Brandt Line (North- south divide) C ARIBBEAN S TUDIES O BJECTIVES To describe the concept of sustainable development and economic development. To identify the indicators of development. To explain how various indicators of development are measured. To assess development in the Caribbean D EFINING DEVELOPMENT Economic Development: the ability of a country to advance economically from a simple low income economy to a modern high income economy Development is referred to as the sustained level of economic and social well being in a country. G ROWTH V S D EVELOPMENT Economic growth is not growth that equals development. Growth occurs whenever statistics show economic increase. Development occurs only when, along with economic growth, there is evidence of increased human well being and environmental preservation S USTAINABLE D EVELOPMENT D EFINING S USTAINABLE D EVELOPMENT Development that meets the need of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs .( Brundtland :1992) It contains within it two concepts: The concepts of ‘needs’ in particular the essential needs of the worlds poor The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs D EVELOPMENT INDICATORS Definition: Usually a numerical measure of quality of life in a country. Indicators are used to illustrate progress of a country in meeting a range of economic, social, and environmental goals. Since indicators represent data that have been collected by a variety of agencies using different collection methods, there may be inconsistencies among them. E CONOMIC (M EASURES ) I NDICES OF D EVELOPMENT Gross National Product and Gross Domestic Product Industrialization Purchasing Power Parity Employment Level Level of local and Foreign Debt E XAMPLE : GNP/GDP GDP – Gross Domestic Product GNP – Gross National Product The value of output produced within a country plus net property income from abroad GDP/GNP per head/per capita The value of output produced within a country during a time period Takes account of the size of the population Real GDP/GNP Accounts for differences in price levels in different countries N ON E CONOMIC INDICES ( MEASURES ) OF D EVELOPMENT Human Development Index Gender development Index Life Expectancy Levels of education Ratio of doctors to population Urbanisation E XAMPLE : H UMAN D EVELOPMENT I NDEX HDI – A socio-economic measure Focus on three dimensions of human welfare: Longevity – Life expectancy Knowledge – Access to education, literacy rates Standard of living – GDP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) I NDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Levels of income 2. Productivity 3. Social and Economic Equalisation 4. Modern Knowledge 5. Improved Institutions and attitudes 6. Environmental Factors Increased freedom PRODUCTIVITY The amount of output per unit of input. It relates to efficiency and cost effectiveness in the production of goods and services A ratio to measure how well an organisation or industry or country converts input resources into goods and services M ODERN K NOWLEDGE It refers to the influence of modernizing institutions such as schools and factories which are thought to promote urban , industrialized societies. Such knowledge emphasizes Efficiency Cost effectiveness Rationality Logic Planning and organizational skills S OCIAL AND E CONOMIC E QUALIZATION This refers to the difference between social classes in terms of income earned and the quality of life experienced. Equality is difficult to achieve in the region because of historical circumstances and political realities Inequality is maintained as historically poor people were able to access social mobility and move towards wealth redistribution through education. I NCREASED FREEDOM Increasing peoples freedom by enlarging the range of their choice variables by increasing varieties of consumer goods and services. It also includes Political freedom Rule of law Freedom of expression equality of opportunity E NVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY I NDEX The data sets cover a diverse range of variables such as ambient pollution emissions of pollutants impacts on human health and being a signatory to international agreements P ROS AND CONS OF I NDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT The advantages of development indicators and indices rest in the reason why they are created in the first place – to simplify complexity. any indicator/index is only as good as the data upon which it is built. Data sets can be poor quality as well as good quality and there may well be gaps. There is also the hiding of intra-country variation to consider. These may be consideration between urban and rural populations, for example, or between different regions. Some variables may also change dramatically during the year – air pollution for example. P ROS AND CONS OF I NDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT An indicator/index is a product of the person(s) who created it. This is obvious when stated but the ramification is that there is potential for human bias.