Unit 3 World Geography Lesson 1: Demographics **Turn to Pages 593 & 599 AND 637 & 643 Physical Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Himalayas Deccan Plateau Gulf of Khambat Plateau of Tibet North China Plain Gobi Dessert Population (small, med, large) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Why do you think a specific physical feature affects the population size? What are push or pull factors for populations? Pull factors promoting larger populations: Natural resources available, climate is favorable for farming, waterways for trade, strong economy, etc.; Push factors influencing smaller populations: drought, lack of resources, poor soil, lack of infrastructure to adapt to terrain, etc.) Do you think that this happens in every region or country in the world? Why or why not? This is what we will be exploring in this lesson. Human Geography is the study of people, their cultures, demographics, and the ways in which people interact with each other and their environment on Earth. This lesson examines measures of development. World Population Growth What conclusions can be drawn from this data? Mubai (Bombay), India Mubai (Bombay), India Mubai (Bombay), India NYC Dubai (in the future) Beijing, China What factors have led to a large population in those cities? Geographers use different tools to examine and explain population growth rates. Two such tools are Population Pyramids and the Demographic Transition Chart. Population Pyramid A population pyramid is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. Demographic Transition Chart One group tends to live longer than the other. Women tend to live longer than men. Why do you think that happens? Academic Vocabulary Population density the number of people living per unit of an area (e.g. per square mile) growth rate the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population death rate the number of deaths per unit, usually 1000, of population in a given place and time. natural increase -in population studies, when the birth rate is higher than the death rate. doubling time -number of years taken for a population to double in size (number). literacy rate Total is the percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life GNP Gross National Product- An estimated value of the total worth of production and services, by citizens of a country, on its land or on foreign land, calculated over the course on one year GDP Gross Domestic Product- An estimated value of the total worth of a country’s production and services, on its land, by its nationals and foreigners, calculated over the course on one year Per-Capita per individual/person standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area human development index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human development http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2011_UN_Human_Developmen t_Report_Quartiles.svg purchase power of parity is an economic theory and a technique used to determine the relative value of currencies. It asks how much money would be needed to purchase the same goods and services in two countries, and uses that to calculate an implicit foreign exchange rate. Using that PPP rate, an amount of money thus has the same purchasing power in different countries. In countries with high population growth, there tends to be lower literacy rates, higher rates of poverty, lower life expectancy, and higher death rates. Some things have a direct and inverse relationship: Direct: As one increases, the other does as well. For example, as per capita GDP goes up, so does life expectancy. That is a direct relationship Inverse: As one increases, the other decreases. What are some connections between demographic information and social, political and economic factors that affect the demographics of a country or region? What about the treatment of minorities and women? Most Populous Cities in the World Population density the number of people living per unit of an area (e.g. per square mile) Population divided by square miles Where are the most populous regions or countries in the world? (East Asia, South Asia) What factors have contributed to these large population areas? (Fertile land, etc.) What factors would contribute to people migrating to another region or to a city? (Natural disasters, disease, famine, political instability, industrialization, etc.) Lesson 2: Place Jerusalem Identify social, political, cultural, and economic characteristics that make this city unique. Do all regions or places have unique social, political, and economic characteristics? Do they change over time? What are some of the possible reasons for a region’s social, political, and/or economic characteristics change over time? (natural disasters, wars, failing economy, etc…) Place Diagram Paris, France Lima, Peru Lagos, Nigeria Cairo, Egypt Istanbul, Turkey Moscow, Russia São Paulo, Brazil Shanghai, China Mumbai (Bombay), India Here’s a definition we need: SPATIAL spa·tial also spa·cial (spshl)adj.Of, relating to, involving, or having the nature of space. ©2012, TESCCC Defining a Region: Connections, Relationships, & Location ©2012, TESCCC GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS Represent great clusters of humankind or physical characteristics Change over time Do not have definite borders May differ based on point of view Vary in size Separated from other regions by transition zones. ©2012, TESCCC TRANSITION ZONES Location: Edge of a region An area of spatial change where peripheries (edges) of two adjacent regions join Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish neighboring regions Area of mixed characteristics; possible tension (cultural groups) ©2012, TESCCC GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS What defines a region? Regions are based on Spatial Criteria Location, location, location Common Characteristics Physical (natural) Landforms, Climate, Vegetation, Biomes… Human (cultural) Language, Religion, Ethnicity, Population, Disease… ©2012, TESCCC Sub-classification of Regions Dominated by one political power: North America: U.S. Middle America: Mexico South America: Brazil Russian Realm: Russia East Asia: China South Asia: India Southeast Asia: Indonesia Australian Realm: Australia ©2012, TESCCC No dominant State Europe Sub-Saharan Africa North Africa / Southwest Asia Oceania (Pacific Realm) SUB-REGIONS Classification of Regions based upon physical features and human characteristics or both. All regions can be divided into sub-regions Ex: United States’ Location: North American Region. U.S. Sub-regions may include: Northeast, Midwest, South, North … or… Metropolitan and suburban areas …or… Physical regions (Rocky Mountains, the Great Lakes) Texas example: Hill Country, Piney Woods, West Texas, The Valley, The Coast, East Texas, The Panhandle… • Region & Sub-region boundaries are based on criteria we establish. ©2012, TESCCC FORMAL REGION Marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena. Examples: Corn Belt Sun Belt Rust Belt Latin America Southwest Asia ©2012, TESCCC FUNCTIONAL REGION A region marked by its dynamic internal structure •A spatial system focused on a central core •A region formed by a set of places and their functional integration (Ex. River systems, Highways, Railroads systems, Communication systems, etc.) Example: • Los Angeles Metropolitan Area • Mississippi River Watershed ©2012, TESCCC Perceptual Region A region that is marked by unique human ideas or perceptions. Examples: “The Orient” or the “Tropics” The “South” v. the “North” The “Middle East” v. “Southwest Asia” “Central Texas” “Hill Country” A region of the city or town: “Mid-Town” “Downtown” ©2012, TESCCC Unit 3 Lesson 3 Culture As we look through these pictures, add them to your chart. ©2012, TESCCC Cultures Are there Similar Cultures in different parts of the world? Why is that? (Historical events such as colonization, common borders, etc.) How do cultures diffuse, past and present? For example, in the past, cultures diffused through trade routes, but today cultures diffuse through the social media and other forms of technological advance Introduction to Cultural Geography Also known as Human Geography ©2012, TESCCC Physical v. Cultural Geography Physical Geography Cultural Geography Rocks/Minerals Population/Settlements/Urbanization Landforms Economic and Political Systems Animal and Plant Life Transportation Soils Human Migration Atmosphere/Climate/Weather Social Systems Environment Recreation Rivers/Oceans/Other bodies of Water Religion/Belief System Cultural Geography is the study of the Earth’s human landscape. ©2012, TESCCC CULTURE • Definition: Shared patterns of learned behavior that are passed on from generation to generation. • Components: • Beliefs, Values, Customs • Languages, Ethnicity, Religion • Institutions (Economic, Political, Educational) • Art, Music, and Technology ©2012, TESCCC CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY • A field that studies spatial aspects of human cultures. • Major components focus on: Cultural Landscapes Culture Hearths Cultural Diffusion Culture Regions ©2012, TESCCC Cultural Landscape • The composite of human imprints on the earth’s surface. • Carl Sauer’s definition: “the forms superimposed on the physical landscape by the activities of man” “ from Recent Developments in Cultural Geography, 1927 ©2012, TESCCC Culture Hearth • The source areas from which radiated ideas, innovations, and ideologies that change the world beyond. • What are some examples? (Culture Hearth) ©2012, TESCCC Cultural Diffusion • The spreading of a culture element (ex: technological innovation) • Can you think of any examples of cultural diffusion, past or present? Culture Region • Distinct, culturally discrete spatial unit; a region where certain cultural norms prevail. ©2012, TESCCC Ethnicity What is ethnicity? Common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background An Example of Ethnic and Religious Conflict: The Balkans: Ethnic war between the Croatian Catholics, the Bosnian Muslims, and the Serbian Orthodox. ©2012, TESCCC Conclusion • Think about your own culture: your belief system, institutions that you are part of, technology you use everyday. • Cultures change over time, but the historical aspects are very important for understanding today’s cultures. Culture must be examined from different perspectives. • Know the terms cultural landscape, cultural hearth, cultural diffusion, and culture region- these terms describe the ways in which cultural geographers view the world. ©2012, TESCCC Review Components of Culture Language Religious Beliefs Ethnicity Customs and Traditions Economic Activities Culture Political Systems Technology ©2012, TESCCC Education Systems Art and Music Political, Economic & Social Factors affect Cultures • Political: a system of government (dictatorship, communist, etc. may forbid religious practices, prohibit language spoken by indigenous people, forbid type of clothing, impose a specific religion, etc.) • Economic: (the diffusion of economic practices might go against a people’s value system, or customs and traditions. • Social Factors: (a region’s value system might contradict a religion’s ideals, a region’s education system may prohibit cultural practices. ©2012, TESCCC Human Geography: Economy, Government, & Globalization Unit 3 Lesson 4 ©2012, TESCCC What is economics? A social science concerned with description and analysis of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Goods: things you use or consume (food, books, cars, cell phones, etc.) these are things you can touch Services: something someone does for you; a service provided for you (haircut, someone fixes your car, someone tutors you, etc.) these are things you cannot touch Production ©2012, TESCCC Distribution Consumption Goods and Services Subsistence Agriculture (Farmers grow enough for their family Economic Systems Controlled Economy Free Market Free Enterprise Communism Socialism Capitalism Government Control ©2012, TESCCC Public Ownership (land and/or natural resources Low degree of government control Subsistence Agriculture (Farmers grow enough for their family Economic Systems Communism (command economy) Socialism How much control over the means of production (how much to produce/what to produce, to whom/how it is distributed and the overall decision making process Production ©2012, TESCCC Distribution Consumption Capitalism (Free-Market Economy; Free Enterprise Goods and Services Economic Systems Traditional: This economic system is based on hunter-gather or subsistence agriculture Free Enterprise: This economic system is based on private ownership of business and individual decisions on what to buy or sell. Command Economy: This economic system is based government control of businesses and decisions regarding types and locations of economic activity and production. Citizens can be assigned or strongly encouraged into various employment. There is little or no private ownership of businesses. Mixed Economy: This economic system forms the array between free enterprise (capitalism) and command economies (communism) with some private ownership and some government control of businesses. ©2012, TESCCC Economic Activities Primary: Economic activities that extracts natural resources or harvests goods directly with no processing or manufacturing. Secondary: Manufacturing or processing raw materials. Tertiary: Providing a service. Quaternary: Researching, collecting, recoding, storage, exchange, and dissemination of information and data. Services for producers. ©2012, TESCCC Government Systems Democracy- a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed. Dictatorship- a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws). Monarchy- a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority. Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation. Theocracy-- a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority. Totalitarian- a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population. ©2012, TESCCC Government Systems Afghanistan---------------------------- Islamic republic Brazil……………………………….federal republic France…………………………..republic Korea, North…………..Communist state one-man dictatorship Korea, South…………………….republic Liechtenstein………………hereditary constitutional monarchy Vietnam…………………….Communist state USA………………………..Constitution-based federal republic China……………………….Communist state Holy See (Vatican City)……………….ecclesiastical Subsistence Agriculture ©2012, TESCCC Commercial Agriculture Define and Compare Cottage Industries & Commercial Industries Cottage Industries An industry where the creation of products and services is home-based, rather than factory-based. While products and services created by cottage industry are often unique and distinctive given the fact that they are usually not mass-produced. ©2012, TESCCC Commercial Industries Commercial refers to someone who is in business to make a profit. Industry is generally used to refer to making a product for resale.