Unit 3 World Geography

Report
Unit 3
World Geography
Lesson 1: Demographics
**Turn to Pages 593 & 599
AND 637 & 643
Physical
Features
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Himalayas
Deccan Plateau
Gulf of Khambat
Plateau of Tibet
North China Plain
Gobi Dessert
Population
(small, med, large)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Why do you think a specific physical
feature affects the population size?
What are push or pull factors for
populations?
 Pull factors promoting larger populations: Natural
resources available, climate is favorable for farming,
waterways for trade, strong economy, etc.;
 Push factors influencing smaller populations: drought,
lack of resources, poor soil, lack of infrastructure to
adapt to terrain, etc.)
 Do you think that this happens in every region
or country in the world? Why or why not?
 This is what we will be exploring in this lesson.
 Human Geography is the study of people,
their cultures, demographics, and the ways in
which people interact with each other and
their environment on Earth.
 This lesson examines measures of
development.
World Population Growth
What conclusions can be drawn
from this data?
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Mubai (Bombay), India
Mubai (Bombay), India
Mubai (Bombay), India
NYC
Dubai (in the future)
Beijing, China
What factors have led to a large
population in those cities?
Geographers use different
tools to examine and explain
population growth rates.
Two such tools are
Population Pyramids and the
Demographic Transition
Chart.
Population Pyramid
 A population pyramid is a graphical
illustration that shows the distribution
of various age groups in
a population (typically that of a country
or region of the world), which forms the
shape of a pyramid when the population
is growing.
Demographic Transition Chart
 One group tends to live longer than
the other.
 Women tend to live longer than
men.
Why do you think that happens?
Academic Vocabulary
 Population density

the number of people living per unit of an area (e.g. per square
mile)
 growth rate
 the rate at which the number of individuals in a population
increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial
population
 death rate
 the number of deaths per unit, usually 1000, of population in a
given place and time.
 natural increase
 -in population studies, when the birth rate is higher than the death
rate.
 doubling time
 -number of years taken for a population to double in size (number).
 literacy rate
 Total is the percentage of the population age 15 and above who can,
with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on
their everyday life
 GNP
 Gross National Product- An estimated value of the total worth of
production and services, by citizens of a country, on its land or on
foreign land, calculated over the course on one year
 GDP
 Gross Domestic Product- An estimated value of the total worth of a
country’s production and services, on its land, by its nationals and
foreigners, calculated over the course on one year
Per-Capita
 per individual/person
 standard of living
 refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities
available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic
area
 human development index

is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and
income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human
development
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2011_UN_Human_Developmen
t_Report_Quartiles.svg
 purchase power of parity
 is an economic theory and a technique used to determine the
relative value of currencies. It asks how much money would be
needed to purchase the same goods and services in two countries,
and uses that to calculate an implicit foreign exchange rate. Using
that PPP rate, an amount of money thus has the same purchasing
power in different countries.

 In countries with high population growth,
there tends to be lower literacy rates, higher
rates of poverty, lower life expectancy, and
higher death rates.
 Some things have a direct and inverse
relationship:
 Direct: As one increases, the other does as well. For
example, as per capita GDP goes up, so does life
expectancy. That is a direct relationship
 Inverse: As one increases, the other decreases.
 What are some connections between
demographic information and social, political
and economic factors that affect the
demographics of a country or region?
 What about the treatment of minorities and
women?
Most Populous Cities in the World
 Population density

the number of
people living per unit of
an area (e.g. per square
mile)
 Population divided by
square miles
 Where are the most populous regions or countries in the
world? (East Asia, South Asia) What factors have
contributed to these large population areas? (Fertile land,
etc.)
 What factors would contribute to people migrating to
another region or to a city? (Natural disasters, disease,
famine, political instability, industrialization, etc.)

Lesson 2: Place
Jerusalem
 Identify social,
political, cultural,
and economic
characteristics
that make this city
unique.
 Do all regions or places have unique social,
political, and economic characteristics?
 Do they change over time?
 What are some of the possible reasons for
a region’s social, political, and/or economic
characteristics change over time?
 (natural disasters, wars, failing economy,
etc…)
Place Diagram
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Paris, France
Lima, Peru
Lagos, Nigeria
Cairo, Egypt
Istanbul, Turkey
Moscow, Russia
São Paulo, Brazil
Shanghai, China
Mumbai (Bombay),
India
 Here’s a definition we need:
SPATIAL spa·tial also spa·cial (spshl)adj.Of,
relating to, involving, or having the
nature of space.
©2012, TESCCC
Defining a Region:
Connections, Relationships,
& Location
©2012, TESCCC
GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
 Represent great clusters of humankind or physical
characteristics
 Change over time
 Do not have definite borders
 May differ based on point of view
 Vary in size
 Separated from other regions by transition zones.
©2012, TESCCC
TRANSITION ZONES
 Location: Edge of a region
 An area of spatial change where peripheries (edges) of
two adjacent regions join
 Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in
the characteristics that distinguish neighboring regions
 Area of mixed characteristics; possible tension (cultural
groups)
©2012, TESCCC
GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
What defines a region?
Regions are based on Spatial Criteria
 Location, location, location
 Common Characteristics
 Physical (natural)
 Landforms, Climate, Vegetation, Biomes…
 Human (cultural)
 Language, Religion, Ethnicity, Population, Disease…
©2012, TESCCC
Sub-classification of Regions
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Dominated by one political
power:
North America: U.S.
Middle America: Mexico
South America: Brazil
Russian Realm: Russia
East Asia: China
South Asia: India
Southeast Asia: Indonesia
Australian Realm: Australia
©2012, TESCCC
No dominant State
 Europe
 Sub-Saharan Africa
 North Africa / Southwest
Asia
 Oceania (Pacific Realm)
SUB-REGIONS
 Classification of Regions based upon physical features
and human characteristics or both.
 All regions can be divided into sub-regions
 Ex: United States’ Location: North American Region.
 U.S. Sub-regions may include:
 Northeast, Midwest, South, North … or…
 Metropolitan and suburban areas …or…
 Physical regions (Rocky Mountains, the Great Lakes)
 Texas example: Hill Country, Piney Woods, West Texas, The Valley, The
Coast, East Texas, The Panhandle…
• Region & Sub-region boundaries are
based on criteria we establish.
©2012, TESCCC
FORMAL REGION
 Marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one
or more phenomena.
Examples:
Corn Belt
Sun Belt
Rust Belt
Latin America
Southwest Asia
©2012, TESCCC
FUNCTIONAL REGION
 A region marked by its dynamic internal structure
•A spatial system focused on a central core
•A region formed by a set of places and their functional integration
(Ex. River systems, Highways, Railroads systems,
Communication systems, etc.)
Example:
• Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
• Mississippi River Watershed
©2012, TESCCC
Perceptual Region
 A region that is marked by unique human ideas or
perceptions.
 Examples:
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“The Orient” or the “Tropics”
The “South” v. the “North”
The “Middle East” v. “Southwest Asia”
“Central Texas” “Hill Country”
A region of the city or town: “Mid-Town” “Downtown”
©2012, TESCCC
Unit 3 Lesson 3
Culture
As we look
through these
pictures, add
them to your
chart.
©2012, TESCCC
Cultures
 Are there Similar Cultures in different parts of the world?
 Why is that?
 (Historical events such as colonization, common borders,
etc.)
 How do cultures diffuse, past and present?
 For example, in the past, cultures diffused through trade
routes, but today cultures diffuse through the social
media and other forms of technological advance

Introduction to
Cultural Geography
Also known as Human Geography
©2012, TESCCC
Physical v. Cultural
Geography
Physical Geography
Cultural Geography
Rocks/Minerals
Population/Settlements/Urbanization
Landforms
Economic and Political Systems
Animal and Plant Life
Transportation
Soils
Human Migration
Atmosphere/Climate/Weather
Social Systems
Environment
Recreation
Rivers/Oceans/Other bodies of Water
Religion/Belief System
Cultural Geography is the study of the
Earth’s human landscape.
©2012, TESCCC
CULTURE
• Definition: Shared patterns of learned behavior
that are passed on from generation to
generation.
• Components:
• Beliefs, Values, Customs
• Languages, Ethnicity, Religion
• Institutions (Economic, Political, Educational)
• Art, Music, and Technology
©2012, TESCCC
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
• A field that studies spatial aspects of
human cultures.
• Major components focus on:
 Cultural Landscapes
 Culture Hearths
 Cultural Diffusion
 Culture Regions
©2012, TESCCC
Cultural Landscape
• The composite of human imprints on
the earth’s surface.
• Carl Sauer’s definition: “the forms
superimposed on the physical landscape
by the activities of man” “ from Recent
Developments in Cultural
Geography, 1927
©2012, TESCCC
Culture Hearth
• The source areas from which radiated ideas,
innovations, and ideologies that change the
world beyond.
• What are some examples? (Culture Hearth)
©2012, TESCCC
Cultural Diffusion
• The spreading of a culture element (ex:
technological innovation)
• Can you think of any examples of cultural
diffusion, past or present?
Culture Region
• Distinct, culturally discrete spatial unit; a region
where certain cultural norms prevail.
©2012, TESCCC
Ethnicity
What is ethnicity?
Common racial, national, tribal, religious,
linguistic, or cultural origin or background
An Example of Ethnic and Religious Conflict:
The Balkans: Ethnic war between the Croatian Catholics,
the Bosnian Muslims, and the Serbian Orthodox.
©2012, TESCCC
Conclusion
• Think about your own culture: your belief system,
institutions that you are part of, technology you
use everyday.
• Cultures change over time, but the historical
aspects are very important for understanding
today’s cultures. Culture must be examined from
different perspectives.
• Know the terms cultural landscape, cultural
hearth, cultural diffusion, and culture region- these
terms describe the ways in which cultural
geographers view the world.
©2012, TESCCC
Review Components of Culture
Language
Religious
Beliefs
Ethnicity
Customs
and
Traditions
Economic
Activities
Culture
Political
Systems
Technology
©2012, TESCCC
Education
Systems
Art and
Music
Political, Economic & Social
Factors affect Cultures
• Political: a system of government (dictatorship,
communist, etc. may forbid religious practices,
prohibit language spoken by indigenous people,
forbid type of clothing, impose a specific religion, etc.)
• Economic: (the diffusion of economic practices might
go against a people’s value system, or customs and
traditions.
• Social Factors: (a region’s value system might
contradict a religion’s ideals, a region’s education
system may prohibit cultural practices.
©2012, TESCCC
Human Geography: Economy,
Government, & Globalization
Unit 3 Lesson 4
©2012, TESCCC
What is economics?
 A social science concerned with description and
analysis of the production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services.
 Goods: things you use or consume (food, books,
cars, cell phones, etc.) these are things you can touch
 Services: something someone does for you; a
service provided for you (haircut, someone fixes your
car, someone tutors you, etc.) these are things you
cannot touch
Production
©2012, TESCCC
Distribution
Consumption
Goods and
Services
Subsistence Agriculture
(Farmers grow enough
for their family
Economic Systems
Controlled
Economy
Free Market
Free Enterprise
Communism Socialism Capitalism
Government
Control
©2012, TESCCC
Public
Ownership
(land and/or
natural
resources
Low degree of
government
control
Subsistence
Agriculture
(Farmers grow enough
for their family
Economic Systems
Communism
(command
economy)
Socialism
How much control over the means of
production (how much to produce/what to
produce, to whom/how it is distributed
and the overall decision making process
Production
©2012, TESCCC
Distribution
Consumption
Capitalism
(Free-Market
Economy; Free
Enterprise
Goods and
Services
Economic Systems
 Traditional: This economic system is based on hunter-gather or
subsistence agriculture
 Free Enterprise: This economic system is based on private
ownership of business and individual decisions on what to buy or
sell.
 Command Economy: This economic system is based
government control of businesses and decisions regarding types
and locations of economic activity and production. Citizens can
be assigned or strongly encouraged into various employment.
There is little or no private ownership of businesses.
 Mixed Economy: This economic system forms the array
between free enterprise (capitalism) and command economies
(communism) with some private ownership and some
government control of businesses.
©2012, TESCCC
Economic Activities
 Primary: Economic activities that extracts natural
resources or harvests goods directly with no processing or
manufacturing.
 Secondary: Manufacturing or processing raw materials.
 Tertiary: Providing a service.
 Quaternary: Researching, collecting, recoding, storage,
exchange, and dissemination of information and data.
Services for producers.
©2012, TESCCC
Government Systems
 Democracy- a form of government in which the supreme power is retained
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by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of
representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
Dictatorship- a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield
absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).
Monarchy- a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands
of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by
hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign
- such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority.
Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies
(representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.
Theocracy-- a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the
supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical
authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious
authority.
Totalitarian- a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the
state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the
attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.
©2012, TESCCC
Government Systems
 Afghanistan---------------------------- Islamic republic
 Brazil……………………………….federal republic
 France…………………………..republic
 Korea, North…………..Communist state one-man dictatorship
 Korea, South…………………….republic
 Liechtenstein………………hereditary constitutional monarchy
 Vietnam…………………….Communist state
 USA………………………..Constitution-based federal republic
 China……………………….Communist state
 Holy See (Vatican City)……………….ecclesiastical
 Subsistence Agriculture
©2012, TESCCC
 Commercial Agriculture
Define and Compare
Cottage Industries & Commercial Industries
 Cottage Industries An industry where the
creation
of products and services is
home-based, rather than
factory-based. While
products and services
created by cottage industry
are often unique and
distinctive given the fact
that they are usually not
mass-produced.
©2012, TESCCC
 Commercial Industries
 Commercial refers to
someone who is in business
to make a profit.
Industry is generally used
to refer to making a
product for resale.

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