Presentation on WIGIG Group Members & Responsibilities • Shashank Singh Motivation • Jose A. Sinti Implementation • Naveen MadanPotra Challenges Submitted to. • Dr Shahedur Rahman CCM 4300 Introduction • The Wireless Gigabit (WiGig) Alliance was formed to meet this need by establishing a unified specification for wireless communication at multigigabit speeds; this specification is designed to drive a global ecosystem of interoperable products. • The WiGig MAC and PHY Specification enables data rates up to 7 Gbps, more than 10 times the speed of the fastest Wi-Fi networks based on IEEE 802.11n. It operates in the unlicensed 60 GHz frequency band, which has much more spectrum available than the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands used by existing Wi-Fi products. This allows wider channels that support faster transmission speeds. • The WiGig specification is based on the existing IEEE 802.11 standard, which is at the core of hundreds of millions of Wi-Fi products deployed worldwide. Motivation SHASHANK SINGH M00427909 WiGig and IEEE 802.11ad • IEEE 802.11ad is an amendment to the 802.11 standard that enables multi-gigabit wireless communications in the 60 GHz band. The WiGig specification was contributed to the IEEE 802.11ad standardization process, and was confirmed in May 2010 as the basis for the 802.11ad draft standard. Structure The WiGig specification defines Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers and is based on IEEE 802.11. This enables native support for IP networking over 60 GHz. It also makes it simpler and less expensive to produce devices that can communicate over both WiGig and existing Wi-Fi using tri-band radios (2.4 GHz,5 GHz and 60 GHz). Physical Layer (PHY) • • Worldwide, the 60 GHz band has much more spectrum available than the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands – typically 7 GHz of spectrum, compared with 83.5 MHz in the 2.4 GHz band. This spectrum is divided into multiple channels, as in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. Because the 60 GHz band has much more spectrum available, the channels are much wider, enabling multi-gigabit data rates. The WiGig specification defines four channels, each 2.16 GHz wide – 50 times wider than the channels available in 802.11n. Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer •The MAC layer of the WiGig specification includes new features that support advanced usage models, facilitate integration with Wi-Fi networks, reduce power consumption and provide strong security. Protocol adaptation layers (PALs) •The WiGig Alliance is also defining Protocol Adaptation Layers (PALs) that support specific data and display standards over 60 GHz. • PALs allow wireless implementations of these standard interfaces that run directly on the WiGig MAC and PHY, and can be implemented in hardware. The initial PALs are audio-visual (A/V), which defines support for HDMI and DisplayPort, and input-output (I/O), which defines support for USB and PCIe. Modulation & Coding Scheme (MCS) • The specification supports two types of modulation and coding schemes, which provide different benefits: Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) supports communication over longer distances with greater delay spreads, providing more flexibility in handling obstacles and reflected signals. Furthermore, OFDM allows the greatest transmission speeds of up to 7 Gbps. Single carrier (SC) typically results in lower power consumption, so it is often a better fit for small, low-power handheld devices. SC supports transmission speeds up to 4.6 Gbps. Worldwide spectrum availability in the 60 GHz band used by WiGig WIGIg Implementation 2013, the year of WIGig (IEEE 802.11ad) Jose Sinti M00283362 WIGIg field Desktops – Laptops – Projectors - TVs • 60Ghz works in a short range. Initial developments are for short networks (i.e. Home networks, Audio and Video devices also for SMB) • Companies collaborating with design and product developments for WIGIg are: - Wilocity and Qualcomm - Wireless Gigabit Alliance - VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) Wilocity and Qualcomm • Tri-band Wireless card • Wilocity and Qualcomm • Concerns!!! teamed with Dell - Thickness of of the laptops increase Wireless docking station because of the size of the card • the new PCIe-mini card USB extension - Add-2.5 watts, draining 7-10% of found in the Dell 6430u battery - PCIemore extension - WIFI-n - Not roaming - Video extension profile - BT4.0 - Short range - WIGIg (Networking and PCI extension on the same board) WIGIg Beamforming • Because of the propagation loss which is higher than in the 2.4 and 5GHz Beamforming is an alternative for implementation of the 60GHz • Beamforming focus on directed antennas used to form a “Beam” that allows communication further 10 meters • Beamforming also provides the flexibility of connecting using a new pathway if the connection is obstructed, this pathway could be a reflection of the signal on the wall Wireless Gigabit Alliance • Organization promoting the adoption of multi-gigabit speed wireless communication over 60Ghz • Working on wireless data for video and audio applications, particularly WDE (WIGIg Display Extension) - WDE supports wireless transmission of audio/visual data - Enables high-bandwidth for wireless display ports Parsing Packetization ofultra audio and video data, end-to-end - Enables lossless compressed A/V from PCand orand Camera to High-performance high-quality H.264 video encoding decoding HDCP 2.1 and Provides Itencryption provides and low decryption latency for content protection WDE stream to display HDTV Monitor orconversations Projector VESA Collaboration • Video Electronics Standards Association builds partnership with Wireless Gigabit Alliance to build certification standard Benefits of the this partnership: - Interoperability of display port standard and WIGIg - Standard to seamless connection of A/V (Wirelessly) - High-definition standard wireless display through built-in or WIGIg docking station • By 2014 WIGIg technology will be present in 89.5% of commercial desktops and 95% of laptops (According to analyst firm IDS) CHALENGES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WiGig Naveen Madanpotra M00429710 Challenges • Challenges in PHY Layer • Challenges in MAC Layer • Challenges in App layer Wireless Gigabit Protocols Challenges in PHY Layer 1. Radio Frequency Challenge: • Radio frequency devices are the fundamental challenge for the • • • • communication circuit in mm-wave home network. The existing candidates of Radio frequency Technologies are GaAs(Gallium Arsenide), SiGe( Silicon Germanium), CMOS( Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor). In particular, GaAs has a higher saturated electron velocity & higher electron mobility, which allows GaAs devices to work properly at frequencies even in access of 250GHz. Moreover, GaAs devices yield less noise then the silicon devices when operated at higher frequencies. But the main problem with GaAs is that it is very costly to implement devices with these technology. which is not desired by the users. • Another technology is SiGe, the problem with this technology is that it can not work efficiently at higher frequency. So, Devices made by this technology are not acceptable by our network. • Although the last technology CMOS is being very popular for mm- wave devices , because it reduces the power consumption and system-cost , which was the basic drawback of other technologies. But, the problem doesn’t ends here. • The main problem in mm-wave devices in CMOS technology is the absence of CAD tool and accurate models for various active & passive building blocks of the RF circuitry. 2. Directional Transmission: Bridging 60GHz Wireless Link • Another challenge for mm-wave Gbps communication is the poor link budget, because when a radio signal propagates in mm-wave frequency band then it results path loss, reflection loss, multipath etc. • Moreover, NLOS (Non line Of Sight) propagation makes it even more poorer in many cases. • As a result, it is extremely difficult to get a communication in 60GHz Band. However to overcome this situation “Directional antennas” can be used, but these antennas suffers from poor flexibility. Challenges in MAC Layer • MAC layer plays a critical role in moderating the access right to the shared wireless channel in 60GHz wireless. • Device discovery becomes a challenging task in 60GHz wireless networks, this is because of the use of directional transmission. In the case when a new device joins the network without any prior information of location then the transmitter needs to transmit in all directions. • The hidden terminal problem is also generated in 60GHz wireless communication, in which devices can be hidden from each other not only because of distance separation, but also because of directional difference. Challenges in APP Layer • High data rates allows the transmission of uncompressed audio & video over the wireless media. Therefore content protection is most required by content providers. • One challenge for the content protection is the cipher speed for such high throughput. • Two types of cipher technique is considered such as: Stream cipher & Block Cipher. • Stream cipher have high speed & is easy to implement, whereas, Block stream have a stronger encryption strength but with slow speed. • In process to meet the high speed encryption requirement, parallel cipher is considered, where several ciphers processes the data in parallel. Conclusion • This work concludes that WIGIg is a short range wireless network which uses 60GHz band to provide connectivity. With the expansion of spectrum band the strategies to implement network have to be changed. The usage of the WIGIg devices depends on the application planned to be used to allow maximum performance, and no drawback. Audio and video data transmission is going to be the main benefit of WIGIg because it’s already used in short range environment (i.e. to project a video).