The State of Education around the World: A Global

Report
The State of Education Series
Education
Expenditures
A Global Report
February 2013
Contents
This presentation includes analysis of:





Share of GDP for education expenditures
Share of total government expenditures for education
Per student education expenditures for primary,
secondary and tertiary education as a share of GDP per
capita
Recurrent expenditures as a share of total education
expenditures
A Country Education Expenditure Profile of Benin
Acronyms
Acronym
Name
EAP
East Asia and the Pacific
ECA
Europe and Central Asia
LAC
Latin American and the Caribbean
MNA
Middle East and North Africa
SAS
South Asia
SSA
Sub-Saharan Africa
GER
Gross Enrollment Rate
NER
Net Enrollment Rate
PCR
Primary Completion Rate
GDP p.c.
Gross Domestic Product per capita
Share of GDP
for Education
Expenditures
Which countries spend the least on
education as a share of GDP?


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
These countries spend
less than 2.5% of GDP
on education.
All income groups are
represented in this list
from Monaco and
Liechtenstein (high
income) to Myanmar,
CAR, Eritrea, and
Bangladesh (low
income).
Low spending as a % of
GDP resulted in net
enrolment rates ranging
from 35.6% to 94.9%.
Six of 8 countries (with
data) have primary net
enrolment rates higher
than 85%.
10 Countries with the Lowest
Share of GDP for Education
(2006-2012)
% of GDP GDP p.c. Net Enrolment
Current $ Rate. Primary
for Edu
1 Myanmar
0.78
2 Monaco
1.21
172,676
3 Central African Rep.
1.25
483
68.5
4 Zambia
1.35
1,425
91.4
5 Lebanon
1.56
9,904
94.9
6 Sri Lanka
2.06
2,835
94.0
7 Liechtenstein
2.11
134,915
93.5
8 Eritrea
2.13
482
35.6
9 Dominican Rep.
2.19
5,530
89.4
2.23
735
86.3
10 Bangladesh
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black is
2011; Green in 2009; Blue is 2008; Red is 2007; Beige is 2006;
Data were not available for 55 of 214 countries.
Which countries spend the most on
education as a share of GDP?



The highest spending
countries spent
between 8 and 13
percent of GDP on
education.
Three countries –
Denmark, Iceland,
and Cyprus – have
high GDP and spend
a high percentage of
it on education.
Primary net
enrolment rates for
the highest spending
countries range from
52% to 99%. Eight
countries have NERs
higher than 85% and
3 are higher than
98%.
10 Countries with the Highest
Share of GDP for Education
(2006-2012)
% of GDP GDP p.c. Net Enrolment
Current $ Rate. Primary
for Edu
1 Lesotho
13.0
1,106
73.4
2 Cuba
12.9
5,397
98.2
3 Timor-Leste
10.1
896
85.3
4 Denmark
8.7
59,684
95.4
5 Moldova
8.6
1,967
87.8
6 Djibouti
8.4
1,203
51.7
7 Namibia
8.3
5,293
85.1
8 Cyprus
7.9
30,670
98.7
9 Botswana
7.8
8,680
87.1
7.8
44,072
99.0
10 Iceland
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black is
2011; Blue is 2010; Green in 2009; Purple is 2008; Maroon is 2007;
Data were not available for 55 of 214 countries.
Public Education Expenditure
as % of GDP
(2006-2012)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Which countries have increased
expenditures as a % of GDP the most?
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

These countries
have increased their
education
expenditures as a %
of GDP by 2.2 to 5
percentage points
over time.
Solomon Islands
and Ecuador have
both more than
doubled their
education spending.
Comoros was close
to doubling its
spending.
35% of the 138
countries with data
decreased
education
expenditures over
time.
10 Countries with Large Increases in
Education Expenditure as a % of GDP
(2006-2012)
Percentage % of GDP
Most
%
1999current %
Points
Increased
2002
of GDP
Increased
1 Solomon Islands
5.0
2.2
7.3
223.5
2 Ecuador
3.9
1.0
4.9
399.5
3 Comoros
3.8
3.8
7.6
99.6
4 Cuba
3.3
9.6
12.9
34.3
5 Moldova
3.1
5.5
8.6
56.0
6 Congo, Rep.
3.0
3.2
6.2
93.9
7 Burundi
2.9
3.2
6.1
91.0
8 Nicaragua
2.9
3.1
6.0
92.1
9 Swaziland
2.4
5.1
7.4
46.3
2.2
4.3
6.5
52.9
10 Ireland
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013;
Notes: Data were not available for 76 of 214 countries.
Do high levels of education spending
result in high primary enrolment rates?


Low levels of
education spending as
a % of GDP do not
necessarily lead to low
primary net enrolment
rates (NER).
Cambodia spends
2.6% of GDP on
education and has a
98% primary NER
while Liberia spends
only slightly more
(2.7%) and has a
40.8% NER.
High levels of
spending also do not
necessary lead to high
enrolment rates:
Djibouti spends 8.4%
of GDP on education
but has a 51.7% NER.
100
Cuba
90
80
Net Enrollment Rate. Primary

Lesotho
70
60
Djibouti
50
Liberia
40
R² = 0.0173
Eritrea
30
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
Public expenditure on education as % of GDP
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013; Notes: Data is for the
most recent year between 2006 and 2012. Data were not available for 71 countries.
Which countries have high enrollment
rates with lower spending?



These countries have
primary net
enrolment rates
higher than 98% with
education spending
between 2.6 and 5%
of GDP.
Rwanda and
Cambodia are low
income countries with
low spending and
high enrolment rates.
Cuba also has a high
enrolment rate
98.2%, but uses
12.9% of GDP on
education.
10 Countries with Low Spending
for High Primary Enrolment Rates
(2006-2012)
% of GDP GDP p.c. Net Enrolment
Current $ Rate. Primary
for Edu
1 Cambodia
2.6
900
98.2
2 Georgia
2.7
3,203
98.1
3 Turkey
2.9
10,498
98.9
4 Uruguay
2.9
13,866
99.5
5 Japan
3.8
45,903
100.0
6 Iran, Islamic Rep.
4.7
4,526
99.8
7 Rwanda
4.8
583
98.7
8 Ecuador
4.9
4,569
98.6
9 Spain
5.0
32,244
99.7
5.0
22,424
98.6
10 Korea, Rep.
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black is
2011; Blue is 2010; Green in 2009; Purple is 2008;
Data were not available for 55 of 214 countries.
Do high levels of education spending
result in high primary completion rates?
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
Most countries spend
between 2.5% and 7%
of GDP on education,
but results from similar
levels of spending
vary greatly.
Zambia spends 1.3%
of GDP on education
and has a 103%
Primary Completion
Rate (PCR) while
CAR spends 1.2%
and has a 43% PCR.
High levels of
spending also do not
necessary lead to high
primary completion
rates: Lesotho, the
highest spender,
spends 13% of GDP
on education but has
a 70% PCR.
120
110
100
Primary Completion Rate. Total

Cuba
90
80
70
Lesotho
Timor-Leste
60
50
Djibouti
CAR
40
Eritrea
Chad
R² = 0.0015
30
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
Public expenditure on education as % of GDP
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013; Notes: Data is for the
most recent year between 2006 and 2012. Data were not available for 72 countries.
Which countries have high
completion rates with low spending?



These countries have
primary completion
rates higher than
98% with education
spending between
0.8 and 3.1% of
GDP.
All countries have
PCRs higher than
100% likely because
of over/under-aged
students entering the
last grade of primary
for the first time.
Myanmar is the only
low income country
on the list.
10 Countries with Low Spending
and High Primary Completion
Rates
(2006-2012)
% of GDP
for Edu
GDP p.c.
Current $
Primary
Completion
Rate (%)
1 Myanmar
0.8
2 Monaco
1.2
172,676
132.2
3 Zambia
1.3
1,425
103.3
4 Sri Lanka
2.1
2,835
100.8
5 Liechtenstein
2.1
134,915
111.1
6 Georgia
2.7
3,203
116.2
7 Turkey
2.9
10,498
100.4
8 Uruguay
2.9
13,866
104.4
9 Indonesia
3.0
3,495
108.8
10 Kazakhstan
3.1
11,245
108.2
103.6
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Data were not available for 55 of 214 countries.
Share of Total
Government
Expenditures
for Education
Which countries spend the least on
education as a share of total
expenditures?
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

10 Countries with the Lowest Share
These countries spend
of Total Expenditures for Education
less than 10% of total
(2006-2012)
public expenditures on
% of Total
Primary
Net Enrolment
the education sector.
Completion
Exp. for
Rate. Primary
Rate (%)
Education
The average spending
94.9
87.0
1 Lebanon
7.1
of all countries with
data is 15.4%.
94.0
95.8
2 Qatar
7.1
All these countries
98.1
116.2
3 Georgia
7.7
(with data) have
132.2
4 Monaco
8.1
enrolment rates higher
94.0
100.8
5 Sri Lanka
8.1
than 85%.
85.3
65.5
6 Timor-Leste
8.1
Low spending as a
share of total
7 Zimbabwe
8.3
expenditures resulted
85.7
46.6
8 Angola
8.5
in primary completion
58.7
8.9
rates ranging from 47% 9 Congo, Dem. Rep.
(Angola) to 132%
97.4
103.2
10 Italy
9.1
(Monaco).
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available:
Black is 2011; Blue is 2010; Green in 2009; Red is 2008;
Data were not available for 66 of 214 countries.
Which countries spend the most on
education as a share of total
expenditures?




The highest spending
countries spend more
than 24% of total
expenditures on
education.
Primary enrolment rates
for the highest spending
countries range from
61% (Cote d’Ivoire) to
97% (Oman).
Only Ghana and Oman
have primary
completion rates higher
than 90%.
10 Countries with the Highest Share
of Total Expenditures for Education
Despite high spending,
at least 1/4 of students
in five of these countries
are not completing
primary school.
(2006-2012)
% of Total
Primary
Net Enrolment
Completion
Exp. for
Rate. Primary
Rate (%)
Education
1 Solomon Islands
34.0
86.8
2 Oman
31.1
96.6
107.0
3 Benin
27.8
89.1
75.3
4 Nicaragua
26.4
92.5
80.9
5 Morocco
25.7
95.7
89.3
6 Ethiopia
25.4
86.5
64.0
7 Cote d'Ivoire
24.6
61.5
58.6
8 Ghana
24.4
82.1
99.1
9 Burundi
24.1
89.7
62.1
10 Senegal
24.0
75.7
62.8
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black is
2011; Blue is 2010; Green in 2009; Red is 2008; Beige is 2006;
Data were not available for 66 of 214 countries.
Public Education Expenditure as %
of Total Government Expenditure
(2006-2012)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Which countries have increased
education expenditures the most?



These countries
have increased their
share of total
expenditures for the
education sector by
6 to 12 percentage
points over time.
The Gambia has
more than doubled
its spending as a %
of total expenditures
Over half (55.8%) of
the countries with
data decreased
spending on
education over time.
10 Countries with Large Increases in
Education Expenditure as a % of Total
Expenditures
Percentage % of Total
Most
%
Points
Exp in current % of
Increased
Increased 1999-2002 Total Exp
1 Ethiopia
11.6
13.8
25.4
84.5
2 Nicaragua
11.2
15.2
26.4
73.6
3 Benin
11.1
16.6
27.8
66.8
4 Burundi
11.1
13.0
24.1
85.3
5 Gambia, The
10.8
9.0
19.7
120.6
6 Oman
8.5
22.7
31.1
37.4
7
7.8
9.1
16.9
84.8
8 Panama
7.0
7.7
14.8
91.0
9 Nepal
6.3
14.0
20.2
44.9
10 Tunisia
6.2
16.5
22.7
37.7
Brunei Darussalam
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Data were not available for 101 of 214 countries.
Do high levels of education spending
result in higher primary enrolment rates?
100

Low levels of
education spending as
a % of total
expenditures do not
necessarily lead to low
primary net enrolment
rates (NER). The four
lowest spenders have
NERs higher than
94%.
Georgia spends 7.7%
on education and has
a 98% primary NER
while Cote d’Ivoire
spends 24.6% and
has a 61.5% NER.
Oman
90
Solomon
Islands
Net Enrollment Rate. Primary

80
70
CAR
Cote d'Ivoire
60
Djibouti
50
R² = 0.0359
Liberia
40
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
Public expenditure on education as % of total
government expenditure
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013; Notes: Data is for the
most recent year between 2006 and 2012. Data were not available for 81 countries.
Which countries have high enrollment
rates with low spending?



These countries have
primary net
enrolment rates
higher than 98% with
education spending
between 7.7 and 12%
of total expenditures.
Japan and Georgia
spend less than 10%
of total expenditures
on education and
have achieved
universal primary
education.
Tunisia also has a
high enrolment rate
(98.5%), but uses
22.7% of total
expenditures on
education.
10 Countries with Low Spending
for High Primary Enrolment Rates
(2006-2012)
% of Total
Exp. For
Education
Net Enrolment
Rate. Primary
1
Georgia
7.7
98.1
2
Japan
9.4
100.0
3
France
10.4
98.5
4
Spain
10.8
99.7
5
United Kingdom
11.3
99.5
6
Netherlands
11.5
99.8
7
Uruguay
11.6
99.5
8
Portugal
11.6
99.2
9
Mongolia
11.9
98.6
12.2
98.9
10 Belgium
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Data were not available for 79 of 214 countries.
Do high levels of education spending
result in higher primary completion rates?
140

Seven countries
spend less than 9%
on education; Those
countries have
primary completion
rates (PCRs) ranging
from 47% (Angola) to
132% (Monaco). Low
spending does not
necessarily lead to low
completion rates.
High levels of
spending also do not
necessary lead to high
completion rates:
Benin, the 2nd highest
spender, spends 28%
of govn’t expenditure
on education but has
a 75% PCR.
Monaco
130
120
Georgia
110
Primary Completion Rate. Total

Oman
100
90
80
Benin
70
Ethiopia
60
50
Angola
Djibouti
CAR
40
Chad
R² = 0.0568
30
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
Public expenditure on education as % of total
government expenditure
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013; Notes: Data is for the
most recent year between 2006 and 2012. Data were not available for 82 countries.
Which countries have high
completion rates with low spending?


These countries have
primary completion
rates higher than
98% with education
spending between
7.7 and 10.8% of
total government
expenditures.
Countries have PCRs
higher than 100%
likely because of
over/under-aged
students entering the
last grade of primary
for the first time.
10 Countries with Low Spending for
High Primary Completion Rates
(2006-2012)
% of Total
Exp. For
Education
Primary
Completion Rate
(%)
1
Georgia
7.7
116.2
2
Sri Lanka
8.1
100.8
3
Monaco
8.1
132.2
4
Italy
9.1
103.2
5
Japan
9.4
101.9
6
Serbia
9.5
99.3
7
Czech Republic
9.8
104.6
8
Slovak Republic
9.9
98.5
9
Germany
10.5
100.6
10.8
103.4
10 Spain
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Data were not available for 82 of 214 countries.
Expenditures
on Primary
Education
Which countries spend the least per
student on primary education?




The average
spending per primary
school student is
16.7% of per capita
GDP. These countries
spend between 3.5 and
7 percent of GDP per
capita on each primary
school student.
Five of the 10 lowest
spending countries are
in SSA. Two are
classified as high
income countries.
5 countries have net
enrollment rates higher
than 90%.
DRC is the only country
with low primary
spending and very high
private enrollment
share (82.5%).
10 Countries with the Lowest Share
of p.c. GDP per Primary Student
(2006-2012)
Share of pc Primary Net Private
GDP (%) Enrolment Enrollment
per student Rate (%) Share (%)
1 Monaco
3.5
2 Central African Rep.
4.4
68.5
13.8
3 Brunei Darussalam
5.1
91.6
36.6
4 Congo, Dem. Rep.
5.2
5 Liberia
5.4
6 Madagascar
6.4
7 Cameroon
6.6
93.8
20.9
8 Cambodia
6.8
98.2
1.5
9 Panama
6.8
96.9
12.0
10 Rwanda
6.9
98.7
2.2
21.8
82.5
40.8
32.6
17.8
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available between 2006
and 2012: Blue figures are for 2010; Green for 2009; Black for 2011; Maroon
for 2007; Data were not available for 82 countries.
Which countries spend the most per
student on primary education?



Serbia spends over
half of per capita
GDP on each primary
student, and all other
countries in the list
spend more than a
quarter.
Eight of the listed
countries have
primary net enrolment
rates (NER) higher
than 90%.
These countries have
low private enrolment
shares ranging from
0.1 to 14%.
10 Countries with the Highest Share
of p.c. GDP per Primary Student
(2006-2012)
Share of pc Primary Net
GDP (%) per Enrolment
Rate (%)
student
Private
Enrollment
Share (%)
1 Serbia
55.6
93.2
2 Cuba
49.3
98.2
3 Moldova
41.4
87.8
0.9
4 Cyprus
31.5
98.7
7.6
5 Latvia
31.4
95.1
1.1
6 Comoros
29.5
77.8
14.1
7 Denmark
28.9
95.4
13.7
8 Sweden
28.3
99.4
9.5
9 Estonia
27.8
95.0
4.1
10 Iceland
27.2
99.0
2.0
0.1
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available between
2006 and 2012: Blue figures are for 2010; Green for 2009;
Maroon for 2008; Data were not available for 82 countries.
Public Expenditure per Pupil as a
% of GDP per capita. Primary
(2006-2012)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Expenditures
on Secondary
Education
Which countries spend the least per
student on secondary education?




On average, countries
spend 24.4% of per
capita GDP per
secondary education
student. These countries
spend between 5.5 and
9.4%.
5 of the 10 countries are
in LAC and 3 are in EAP.
Brunei Darussalam is the
only country on the list
with a net enrollment rate
in the top half of
countries.
More than half of
secondary enrollments
are in private schools in
Guatemala and more
than ¼ are in private
schools in Venezuela
and Peru.
10 Countries with the Lowest Share
of p.c. GDP per Secondary Student
(2006-2012)
Share of pc Secondary
Private
GDP (%) per Enrolment Enrollment
student
Rate (NER) Share (%)
1
Guatemala
5.5
46.1
62.5
2
Monaco
5.5
-
22.3
3
Cambodia
6.8
35.1
2.0
4
Dominican Rep.
7.0
62.1
20.8
5
Brunei Darussalam
7.8
99.0
13.5
6
Venezuela, RB
8.0
72.8
28.4
7
Indonesia
8.8
67.3
41.8
8
Peru
9.1
77.6
26.0
9
Philippines
9.1
61.6
19.8
10 El Salvador
9.4
60.0
16.3
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Blue
figures are for 2010; Green for 2009; Black for 2011; Maroon for 2008;
Purple for 2007; Data were not available for 86 countries.
Which countries spend the most per
student on secondary education?



5 of the 10 countries
are in SSA.
Niger, Angola, and
Mozambique have
high per student
sending and three of
the lowest secondary
net enrolment rates of
all countries.
Honduras spends the
most as a share of pc
GDP by far, but also
has the highest share
of students enrolled in
private schools (27%).
10 Countries with the Highest Share
of p.c. GDP per Secondary Student
(2006-2012)
Share of pc Secondary
Private
GDP (%) per Enrolment Enrollment
student
Rate (NER) Share (%)
1
Honduras
279.7
-
26.9
2
Mozambique
84.8
17.3
12.7
3
Lesotho
55.1
29.8
1.0
4
Cuba
52.1
86.6
-
5
Niger
51.1
9.4
18.1
6
Angola
45.0
13.5
10.6
7
Cyprus
40.7
96.0
17.5
8
Moldova
39.4
77.7
1.3
9
Rwanda
39.3
-
20.6
39.1
-
5.2
10 Morocco
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Blue figures
are for 2010; Green for 2009; Black for 2011; Maroon for 2008; Purple for
2007; Beige for 2006; Data were not available for 86 countries.
Public Expenditure per Pupil as a % of
GDP per capita. Secondary
(2006-2012)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Expenditures
on Tertiary
Education
Which countries spend the least per
student on tertiary education?




On average, countries
spend 91% of per
capita GDP per tertiary
student. The median
spending is 30%.
These countries spend
between 3.5 and 12%.
10 Countries with the Lowest Share
of p.c. GDP per Tertiary Student
1
Mongolia
3.5
57.2
38.7
Three countries are in
ECA and 3 are in EAP.
Korea, Rep. has the
12th lowest spending
level, but has a 103%
gross enrollment rate.
Six of 9 countries have
private enrollment
shares higher than
50%.
2
Armenia
7.5
48.9
22.8
3
Lebanon
8.1
57.7
60.8
4
Liechtenstein
9.2
36.0
100.0
5
Peru
9.2
43.0
54.3
6
Philippines
9.6
28.2
65.9
7
Kazakhstan
10.2
43.2
50.6
8
Myanmar
10.8
14.8
9
El Salvador
11.6
23.4
66.6
12.3
30.0
20.9
(2006-2012)
Share of pc
Tertiary
Private
GDP (%) per Enrolment Enrollment
student
Rate (GER) Share (%)
10 Georgia
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black
figures are for 2011; Blue are for 2010; Green for 2009; Maroon for 2008;
Purple for 2007; Data were not available for 96 countries.
Which countries spend the most per
student on tertiary education?



All the listed countries
are in Sub-Saharan
Africa.
These countries
spend from 2 to 18
times GDP per capita
on each tertiary
student.
Despite high
spending, all the
countries in the list
have gross enrollment
rates less than 8%.
These countries are
all within the bottom
20 countries in tertiary
enrolment rates.
10 Countries with the Highest Share
of p.c. GDP per Tertiary Student
(2006-2012)
Share of pc
Tertiary
Private
GDP (%) per Enrolment Enrollment
student
Rate (GER) Share (%)
1
Malawi
1859.4
0.8
2
Lesotho
1331.1
3.5
3
Tanzania
868.2
2.1
4
Niger
564.6
1.5
25.0
5
Burundi
350.8
3.2
57.7
6
Swaziland
296.4
4.4
7
Botswana
256.3
7.4
100.0
8
Chad
247.9
2.3
28.2
9
Burkina Faso
243.1
3.9
22.0
193.5
4.4
10 Mauritania
10.3
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black
figures are for 2011; Blue are for 2010; Green for 2009; Maroon for 2008;
Purple for 2007; Beige for 2006; Data were not available for 96 countries.
Public Expenditure per Pupil as a %
of GDP per capita. Tertiary
(2006-2012)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Salaries and
Recurrent
Education
Expenditures
Which countries spend the most on
recurrent expenditures?



9 of 10 countries spend
100% of public
expenditures on pretertiary education on
recurrent expenditures
like salaries, textbooks,
and teaching/learning
supplies.
100% of pre-tertiary
expenditures in Jordan
and Zimbabwe go to
paying salaries. Five
other countries spend
more than 90% of total
expenditures on
salaries.
High recurrent
expenditures leave little
or no room in public
spending for school
construction and other
capital programs.
10 Countries with the Highest
Recurrent Share of Total Education
Expenditures on Pre-Tertiary Education
(2006-2012)
% for Recurrent % for Salaries
1
Zimbabwe
100.0
100.0
2
Jordan
100.0
100.0
3
Cayman Islands
100.0
97.6
4
San Marino
100.0
96.5
5
Aruba
100.0
95.2
6
St. Vincent and the
Grenadines
100.0
94.3
7
Jamaica
100.0
93.8
8
Costa Rica
100.0
86.8
9
Liechtenstein
100.0
71.8
99.9
73.9
10 Guatemala
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013; Note: Figures are for
the most recent year with data available; Blue for 2010; Green for 2009; Red for
2008; Beige for 2006; Data were not available for 112 countries.
Which countries spend the least on
recurrent expenditures?



5 of 10 countries are in
SSA and 2 are high
income countries.
Low recurrent
expenditures can leave
room in public
expenditures for capital
projects like school
construction, but can
leave less fiscal space
for teachers’ salaries,
textbooks, teaching
and learning materials,
etc.
The majority of
recurrent expenditures
in many of these
countries is dedicated
to salaries (which
includes both teachers
and administrative
salaries).
10 Countries with the Lowest Recurrent
Share of Total Education Expenditures on
Pre-Tertiary Education
(2006-2012)
% for
Recurrent
% for
Salaries
% for
Capital
1 Monaco
63.0
61.3
37.0
2 Timor-Leste
66.4
54.8
33.6
3 Chad
68.6
52.6
31.4
4 Mozambique
71.4
59.2
28.6
5 Angola
71.7
6 Bangladesh
77.9
54.3
22.1
7 Peru
79.0
67.0
21.0
8 Mauritius
80.2
62.3
19.8
9 Rwanda
80.3
48.3
19.7
10 Korea, Rep.
83.2
58.8
16.8
28.3
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013
Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black for
2011; Blue for 2010; Green for 2009; Red for 2007; Beige for 2006; Data
were not available for 112 countries.
Recurrent education expenditures as a % of total
education expenditures on public institutions.
Primary, Secondary, and Post-Sec./Non-Tertiary (ISCED 1-4)
(2006-2012)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Country
Education
Expenditure
Profile:
Benin
Data extracted from the World Bank
Education Expenditure Database
Data Source and Notes
The Benin Country Education Expenditure Profile highlights a few of
the hundreds of indicators available in the World Bank Education
Expenditure Database. The database allows users to search for
education expenditure data published in World Bank expenditure
documents. The data for the Benin Country Expenditure Profile was
extracted from Benin’s 2004 Public Expenditure Review.
The Benin Country Expenditure Profile is an example of the types of
analysis that can be completed using the World Bank Education
Expenditure Database.
Note: The data in the World Bank Education Expenditure Database
are not internationally comparable because there is no standard
method of calculation for most of the indicators. Users should not
compare the data across countries.
Education Expenditure Summary:
Benin



Benin spends around
1/5 of all government
expenditures on the
education sector.
Of the education
spending, Benin
prioritizes primary
education, but the
share for primary
decreased from almost
50% in 1998 to less
than 40% in 2003. The
tertiary share has been
rising.
Half of all of Benin’s
expenditures go to
salaries and around
20% go toward capital
expenditures.
Benin: Education Expenditure Summary
(1998-2003)
1998 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total Education
Expenditures (in CFAF
39.90 50.00 66.30 69.50 75.00
Billions)
Share of Total Public
Expenditures for
Education Sector (%)
20.4
19.7
19.6
20.5
22.1
 Primary (%)
49.1
47
51.6
49.3
38.1
 Secondary (%)
15.9
16.7
16.8
16.2
17.2
 Tertiary (%)
16.7
14.7
17.2
18.9
24.1
 Technical/Vocational (%)
3.1
4.9
5.8
7.4
9.2
 Administration (%)
15.2
16.7
8.6
8.3
11.4
 Recurrent Expenditures
(%)
88.4
79.6
73.9
83.9
80.6
 Salary Expenditures (%)
63.8
62
48
50.9
50.8
 Capital Expenditures (%)
11.6
20.4
26.1
16.1
19.4
Share of Total Education
Expenditures for:
Source: World Bank Public Education Expenditure Database, Sept 2009
Total Education Expenditures
in Benin


Total expenditures on
education in Benin
almost doubled
between 1998 and
2003 from 40 to 75
billion CFAF.
The share of total public
expenditures for the
education sector initially
dropped from 20.4% in
1998 to 19.7% in 2000
and 2001 before rising
to 22.1% in 2003.
Benin:
Total Education Expenditures
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
20.4
19.7
19.6
20.5
1998
2000
2001
2002
22.1
10
0
2003
Total Expenditure in CFAF billions
Total public education expenditure, % of government spending
Source: World Bank EdStats, Education Expenditure Database, Sept, 2009
Share of Total Education
Expenditures for Educational Levels




Primary receives the
highest share of
expenditures, but the
share declined over time
by 11 percentage points.
Secondary has received
a consistent share of
around 16% over time.
The shares for tertiary
and technical/vocational
education have risen by
7.5 and 6 percentage
points respectively.
Administration received
equal funding to
secondary and tertiary in
1999, but dropped by
25% in 2003.
Benin: Share of Total Expenditures
for Educational Levels (%)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1998
2000
Administration
Tertiary
Primary
2001
2002
2003
Technical/Vocational Ed.
Secondary
Source: World Bank EdStats, Education Expenditure Database, Sept, 2009
Share of Total Education
Expenditures by Type



Recurrent expenditures
accounted for almost
90% of total
expenditures in 1999,
but dropped to 80.6 in
2003.
The salary share of total
expenditures has also
dropped from 64% to
51%, leaving more
space for non-salary
expenditures like
textbooks and
teaching/learning
materials.
Capital expenditures
rose from 12% in 1999
to 26% in 2001 before
dropping to 19.4% in
2003.
Share of Total Expenditures for
Recurrent and Capital (%)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
63.8
62
50%
48
40%
50.9
50.8
30%
20%
10%
0%
1998
Capital
2000
2001
Recurrent Non-Salary
2002
2003
Recurrent Salary
Source: World Bank EdStats, Education Expenditure Database, Sept, 2009
Per Student Education Expenditures
in Benin



Recurrent per student
expenditures are highest
on tertiary education in
Benin. Tertiary students
cost 17 times more than
primary students in 1998
and 14 times more in
2002.
Students in
Technical/Vocational
education also cost 5.5
to 6 times more than
primary students.
Per student recurrent
spending on primary,
technical/vocational and
tertiary education
decreased between
1998 and 2002.
Per Student Recurrent Education
Expenditures in Benin
(1998-2002)
Recurrent expenditures
per student in USD:
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
• Primary
40
• Secondary
56
49.4 49.6 59.4 59.2
• Technical/Vocational
224
182
171
198
..
• Tertiary
684
676
360
479
522
8
7.6
3.1
6.6
7.4
• Administration
38
31
33
37
Ratio of recurrent
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
expenditures per student:
• Secondary to Primary
1.4
1.3
1.6
1.8
1.6
• Technical/vocational to
Primary
5.6
4.8
5.5
6
..
• Tertiary to Primary
17.1 17.8 11.6 14.5 14.1
Source: World Bank Public Education Expenditure Database, Sept 2009
Education Budget Execution Rates
in Benin



Total budget execution
rates have varied
greatly over time in
Benin from 75% to 92%,
but have never reached
100%.
Salaries and recurrent
expenditures generally
have higher execution
rates. The only budget
that was fully executed
was salaries in 2003.
Both domestically- and
internationally-financed
capital have low
execution rates over
time, but rates have
improved from around
35% in 1997 to 73 and
54% in 2003
respectively.
Execution Rates for Education
Budgets in Benin
(1998-2002)
1997 1999 2001 2003
Total Education Budget
74.9
89.7
91.7
86.3
Recurrent Budget
92.2
95.5
94.4
94.2
Salary Budget
98.3
93.7
94.9 102.9
Capital Budget
36.4
66.4
84.8
63.8
Domestically-financed
Capital Budget
34.9
77.6
96.4
72.8
Internationally-financed
Capital Budget
36.6
62.1
74.6
54.1
Source: World Bank Public Education Expenditure Database, Sept 2009
Data Sources
This presentation utilizes the following data sources:
1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query


The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release that included
2011 data for most indicators and 2012 data for Singapore and Brunei only.
Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in the EdStats
Query metadata.
2) The Benin Country Profile was created in August 2009 with data extracted
from the 2004 Benin Public Expenditure Review. The data was accessed
via the World Bank Education Expenditure Database.
The State of Education Series
The following State of Education presentations
are available on the EdStats website:
Topics:
Educational Levels:

Access

Pre-Primary Education

Quality

Primary Education

Expenditures

Secondary Education

Gender

Tertiary Education

Literacy

Equity

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