A PowerPoint presentation summarizing data on hybridization in birds

Report
Hybridization in Birds:
A Worldwide Survey
Gene McCarthy
Genetics Department
University of Georgia
This presentation summarizes data
about bird hybrids from my recently
published book (Handbook of Avian
Hybrids, Oxford University Press, 2006)
Handbook is a worldwide survey
- All crosses ever reported
Handbook is a worldwide survey
- All crosses ever reported
- Captive and natural
Handbook is a worldwide survey
- All crosses ever reported
- Captive and natural
- Most comprehensive study to date
Handbook is a worldwide survey
- All crosses ever reported
- Captive and natural
- Most comprehensive study to date
- More than 5,300 works cited
We’ll be discussing:
- Rates of hybridization
We’ll be discussing:
- Rates of hybridization
- Fertility of hybrids
We’ll be discussing:
- Rates of hybridization
- Fertility of hybrids
- Global geography of hybridization
Captive Hybridization
The handbook lists 1460 different
crosses that have occurred in captivity.
Nonpasserines (918)
Passerines (542)
Example of a hybrid produced in captivity:
European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis)
x Canary (Serinus canarius)
Another example:
(Phasianus colchicus x Coturnix japonica)
Natural hybridization
Abbreviation Key
NHR: Natural Hybridization Reported
Abbreviation Key
NHR: Natural Hybridization Reported
Abbreviation Key
NHR: Natural Hybridization Reported
ONHR: Ongoing Natural Hybridization Reported
Abbreviation Key
NHR: Natural Hybridization Reported
ONHR: Ongoing Natural Hybridization Reported
Abbreviation Key
NHR: Natural Hybridization Reported
ONHR: Ongoing Natural Hybridization Reported
ENHR: Extensive Natural Hybridization Reported
Abbreviation Key
NHR: Natural Hybridization Reported
ONHR: Ongoing Natural Hybridization Reported
ENHR: Extensive Natural Hybridization Reported
NHR means…
Either:
A cross occurs rarely
NHR means…
Either:
A cross occurs rarely
or
It has been reported rarely, perhaps due to a lack of
study.
NHR means…
Either:
A cross occurs rarely
or
It has been reported rarely, perhaps due to a lack of
study.
(These two cases are often hard to distinguish)
Rates of Natural Hybridization
NHR
Nonpasserines
Passerines
497(116)
331(32)
Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus) x Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)
ONHR means…
Either:
Multiple reports of cross occurring in natural setting
ONHR means…
Either:
Multiple reports of cross occurring in natural setting
or
At least one report indicates natural hybrids occur on
an ongoing basis (at relatively low levels).
Goldeneye
(Bucephala clangula)
Hybrid
Hooded Merganser
(Bucephala clangula)
ENHR means…
Either:
Many reports of cross occurring in natural setting
ENHR means…
Either:
Many reports of cross occurring in natural setting
or
At least one report indicates many natural hybrids
occur on an ongoing basis.
An example of
extensive hybridization
Carrion Crow
(Corvus corone)
HYBRID
Hooded Crow
(Corvus cornix)
Hooded
Two widely separated hybrid zones
Hooded
Carrion
Two widely separated hybrid zones
Hooded
Carrion
Carrion
Two widely separated hybrid zones
Hooded
Carrion
Carrion
Two widely separated hybrid zones
Hooded
Carrion
Carrion
Two widely separated hybrid zones
Rates of Natural Hybridization
500
450
400
350
NUMBER 300
OF
250
CROSSES 200
150
100
50
0
NHR
ONHR
ENHR
Nonpasserines
Passerines
1711 TYPES OF AVIAN CROSSES
Totals (3171 Avian Crosses):
Captivity (1460)
Natural (1447)
Both Settings (264)
Totals do not include:
-Suspected hybrid specimens of unknown
parentage
Totals do not include:
-Suspected hybrid specimens of unknown
parentage
-Cases of mixed nesting/copulation/courting
(unless a hybrid was also reported)
Totals do not include:
-Suspected hybrid specimens of unknown
parentage
-Cases of mixed nesting/copulation/courting
(unless a hybrid was also reported)
-Interbreeding between populations which have
always been treated as races of the same bird
Fertility and Sterility
Fertility and Sterility
(3172 different types of crosses)
Sterile
Partial Fertility
No Data
The term partially fertile means that the hybrids in question have
produced offspring, but that the typical hybrid is less fertile than its
parents.
Probable reporting bias: Sterility is
harder to document than fertility, so it
is probably overreported.
Avian crosses producing partially fertile
hybrids are far more common (~8x) than
crosses known to produce sterile hybrids.
Fertility and Sterility
Fertility and Sterility
Continuum of cases
Haldane’s Rule
Among 497 crosses yielding partially
fertile hybrids:
- 84 crosses: only males are fertile.
Haldane’s Rule
Among 497 crosses yielding partially
fertile hybrids:
- 84 crosses: only males are fertile.
Haldane’s Rule
- Some crosses only produce male hybrids.
Haldane’s Rule
- Some crosses only produce male hybrids.
- None produce only female hybrids.
Haldane’s Rule
- Some crosses only produce male hybrids.
- None produce only female hybrids.
- In many avian crosses the sex ratio is biased
toward males.
Geographic distribution
Rates of Natural Hybridization
500
450
400
350
NUMBER 300
OF
250
CROSSES 200
150
100
50
0
NHR
ONHR
ENHR
Nonpasserines
Passerines
1711 TYPES OF AVIAN CROSSES
Rates of Natural Hybridization
500
450
400
350
NUMBER 300
OF
250
CROSSES 200
150
100
50
0
NHR
ONHR
ENHR
Nonpasserines
Passerines
1711 TYPES OF AVIAN CROSSES
Rates of Natural Hybridization
500
450
400
350
NUMBER 300
OF
250
CROSSES 200
150
100
50
0
NHR
ONHR
ENHR
Nonpasserines
Passerines
1711 TYPES OF AVIAN CROSSES
A map showing the locations of
avian hybrid zones, worldwide…
NUMBER
OF
CROSSES
Thanks!
Acknowledgements:
Bill Aragon, Albuquerque Biological
Park
John Avise, Univ. of Georgia
Jonathan Barnaby, DEFRA, UK
Mark Bremer, National Aviary
Michael Brooks, SAFRING
Nick Fox, International Wildlife
Consultants Ltd.
Anthony Ganesh, Singapore Zoo
Jim Granlund, Michigan Audubon
Society
Diana Hartle, Univ. of Georgia
Holly Green, Indianapolis Zoo
Kai Grosch, Max Planck Institute
David Hancock, Hancock Wildlife
Research Center
Laszlo Janossy, Budapest Zoo
Daisy Ling, Jurong Bird Park,
Singapore
Paul Mack, Univ. of Georgia
Tim Melling, British Ornithologist’s Union
Jemima Parry-Jones, National Birds of
Prey Centre, UK
J. P. Schmidt, Univ. of Georgia
Lucia Severinghaus, Academica Sinica,
Taipei
Daniel Shearing, Foreign Bird League
Michael Sorenson, Boston Univ.
Per Thingstad, Museum of Natural
History and Archeology, Trondheim
William Todd, Houston Zoo
Ülo Väli, Estonian Agricultural Univ.
Renate van den Elzen, Alexander
Koenig Museum
Vince Walkosak, Arizona-Sonora Desert
Museum
Carolyn Walsh, Memorial Univ. of
Newfoundland
Acknowledgements:
Bill Aragon, Albuquerque Biological
Park
John Avise, Univ. of Georgia
Jonathan Barnaby, DEFRA, UK
Mark Bremer, National Aviary
Michael Brooks, SAFRING
Nick Fox, International Wildlife
Consultants Ltd.
Anthony Ganesh, Singapore Zoo
Jim Granlund, Michigan Audubon
Society
Diana Hartle, Univ. of Georgia
Holly Green, Indianapolis Zoo
Kai Grosch, Max Planck Institute
David Hancock, Hancock Wildlife
Research Center
Laszlo Janossy, Budapest Zoo
Daisy Ling, Jurong Bird Park,
Singapore
Paul Mack, Univ. of Georgia
Tim Melling, British Ornithologist’s Union
Jemima Parry-Jones, National Birds of
Prey Centre, UK
J. P. Schmidt, Univ. of Georgia
Lucia Severinghaus, Academica Sinica,
Taipei
Daniel Shearing, Foreign Bird League
Michael Sorenson, Boston Univ.
Per Thingstad, Museum of Natural
History and Archeology, Trondheim
William Todd, Houston Zoo
Ülo Väli, Estonian Agricultural Univ.
Renate van den Elzen, Alexander
Koenig Museum
Vince Walkosak, Arizona-Sonora Desert
Museum
Carolyn Walsh, Memorial Univ. of
Newfoundland
Acknowledgements:
Bill Aragon, Albuquerque Biological
Park
John Avise, Univ. of Georgia
Jonathan Barnaby, DEFRA, UK
Mark Bremer, National Aviary
Michael Brooks, SAFRING
Nick Fox, International Wildlife
Consultants Ltd.
Anthony Ganesh, Singapore Zoo
Jim Granlund, Michigan Audubon
Society
Diana Hartle, Univ. of Georgia
Holly Green, Indianapolis Zoo
Kai Grosch, Max Planck Institute
David Hancock, Hancock Wildlife
Research Center
Laszlo Janossy, Budapest Zoo
Daisy Ling, Jurong Bird Park,
Singapore
Paul Mack, Univ. of Georgia
Tim Melling, British Ornithologist’s Union
Jemima Parry-Jones, National Birds of
Prey Centre, UK
J. P. Schmidt, Univ. of Georgia
Lucia Severinghaus, Academica Sinica,
Taipei
Daniel Shearing, Foreign Bird League
Michael Sorenson, Boston Univ.
Per Thingstad, Museum of Natural
History and Archeology, Trondheim
William Todd, Houston Zoo
Ülo Väli, Estonian Agricultural Univ.
Renate van den Elzen, Alexander
Koenig Museum
Vince Walkosak, Arizona-Sonora Desert
Museum
Carolyn Walsh, Memorial Univ. of
Newfoundland
Acknowledgements:
Bill Aragon, Albuquerque Biological
Park
John Avise, Univ. of Georgia
Jonathan Barnaby, DEFRA, UK
Mark Bremer, National Aviary
Michael Brooks, SAFRING
Nick Fox, International Wildlife
Consultants Ltd.
Anthony Ganesh, Singapore Zoo
Jim Granlund, Michigan Audubon
Society
Diana Hartle, Univ. of Georgia
Holly Green, Indianapolis Zoo
Kai Grosch, Max Planck Institute
David Hancock, Hancock Wildlife
Research Center
Laszlo Janossy, Budapest Zoo
Daisy Ling, Jurong Bird Park,
Singapore
Paul Mack, Univ. of Georgia
Tim Melling, British Ornithologist’s Union
Jemima Parry-Jones, National Birds of
Prey Centre, UK
J. P. Schmidt, Univ. of Georgia
Lucia Severinghaus, Academica Sinica,
Taipei
Daniel Shearing, Foreign Bird League
Michael Sorenson, Boston Univ.
Per Thingstad, Museum of Natural
History and Archeology, Trondheim
William Todd, Houston Zoo
Ülo Väli, Estonian Agricultural Univ.
Renate van den Elzen, Alexander
Koenig Museum
Vince Walkosak, Arizona-Sonora Desert
Museum
Carolyn Walsh, Memorial Univ. of
Newfoundland
Acknowledgements:
Bill Aragon, Albuquerque Biological
Park
John Avise, Univ. of Georgia
Jonathan Barnaby, DEFRA, UK
Mark Bremer, National Aviary
Michael Brooks, SAFRING
Nick Fox, International Wildlife
Consultants Ltd.
Anthony Ganesh, Singapore Zoo
Jim Granlund, Michigan Audubon
Society
Diana Hartle, Univ. of Georgia
Holly Green, Indianapolis Zoo
Kai Grosch, Max Planck Institute
David Hancock, Hancock Wildlife
Research Center
Laszlo Janossy, Budapest Zoo
Daisy Ling, Jurong Bird Park,
Singapore
Paul Mack, Univ. of Georgia
Tim Melling, British Ornithologist’s Union
Jemima Parry-Jones, National Birds of
Prey Centre, UK
J. P. Schmidt, Univ. of Georgia
Lucia Severinghaus, Academica Sinica,
Taipei
Daniel Shearing, Foreign Bird League
Michael Sorenson, Boston Univ.
Per Thingstad, Museum of Natural
History and Archeology, Trondheim
William Todd, Houston Zoo
Ülo Väli, Estonian Agricultural Univ.
Renate van den Elzen, Alexander
Koenig Museum
Vince Walkosak, Arizona-Sonora Desert
Museum
Carolyn Walsh, Memorial Univ. of
Newfoundland

similar documents