New France French Settlers & First Nations New France • New France is the term used to describe the territory in North America claimed by France • New France when it was most successful stretched from the Atlantic Coast to the foothills of the Rockies, and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico Think about it Who is in the picture? What is happening? What message is the artist giving in this picture? Why Come to North America? • France wanted to become an international power • Many European countries were founding colonies all over the world • Why do you think that would be? 1534 Voyage 1 • Jacques Cartier arrived in Quebec and put up a large cross to show that France claimed the land • The cross had the words “Vive Le Roi de France” • The local Iroquois chief, Donnacona objected and Cartier told him not to worry it was only for navigation • Cartier then left the area and took Donnacona’s two sons with him back to France against their will Quote • Pointing to the cross, (Donnacona)…pointed to the land all about as if he wished to say that all this regions belonged to him, and that we ought not to have set our cross without his permission • ~Jacques Cartier~ Think about it: Who is in this picture? What is going on? What message is the artist giving in this picture? 1535 Voyage 2 • Cartier returned to Stadaconda (Quebec City) • Spring of 1536 Cartier takes 10 villagers, including Donnacona, and forced them to return to France with him • All but one little girl, died soon after arriving in France • Think about it: What would have caused their deaths? Secret of Anneda • Cartier took Donnacona and the villagers to France with him against their will even though Donnacona had saved Cartier’s life • Cartier and him men were sick with scurvy • Donnacona shared with Cartier the secret of white cedar tea (Anneda), a cure for scurvy. • The French said God had saved them rather than the assistance of the Iroquois Voyage 3 1541 • Cartier returned in 1541 and admits that Donnacona died but said the others decided to stay in France where they lived as “Great Lords” • The Iroquois were deeply suspicious of Cartier and France • Cartier brought 1500 settlers with him and he set up a colony near Stadaconda • The colony was closed down in 1543 when the few settlers who survived both scurvy and the winter returned to France Jacques Cartier History Minute http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id= 10123 1550s-1580s New France did not have gold but it did have fur Beaver fur was very fashionable in Europe and was used to make felt The European beaver was almost extinct French businessmen realized they could make lots of money with the North American beaver From 1581 to 1584 many businessmen organized trips to North America to make money from beaver Fur Trade • As more and more traders arrived word spread amongst the First Nations that they could trade beaver pelt for many goods such as axe heads, blankets, fish hooks, pots, fire arms and ammunition • At first the trade was based on respect and cooperation as both sides had lots to gain Coureurs de Bois • Young men of New France saw that they could make lots of money from beaver pelt and they decided to work for themselves not a company • They became expert canoeists and were called Coureurs de bois • Trading between First Nations was done through family connections and many stayed to live with a First Nations band through the winter • Some adapted to the First Nations way of life and married • Their children were known as Metis • This created ties between the French traders and First Nations Trade Trap First Nations • First Nations were exposed to alcohol through trade • New French settlements meant they were pushed out from the best hunting areas • To get the European goods they now wanted so badly they ended up selling land and moved away from their traditional life Europeans • Able to get fur relatively cheaply which in turn meant profit for European businesses • As the First Nations got more dependent on them they also managed to get land and claims • As beaver pelts became more popular the North American beaver was facing extinction Birth of New France Settlement 1 • By 1598 France decided they wanted to make New France a permanent settlement and sent Marquis de la Roche to Canada • De la Roche was given a MONOPOLY on the fur trade • To get this monopoly he had to guarantee a certain number of settlers to the colony • He was unsuccessful Settlement 2 • Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts was given the monopoly and settled in what is now Nova Scotia • It was so cold that few settlers survived the winter • In spring he moved to the mainland and created Port Royal in an area still known as Acadia Samuel de Champlain 1608 • Champlain worked for Sieur de Monts • He convinced his leader to take colonists to settle along the St. Lawrence River • They created the fort in what is now known as Quebec City • This was first permanent settlement in New France Samuel de Champlain •The early years were hard but the population of Quebec City grew slowly •In 1633 Champlain was made governor of New France •To protect his settlement he worked with local First Nations people •He supported the Huron against the Iroquois •The Iroquois ended up being enemies of France in a war that lasted over 90 years! English Enter • In 1661 two traders tried to get a license for a monopoly from France so they could trade in fur in a new area for fur trade • France said “No” so they went to the British who said, “Yes” • The British wanted to make money off of the trade as well and saw this as their chance Hudson Bay Company • In 1670 the HBC was created and they had all the fur in Rupert’s Land • This gave them a monopoly on all fur around the Hudson’s Bay • Forts were erected and the British waited eagerly for the fur to arrive • It did of course and the British had a network of forts • Britain and France were now competing to make the most money and control the most forts and land in Canada HBC v. NWC • Scottish and French fur traders joined together to form the North West Company (NWC) • The NWC competed with HBC (Hudson’s Bay Company) • These traders competed fiercely and sometimes violently • http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id= 10124 Let’s Talk About it: • The history of New France is usually told from the point of view of the French settlers and fur traders. The truth is that there were more First Nations people than French and they actually controlled the fur trade at the beginning. Why is the perspective of the French settlers told more often than the First Nations. Explain.