Physical Layer
– Support of internationally accepted bands from
10kHz - 490kHz (FCC, CENELEC, ARIB)
– Multi-layer error encoding/decoding
• Viterbi, Convolution, Reed Solomon and CRC16
– 8psk,QPSK, BPSK, Robo, Messaging Mode
– Adaptive Tone mapping, notching and modulation
Application Layer
– Compliant ANSI C12.19/C12.22, IEC 62056-61/62
(DLMS/COSEM)or other standards used world wide
Transport and Network Layer
– IPv6 enables potential services: SNMP, TFPT, etc
– Adaptation layer 6LowPan associates the MAC Layer
802.15.4 to IPV6:
• Compression of IP header, fragmentation, routing,
authentication.
MAC layer
– Plug and play network management to choose “Best Path”
(Full Mesh Support)
– Time domain and collision management
– MAC Layer IEEE 802.15.4-2006
– CSMA/ARQ
Benefits of OFDM
Higher Data rates at Lower SNR
FSK provides only 2Kbps @ 10^-4 BER
at 12dB* (From STM Datasheet)
Figure 1
OFDM provides 32Kbps @ 10^-4 BER, and at only
3dB* (G3-Lite - MAX2990 w/DBPSK)
Figure 2
10dB performance improvement vs. single-carrier PLC
•
•
•
Higher reliability
Wider coverage
Longer distances
* 12dB SNR means signal is ~4 times stronger than noise
* 3dB SNR means signal is ~1.5 times stronger than noise
G3-PLC Data Rates and
BER plots
Frequency Band
Typ Robo
Data Rate (bps)
Typ DBPSK
Data Rate (bps)
Typ DQPSK
Data Rate (bps)
Typ D8PSK
Data Rate (bps)
Max D8PSK
Data Rate (bps)
CENELEC A (36kHz to 91kHz)
4,500
14,640
29,285
43,928
46,044
FCC (150kHz to 487.5kHz)
21,000
62,287
124,575
186,863
234,321
FCC (10kHz to 487.5kHz)
38,000
75,152
150,304
225,457
298,224
Channel Characteristics:
Bad Condition
Received Signal + Noise in Good channel RMS= 0.071 V
Received Noise in Good channel RMS= 0.048 V
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
Preamble
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0
0
-0.1
-0.1
-0.2
-0.2
-0.3
-0.3
-0.4
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
-0.4
0
500
1000
Attenuation= 20 dB (Signal reduced ~10 Times)
SIR = -6 dB (interference stronger 2 times
than Signal )
Maxim Confidential
1500
2000
2500
S-FSK vs. OFDM
Application Data Rate
Technology
Time (s) to Get a Load Profile
Reading of 3300 Bytes*
S-FSK 1200
56
S-FSK 2400
28
OFDM
4
*Notes:
– Calculated by DLMS-UA for S-FSK.
– Measured in the field for OFDM.
Designed for multiple
Smart Grid applications
• Grid asset management
• Electric vehicle charging
• Meter management
• Lighting automation (Street, Airport,
commercial buildings)
• In-home energy
display/management
• Factory automation/energy
monitoring
G3-PLC progress to
mass roll-out
G3-PLC
Standardization starts
(IEEE, ITU, IEC)
DC/Meter
(Production)
Dec 2009
OFDM Field
Trials
G3-PLC (DSP)
Field Trails
G3-PLC Chipset
Available
Dec 2007
June 2009
Nov 2010
July 2011
ITU G3-PLC
Standard Pre-
publication
Dec 2011
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
OFDM Demo
EDF/ERDF
Start Spec
Spec
DC/Meter
DC/Meter
Development
Release
(Implementation)
Deployment
Jan 2007
Aug 2008
July 2009
June 2010
DC/Meter
Completed
(Certification)
Sep 2011
May 2011
G3-PLC Standardization
“G3-PLC - Main Technology Driving Narrow Band
(NB) OFDM PLC Standardization”
NB OFDM PLC Standards under development to date:
– ITU G.9955
– IEEE 1901.2
– DLMS /COSEM
G3-PLC Annex Pre-publication completed in Dec 2011
Cenelec through FCC based on G3-PLC – target ballot Q2CY12
Upper Layer G3-PLC submitted for inclusion in Blue Book
Field tested Worldwide
France – ERDF
Portugal - EDP
USA - WIN Energy and St Louis Coop
Japan – TEPCO and Chugoku
China, State Grid and NARI
Taiwan - III/TaiPower
Mexico – CFE
Germany - Vattenfall
Field test Results - Examples
Typical Electricity Topology
Isolated
(<9 meters/transformer)
Urban area
(~400 meters/transformer)
Residential
(200-300 meters/transformer)
Long-distance MV-to-MV
Tests (France)
Test performed by ERDF 6.4KM. No repeaters.
Technology
Distance
G3*
6.4Km
Data
Rate
(Kbps)
6.092
FER
(Frame Error rate)
0%
*G3 tests preformed in CENELEC (32-95kHz ) frequency band without 8PSK limiting data rate.
MV-to-LV and LV-to-MV
(France)
MV-to-LV Test Setup
A
2 km
(M)
(S)
1,4 km
(S)
B
•
•
Concentrator installed on the MV network, and two slave devices connected to the LV network
MV-to-LV transformer crossing introduced frequency-dependent attenuation of over 40dB
Technology
G3-PLC*
Master/ Slave configuration
Data Rate (bps)
FER (Frame Error Rate)
4175 bps
1%
*G3-PLC tests preformed in CENELEC (32-95kHz ) frequency band without 8PSK limiting data rate.
Test configuration
Pictures from Field Test
 Room #2 with all commonly used home
appliances where PLC Rx #3 was located.
 location where PLC Rx #1 and
PLC Rx #2 were located with
two Kotasus were on.
Home Appliances Noise
• The following appliances are used as the noise source in the field trial:
– IH Heater, TV, triac, 3 Kotasu Heaters, Microwave, Rice Cooker, Water
Pot, Blanket, and carpet vacuum
• The noise spectrum of two major noise sources IH Heater an Kotasu are as
shown below:
IH Heater
Kotasu Heater
Maxim Confidential
Test Results
•
•
At room 2, we compare the received spectrum with all noise sources off (on the
left side), and the received spectrum with all noise sources on (on the right side)
as shown as below
With ATM mode, data rate is about 6-10 kbps
signal level is
much higher than
noise level
signal level is
almost the same
as noise level
Noise level
Maxim Confidential
MV-to-LV Tests
(USA)
High-speed communications while crossing medium-to-low voltage transformers
MV
LV
From
To
Distance
A
A
B
C
.8KM
1.8KM
Frequency
Band
300-450kHz
300-450kHz
Mode
BPSK
BPSK
Data Rate
(Kbps)
54
48
Test results in Beijing
MV (10KV)
Distance
Freq Band
Data Rate
A -> B: 150m
ARIB
100Kbps
A -> C: 155m
ARIB
100Kbps
T1 (701)
A
A -> D: 220m
ARIB
100Kbps
A -> E: 200m
ARIB
96Kbps
T2 (703)
MAX2990
Transmitter
Air
Switch
LV (380V)
MAX2990
Receiver
Air
Switch
Building #1
18F
Building #2
18F
Building ##
18F
Building ##
18F
3F
3F
3F
3F
2F
2F
2F
2F
1F
1F
1F
1F
D
B
18 Floors
C
MAX2990
Receiver
MAX2990
Receiver
B
E
Basement
MAX2990
Receiver
Air
Switch
Basement
Basement
Air
Switch
Air
Switch
• Test were performed in a customer designated site
• Substation located in the basement of a parking structure
• Test site had two MV/LV transformers (T1 and T2).
A
MV
• MV distribution is underground
LV
Air
Switch
Thank you for your attention
Visit our website
www.G3-plc.com
Additional G3-PLC
Information
•
•
•
•
Idaho National Labs – Charger and EMC testing
http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/phev/VtoVSESmartGridRpt.pdf
Pacific National Labs – 30 million Message test
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/
merit_review_2011/veh_sys_sim/vss055_gowri_2011_
p..pdf
• IEEE G3-PLC Research – G3-PLC on Galvanized SWER
• http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber
=6102338&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2
Fiel5%2F6093618%2F6102296%2F06102338.pdf%3Far
number%3D6102338

similar documents