Leg, Hands and Feet

Report
Forensic Anthropology
Bones of the Leg
Skeletal anatomy of the leg
Comprised of 4 bones




Femur
Tibia
Fibula
Patella
Useful for



age/growth
Sex determination
stature determination
THE FEMUR

Largest, heaviest bone of the body

Ball shaped head

Articulates with innominate, tibia (does NOT
form a straight line with tibia in anatomical
position), patella

Shaft has circular cross section
THE FEMUR – what to know

Proximally






Head
Fovea capitus
Anatomical neck
Greater and lesser
trochanter
Intertrochanteric crest
Linea aspera

Distally






Lateral condyle
Lateral epicondyle
Medial epicondyle
Medial condyle
Intercondylar fossa
Patellar articular surface
THE FEMUR – L from R
 Orient
head medially, greater trochanter
 Intercondylar
 Larger
fossa posterior
condyle is medial
The tibia - description
 Second
largest bone in the body
 Hinge joint – greatest weight bearing
 Articulations:
• Proximal – femur at horizontal platform AND fibula
• Distal – fibula AND talus
• Note there is NO articulation with the patella
 Shape
= triangular shaft
• Sharpest angle anterior
• Malleolus at distal end
The tibia – What to know

Proximal end:
 Intercondylar eminence
 Medial condyle
 Lateral condyle
 Tibial tuberosity
 Fibular facet of tibia



Popliteal line
Interosseous crest
Anterior crest

Distal end:
 Fibular notch of tibia
 Articular surface for
talus
 Medial malleolus
Tibia – Right from left
 Orient
plateau superiorly
 Make
sure tibial tuberosity is anterior
 Medial malleolus is medial
 Interosseous
crest points toward fibula
Growth and the humerus
 Fusion


ages
♀14-16/ ♂15-18 distal epiphysis
♀13-17/ ♂15-19 proximal epiphysis
Also age related changes in bone density
associated with elderly
The fibula - description
 Lateral
to the tibia, most slender long bone
 Makes
up the ‘outside’ of the ankle
The fibula
 Shaft


– triangular X-section
Flat head at top
Distal end composed largely of lateral malleolus
 Articulations
• Proximal – with tibia at fibular facet just below lateral
condyle
• Distal – passes through fibular notch of tibia to
articulate with talus
The fibula – What to know

Proximal End:
 Head
 Styloid process
 Facet for tibia
Interosseous crest

Distal End:
 Lateral malleolus
 Malleolar facet for
talus
 Malleolar fossa
fibula – Right from left
 Orient
head superior
 Lateral
malleolus is lateral, tip points
posteriorly (when looking at lateral side)
 Styloid
process and interosseous crest
Bones of the
hand
Carpal bones
1. scaphoid
2. lunate
3. triquetrum
4. pisiform
5. trapezium
6. trapezoid
7. capitate
8. hamate
Metacarpal bones
9. I
10. II
11. III
12. IV
13. V
Phalanges
proximal 14
middle 15
distal 16
Sorting metatarsals
 Longer,
thinner, and more curved than MC
 MT1: thickest
 MT2: Longest, slight process

Triangular with off-set lateral facet
 MT3:
triangular with continuous lateral facet
 MT4: base rectangular
 MT5: long, lateral process
Bones of the Foot
12. Fifth metatarsal
1. Calcaneus
13. Proximal phalanx of
2. Talus
great toe
3. Navicular
14. Distal phalanx of
4. Medial cuneiform
great toe
5. Intermediate
15. Proximal phalanx of
cuneiform
second toe
6. Lateral cuneiform
16. Middle phalanx of
7. Cuboid
second toe
8. First metatarsal
17. Distal phalanx of
9. Second metatarsal
second toe
10. Third metatarsal
11. Fourth metatarsal
Sorting metacarpals
 MC1:
shortest, thickest
 MC2:
longest, 2 processes at base

M2 – M5 decrease in size successively
 MC3:
1 processes at base
 MC4: no processes, facets on both sides
of base
 MC5: short, no processes, facet on only
1 side of base
Manual vs pedal phalanges
 Manual
phalanges are longer
 Flattened in the middle (oval crosssection)

Narrower top to bottom
 Pedal
phalanges are ‘slim-waisted’ in the
middle
 Circular cross-section

Narrower side to side
Sorting phalanges
 Proximal
phalanges: cup-shaped proximal
end (art. w/ MC head)
 Medial
phalanges: double-faceted
proximal end
 Distal
phalanges: flat, ‘fingernail shaped’
distal end

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