The End of WWI

The last 100 days & theTreaty of Versailles
Central Powers Collapse
 Two important events in 1917 changed the direction of
the war:
 1) angered by the sinking of the neutral ships and
passenger liners such as the Lusitania, the United
States declared war on Germany
 2) Bolshevik (communist) revolutionaries on Russia
overthrew the czar, promising the public “peace and
 Russians signed a tough peace treaty with Germany,
freeing the Kaiser’s troops to move to the Western Front
Sinking of the Lusitania
 Departed on May 1, 1915 and sank on May 7th
 US did not go to war for another two years
 There were warnings that the ship could be a potential
target sailing into the “War Zone”
 Ship was known as the “fastest and largest” steamer
 The liner was warned of U-boat activity off the S. coast
of Ireland
 The boat took only 18 minutes to sink! Why???
Why did the Lusitania sink?
 The log of the U-boat stated clearly that the submarine
had only fired one torpedo
 There was a second explosion, which lead to the
 It is thought the second explosion occurred because
the liner was carrying small arms and ammunition
 Therefore a legitimate target for the Germans
 The Great Lusitania Video
German Collapse
 With Russia out of the war, Germany’s last chance was
to conquer Paris before American troops reached
 March 1918: Germans used massed attacks at weak
points to drive deep into France (positions won by
Canadians, Ypres, the Somme, Passchendaele- were
lost in weeks)
 By summer, the front line was 75 km’s from Paris
The “Hundred Days”
 Allied troops underwent secret counteroffensive attack
 Thousands or soldiers and tonnes of artillery were
secretly gathered at Amiens (French railway city)
 Alliance was completely surprised when they were
attacked and the Entente captured 13km of territory in
one day!
 This final offensive lasted between August and
November 1918
The Last 100 Days (89 in Text)
 the German forces were forced to retreat
 as the forces were withdrawing, they destroyed roads,
bridges, factories, etc. to slow down the Allies' pursuit
so they could establish a last defensive line at their
own border
 In September and October Canadian soldiers broke
through Germany’s defence
 Won important battles (Arras, Cambrai and
100 Days Continued
 Canadians captured more territory, prisoners and
equipment than the American Army 6 times larger!
 They defeated ¼ of the entire German Army
 Alliance countries collapsed one by one
 Fighting ended at 11:00 am on November 11th, 1918
Canadian Casualties
 60,000 killed and 172,00 wounded
 Thousands would linger in veterans’ hospitals for years
after 1918
Spanish Flu: Swept across the world killing millions
(21million world wide, twice death poll of entire war)
Soldiers brought the virus back to North America
50, 000 Canadians lost their lives to virus
Virus forced cancellation of 1919 Stanley Cup after 4
Paris Peace Conference
 this was the formal end to the war
 held in 1919; Palace of Versailles
 outcome of this conference was of greatest importance to
 yet had a lasting effect on other nations; including Canada
 originally Canada was not to have any delegates at the
 Prime Minister Borden insisted upon having
representation and was allowed to send four people to Paris
Borden & PM Lloyed George
“Mr. Prime Minister, I want to tell
you that if there is ever a repetition of
Passchendaele, not a Canadian
soldier will ever leave the shore of
Canada so long as the Canadian
people entrust the Government of my
country to my hands.”
The Treat of Versailles
 Wilson’s 14 points: Plan for German surrender;
emphasizing peace and forgiveness
 French PM wanted revenge and repayment from
 Since most of the war had been fought in Northern
France, leaving it in ruins
Major Parts of the Treaty of
 Reparations:
 $5 Billion in first two years (totalling $30 billion)
 Unspecific future amounts (linked to the war debts of
Britain & France)
War Guilt:
Germany forced to sign a document accepting
responsibility for the war
Military Limitations: 100 000 men in army, no airforce,
no submarines, tanks, etc.
Loss of Land: creation of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
 Germany hesitated to sign the treaty because they
thought it was very harsh
they eventually agreed to sign it out of fear of the
Allies' threat to resume fighting
many will say that the treaty did not bring peace, but
instead the certainty of a renewed war in the future
treaty was signed on June 28th, 1919
“ We will have to fight another war all over again in 25
years at three times the cost.” – PM Lloyed George
 What were some of the conditions that Germany was
faced with in the implementation of the Treaty of
 What condition(s) do you think would be most
detrimental to the Germans? Why?
 Do you think the Treaty of Versailles will be able to be
 Would Wilson's Fourteen Points have been more
successful if it had of been implemented fully? Could
it have prevented World War II?

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