Chapter 23: State Building and Economic Transformation in Latin

Chapter 23:
State Building & Economic Transformation in Latin America
Roots of Revolution, to 1810
• Latin American elites were frustrated by lack
of political and economic power-angered by
high taxes & imperial monopolies
• Napoleon invaded Spain & Portugal-caused
crisis of legitimacy
• Venezuela, Mexico, Bolivia overthrew colonial
officials in 1808-1809
• Spain reasserted control, but new revolutions
began in 1810
Spanish South America, 1810–1825
• Creole-led revolutionary junta
declared independence in
Venezuela in 1811
• Spain rallied free blacks/slavesjunta’s leaders only pursued
interests of Creole landholders
• Simón Bolívar-charismatic leader
of Venezuelan revolutionaries
– attracted new allies (including
slaves and free blacks)commanded loyalty of his
– defeated Spanish armies-tried
to forge Venezuela, Colombia,
Ecuador into single nation but
Spanish South America, 1810–1825
• Buenos Aires was center
of revolutionary activity
in Spanish South America
• In 1816, after Ferdinand
regained Spanish throne,
local junta leaders
declared independenceformed United Provinces
of Rio de la Plata
• New government weakregion descended into
political chaos
Mexico, 1810–1823
• Mexico was Spain’s richest
& most populous colonyAmerindians suffered
• Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
led rebellion-executed
• José María Morelosexecuted
• Colonel Agustín de Iturbide
to declared Mexico’s
independence, with
himself as emperor
• Army overthrew himMexico became a republic
Padre Miguel Hidlago y Costilla led the first stage of Mexico’s
revolution for independence by rallying the rural masses. His
defeat, trial, and execution made him one of the Mexico’s most
important political martyrs.
Brazil, to 1831
• King John VI of Portugal ruled
his kingdom from Brazil until
1821, when he returned to
• His son Pedro ruled as regent
until 1822-declared Brazil an
independent constitutional
monarchy, with himself as king
• Pedro’s liberal policiesopposition to slavery-alienated
• Protests forced Pedro I to
abdicate to his son, Pedro II,
who reigned until republicans
overthrew him in 1889
Latin America by 1830: By 1830 patriot forces had overturned the Spanish and Portuguese
Empires of the Western Hemisphere. Regional conflicts, local wars, and foreign interventions
challenged the survival of many of these new nations following independence.
The Problem of Order, 1825–1890
• Why was it so difficult to establish constitutional
• How did “personalist leaders” gain power?
• Why did Latin American “personalist leaders”
become dictators but not in the United States?
• What challenges did new national governments
in the Western Hemisphere face?
• How did national governments treat native
peoples of the Western Hemisphere?
Constitutional Experiments
• Leaders in both US & LA espoused
• United States had experience with representative
government; Latin America did not
• Canada-Britain established limited self-rule
• Latin America experimented w/ untested &
impractical political institutions
• Difficult to define political role of church
• Difficult to subordinate the military to civilian
Dominion of Canada, 1873: Although independence was not yet achieved
and settlement remained concentrated along the border, Canada had
established effective political and economic control over its western
territories by 1873
Personalist Leaders
• Successful military leaders in both US & LA
used their reps to gain political power
• LA’s slow development of stable political
institutions made personalist politics more
influential than in US
• Large numbers of poor citizens excluded from
full political participation-led to rise of
populist leaders
Personalist Leaders
Andrew Jackson
Jose Antonia Paez
Andrew Jackson in US & José Antonio Páez in Venezuela challenged the constitutional
limits of their authority & dominated national politics by identifying with the common
people, but in practice, they promoted the interests of powerful property owners.
Personalist leaders were common in both the United States and Latin America, but in
Latin America, the weaker constitutional tradition, less protection of property rights,
lower literacy levels, and less developed communications systems allowed personalist
leaders to become dictators.
The Threat of Regionalism
• After independence, weak central governments
were unable to prevent regional elites from
leading secessionist movements
• In Spanish America, all efforts to create large
multistate federations failed
• Regionalism and slavery divided US, led to
establishment of the Confederacy & U.S. Civil War
• Confederacy failed because of poor timing;
secession attempted when national government
Territorial Growth of the United States, 1783- 1853: The rapid western expansion of
the United States resulted from aggressive diplomacy and warfare against Mexico and
Amerindian peoples. Railroad development helped integrate the trans-Mississippi
west and promote economic expansion.
Foreign Interventions & Regional Wars
• By end of 19th
century, US,
Argentina, &
Chile had
themselves as
regional powers
Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico: This painting by Edouard Manet shows
the 1867 execution by firing squad of Maximilian and two of his Mexican generals.
The defeat of the French intervention was a great triumph for Mexican patriots led by
Benito Juarez.
Native Peoples and the Nation-State
• With independence, Amerindians lost
• Former colonies viewed independent
Amerindian peoples as significant challenge
• Through force & coercion, Amerindian military
resistance was overcome in both North &
South America by 1880’s
Native Peoples & United States
• Rapid expansion of white settlements led to conflict
between American government & Amerindian
• Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced resettlement of east
Amerindian peoples to land west of Mississippi River
• Amerindians living on Great Plains were skilled users of
horses & firearms-formidable resistance to expansion of
white settlement
• Horses & firearms had also made the Plains peoples less
reliant on agriculture - more reliant on buffalo hunting
• Near extinction of buffalo, loss of land to ranchers, & nearly
four decades of armed conflict w/ US Army forced Plains
Amerindians to give up their land & accept reservation life
Navajo Leaders Gathered in Washington to Negotiate: As settlers pushed west in the
nineteenth century, Amerindian peopes were forced to negotiate territorial
concessions with the U.S. government. This photo shows Navajo leaders and their
Anglo translators in Washington D.C. in 1874.
Native Peoples & Argentina & Chile
• Native people were able to check expansion of
white settlement until 1860s, when
population increase, political stability, &
military modernization gave Chilean &
Argentinean governments upper hand
• In 1870s, governments of Argentina & Chile
crushed native resistance-drove surviving
Amerindians onto marginal land
Native Peoples & Mexico
• Plantation owners in Yucatán
forced Maya communities off
their land & into poverty
• In 1847, when Mexican
government was at war w/ US,
Maya communities in Yucatán
rose in revolt (the Caste War)nearly returned Yucatán to Maya
• Mexican government regained
control of major towns but some
Maya rebels created independent
state organized around a mix of
traditional beliefs and Christian
symbols called “Empire of the
• By 1901, resistance eliminated
The Challenge of Social and Economic Change
• How was slavery and the slave trade abolished?
• What was the experience of immigrants in the
Western Hemisphere?
• What was the impact of social reform such as the
women’s rights movement on political structures
and beliefs systems?
• How did Western Hemisphere nations compare
with each other economically and in terms of
quality of life?
• What were the factors that altered the
environments of Western Hemisphere nations?
The Abolition of Slavery
• In most of the new nations, rhetorical
assertion of the universal ideals of freedom
and citizenship contrasted sharply with the
reality of slavery
• Slavery survived in much of the Western
Hemisphere until the 1850s—it was strongest
in those areas where the export of plantation
products was most important
What Factors Led to the Weakening of Slavery?
• Abolitionist movement-women and free African
Americans played important roles
• US African slave trade terminated
• Thousands of slaves freed in Spanish American
republics joined revolutionary armies
• Despite progress, increased demand for plantation
products in early 19th century led to increased imports
of slaves to Brazil & Cuba
• Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in rebel
states not occupied by Union army
• Final abolition accomplished with passage of 13th
Amendment in 1865
What Factors Led to the Weakening of Slavery?
• In Brazil, abolition was slower
– pressure from British
– Heroism of former slaves who fought in war against Paraguay
• In Caribbean colonies, little support for abolition among
whites or free blacks
• Abolition in British Caribbean colonies was the result of
government decisions made in context of declining profits
• Abolition in French colonies followed overthrow of
government of Louis Philippe
• Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico in 1873 and in Cuba in
A Former Brazilian Slave Returns from Military Service: The heroic actions of black freemen and slaves in the
Paraguayan War (1865-1870) led many Brazilians to condemn slavery. The original caption for this drawing
read: “On his return from the war in Paraguay: Full of glory covered with laurels, after having spilled his blood
in defense of the fatherland and to free people from slavery, the volunteer sees his own mother bound and
whipped! Awful reality!”
• As slave trade ended, immigration from Europe &
Asia increased
• During 19th century, Europe provided majority of
immigrants to West Hem- Asian immigration
increased after 1850
• Immigration brought economic benefits &
backlash-discrimination, prejudice, violence
• Desire for common citizenship inspired
assimilation policies
• Schools used to inculcate language, cultural
values, patriotism
Chinese Funeral in Vancouver, Canada: In the 1890’s Vancouver was an important destination for
Chinese immigrants. This photo shows how an important element of traditional Chinese culture
thrived among the store-fronts and streetcar lines of the late-Victorian Canadian city.
American Cultures
• Despite discrimination, immigrants altered the
politics of many nations
• Immigrants, undergoing acculturation, were
changed by their experiences
• Languages, arts, music, & political cultures of
West Hem nations were influenced by cultures
of immigrants
Arrest of Labor Activist in Buenos Aires: The labor movement in Buenos Aires grew in numbers
and became more radical with the arrival of tens of thousands of Italian and Spanish immigrants.
Fearful of socialist and anarchist unions, the governments of Argentina used an expanded police
force to break strikes.
Women’s Rights and the Struggle for Social
• In second half of 19th century, women’s rights
movements made slow progress toward economic,
legal, political, & educational equality in US, Canada,
Latin America
• Most working-class women played no role in women’s
rights movements
• However, working-class women helped transform
gender relations as part of the workforce
• Discrimination against persons of African descent
remained throughout West Hem
• Successful men & women of mixed ethnicity in Latin
America faced less discrimination than did those in US
Development & Underdevelopment
• Nearly all nations of West Hem experienced economic growth during 19th
century- US was only one to industrialize
• Only US, Canada, Argentina attained living standards similar to West
• Rising demand for mine products led to mining booms in west US, Mexico,
• Heavily capitalized European & N. American corporations played
significant role in developing mining enterprises in Latin America
• Expense of transportation & communications technology increased
dependence on foreign capital
• LA, US, Canada participated in increasingly integrated world market, but
interdependence & competition produced deep structural differences
among West Hem economies
• Industrialization brought development and prosperity
• Nations that depended on export of raw materials & low-wage industries
experienced underdevelopment
New Technologies Change the Mining Industry: Powerful hydraulic technologies were
introduced in ‘western mining sites in the United States. This early photo shows how high-power
water jets could transform the natural environment.
Why did different nations in the Western
Hemisphere Develop differently?
• Cyclical swings in international markets partially
explain why Canada & US achieved development while
Latin America remained underdeveloped
• Both US & Canada gained independence during periods
of global economic expansion
• Latin American countries gained independence during
1820s, when global economy was contracting
• Weak governments, political instability, & (in some
cases) civil war slowed Latin American development
• Latin America became dependent on Britain & US for
technology & capital
Altered Environments
• Population growth, economic expansion, new
plants & animals caused deforestation, soil
exhaustion, erosion
• Rapid urbanization put strain on water delivery
systems sewage, garbage disposal systems-led to
spread of timber industry
• Expansion of mining industry led to erosion,
pollution in west US, Chile, Brazil
• Faced with choice between protecting
environment or achieving economic growth, all
nations chose economic growth
The Expansion of the United States, 1850-1920: The settlement of western territories and their
admission as states depended on migration, the exploitation of natural resources, and important
new technologies like railroads and telegraphs that facilitated economic and political integration.
Conclusion: Constitutional Challenges
• All new nations in the Western Hemisphere
evolved from their colonial political traditions
• All but the United States suffered failed
constitutions within a generation and were
divided by distinct regions and ideologies
Conclusion: Challenges of Expansion
• The new nations faced foreign intervention
and/or regional competition over territory
• Amerindians lost out to white encroachment
throughout the hemisphere
Conclusion: Social and Economic Changes
• The end of slavery in the United States and Brazil followed long
campaigns and protests to the point of Civil War. The poorest
regions of the United States and Brazil were those that had relied
upon slave labor. Amerindian populations were forced to marginal
lands and remained at the bottom economically
• Immigrants to the Western Hemisphere tended to settle in regions
that had not included slavery. Many came as indentured servants
and some, such as the Chinese and East Indians, suffered racial
• Although economic growth throughout the hemisphere depended
upon agricultural exports, the United States had become a major
industrial nation by 1890

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