Injection Safety Practices
Refresher Training of EPI Technicians
Abbottabad -23 Feb 2012
Dr Bilal Ahmed
Immunization Officer
12 billion/yrs
50% is unsafe practices
8-16 Million people got Hep-B
2.3 – 4.7 Million people suffered from Hep-C
80,000 – 0.16 Million effected by AIDS
Who are effected?
Who are vaccinated
 Who give vaccination
 Community
Who are vaccinated
Reuse of needle and syringe
 Use of new needle on old syringe
 Use of prepared BCG & Measles vaccines
after 06 hrs
 Reuse of syringes and needles after
cleaning with bactericidal drugs
 Repeated use of syringe
 Injection in buttocks in children
 Not adding diluent in proper quantity
Who give vaccination
Wound due to Re-capping
 Injury due to keeping syringe and needle
for long time
 Keeping syringe and needle in hand and
entering in crowded places where
children and mothers are present
Throwing used syringes and needles in
open ground
 Selling used syringes and needles
 Repeated use of syringes and needles
Syringes in EPI
Single used syringes and needles
◦ Standard Disposable Syringe
◦ Auto Disable Syringe or Auto Destruct
Sizes of Syringes and Needles
Syringe Size
Needles Size
0.05 ml
26 G & 3/8 Inches/10 mm
For Remaining
0.5 ml
24 G & 3/4 Inches/23-25 mm
For diluents
2 ml/ 5 ml
22 G/18 G
Parts of Syringes and Needles
Plunger Seal
Plunger top
◦ Shaft
◦ Adaptor
◦ Bevel
Injection safety practices
Use only a sterile packed disposable
syringe for reconstitution of vaccine
and AD syringe for administering
Don’t use the same disposable syringe
for reconstituting multiple vaccine
◦ One syringe for one vial/ampoule
If the syringe pack is torn or expiry
date is over, don’t use the syringe
Never touch the needle or rubber cap
of the vaccine vial during
reconstitution or drawing vaccine
Injection safety practices
Drop the needle cap in
the safety box
immediately after taking
it off the syringe
Drop the syringe needle
end down in the safety
box immediately after
it’s use
◦ No need to cut the
needle using a needle
Don’t fill more than ¾
of a safety box
Safe waste disposal
Safety box MUST be used for sharp waste
disposal in each and every vaccination session
Soon after use (reconstitution or vaccine
administration) each and every syringe must be
dropped in the safety box
Contents of safety box never be taken out
Safety box containing sharp waste must be kept
out of reach of children
When a safety box is filled up to ¾ of its
volume, close its mouth and keep in a secured
place till final disposal
Final disposal of waste
Method: Incineration or pit burning & burry
To be done in a health facility premises
under responsible supervision
Ensure the burning is complete
A standard pit should be
◦ In a isolated place away from reach of children
or animal
◦ Away from a building
◦ At least 4 feet deep and proportionately wide
To be covered with thin layer of earth (1 –
2 inch) after each burning
Waste burned & covered with earth in a disposal pit

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