Formal Presentation

Report
Partial
Hydrogen
Injection
Group II
Justin Bruyn, Andrew Cammorata, Myles Moore,
& Chris Sandini
4-21-2010
What is the purpose of this project?
• To investigate partial hydrogen injection (PHI)
and the effect it has on internal combustion
engines.
– How does it increase efficiency?
Results
System Testing
System Design & Construction
Background Research on Existing Systems
What is PHI?
Hydrogen to Motor
Electricity from
Alternator
Quenching Distance
Wet Cell vs Dry Cell
Wet Cell Anatomy
• Electrode housing also acts as the
reservoir
• Electrodes are fully or partially
submerged in electrolyte solution
• Edges of the electrode plates are
open to the electrolyte bath
• Tend to be very inefficient
Current Leakage
•
•
•
The biggest flaw in a wet cell system is the current loss through the edges of the
electrode plates.
The electrolyte being charged outside of the active area of the cells plates does not
produce hydrogen.
This current leakage makes the wet cell very inefficient.
Dry Cell Anatomy
• Electrolyte reservoir is separated
from the cell and is also used as a
bubbler for the HHO gas
• Holes in the cell plates allow for
the electrolyte solution to travel
through the system and gas to exit
• Greatly increases efficiency by
reducing parasytic current loss that
occurs at the edges of the plates
• By having a constant circulation of
the electrolyte solution through
the cell, we decrease the operating
temperatures
Electrolytes
• What is an electrolyte?
• Why do we need to use an electrolyte?
• What different types of electrolytes do
we have to choose from?
• Why did we choose what we did?
What is an electrolyte?
What are our choices?
Strong Electrolyte
Weak Electrolyte
Non-electrolyte
Sea water
Tap water
Chemically pure water
Hydrochloric Acid
Carbonic acid
Alcohol
Sulphuric Acid
Acetic acid
Kerosene
Baking Soda (NaHCO3)
Ammonium Hydroxide
Aqueous sugar solution
Molten Lead Bromide
Citric acid
Carbon Disulphide
Aqueous Sodium Chloride
Oxalic acid
Nitric acid
Aqueous Potassium Hydroxide
Why do we need to use an electrolyte?
KOH Starting Solution
Distilled Water
Concentration (%
Weight)
Volume (gal)
0.25
45
Volume (gal)
0.21926
Final Solution
Concentration (%
Weight)
Volume (gal)
0
0.46031
Concentration (%
Weight)
28
Why did we choose KOH?
KOH(s) → K+(aq) + OH– (aq)
Advantages:
• Electrodes stay clean due to KOH’s minimal reactive nature with
316L Stainless Steel.
• Strong and pure electrolyte.
• Found readily available at Home Depot.
Disadvantages:
• Dangerous to work with.
System Design Criteria
• Component materials MUST…
– be resistant to corrosion in electrolyte solution.
– perform well in temperatures ranging from -20°C
to upwards of 70°C.
– maintain structural integrity under
compressive load.
• Low electrical resistance through stack.
Gasket Sealing Load
D = diameter
P =ρgh = max pressure in vessel
b = gasket width
Gasket Deformation Under Load
F = force
L = gasket thickness
A = area of gasket
E = gasket modulus of elasticity
Endplate Deflection Calculation
Bill of Materials
• 2 ½” Acrylic Endplates
• 7 1/16” 316L SS Mid Plates
• 8 Gaskets
• 12 Bolts (1/4” – 20 x 2.5”)
• 12 Nuts (1/4” – 20 )
• 24 Washers
• 12 Nylon sleeves
The Test
Given more time, we would…
•
•
•
•
•
Analyze the engine performance with and without stack.
Play with electrode hole sizing and placement to find the best balance between flow through cell, greatest
surface area, and least amount of current leakage.
Tested many different electrolyte solutions to determine the most optimal one for our application.
Tested the system in a car if the results in a controlled environment proved significant enough to be
worthwhile.
Had the dry cell professionally machined and assembled with the exact parts and materials specified.
Conclusion
In conclusion we were successful in the objectives we sought after which were to investigate
partial hydrogen injection and the effects it would have on an internal combustion engine. Our cell
has proved to produce a significant amount of hydrogen and through our thorough research we
have determined that it would increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Zero. FAQ. Zero Fossil Fuel. [Online] [Cited: March 30, 2010.] http://altnrg.org/faq.html.
2. HHO Generator Resource Center. [Online] Dec. 28, 2009. [Cited: Feb. 5, 2010.]
http://www.hhogenerator.com/hho-and-the-energy-market-olympic-hydrogen-ti-hhogenerators/.
3. Chemical Compatability. Cole-Palmer. [Online] [Cited: Feb. 3, 2010.]
http://www.coleparmer.com/techinfo/ChemComp.asp.
4. Dorf, Richard C. The Engineering Handbook, Second Edition. 2004. ISBN 978-0-84931586-2.
5. Cerini, John Housman and D.J. OnBoard Hydrogen Generator for a
Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal
Combustion Engine. New York, New
York : Society of Automotive
Engineers, Inc., 1974.
6. Mott, Robert L. Machine Elements
in Machine Design, Fourth Edition.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey :
Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. ISBN 013-161885-3.
7. MatWeb. [Online] [Cited: Feb. 4,
2010.] http://www.matweb.com.
The following is the slide junk yard
Basic Water Electrolysis
H₂ + 0₂ TO AIR
INTAKE OF ENGINE
NEGATIVE ELECTRODE
ELECTROLYTE SOLUTION
POSITIVE ELECTRODE
Wet Cell vs Dry Cell

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