Chapter 13 * Japan, Korea, Vietnam

Report
Chapter 13 – Japan, Korea,
Vietnam
AP WORLD HISTORY
What do we know about PostClassical China?
 Sui, Tang, Song Dynasties
 Sui: rebuilds after chaos resulting from the fall of the Han
dynasty; Grand Canal to connect north and south
 Tang: Early support and promotion of Buddhism (Empress Wu);
increase in temples/education/rights of women; eventually ban
Buddhism; Perfect Bureaucracy/Civil Service Exam; growth of
large cities; Land Reform
 Song: Neo-Confucianism; foot binding; strong trade networks
and navy; some tendencies for exploration;
 Eventually will be invaded by Mongols in 1237 CE
China’s View of the Asian
Peoples
•Story of Phuc and the Barbarians’ Hotel
•Story shows reverence for China but also showed
the view China held for “others”
•China was seen as “Middle Kingdom”
•Chinese language, Confucianism, technological
innovations and social/political organization spread
throughout Vietnam, Korea and Japan
•This spread was also met with open resistance
when direct control was exerted (Vietnam & Korea)
Japan in the Post-Classical
Period
Influence of Chinese Government,
Culture and Traditions in Japan
 7th and 8th centuries CE - Chinese influence in
full effect in Japan
 Taika Reforms (646 CE) [make Japanese Gov’t like Chinese]
Change Japanese leader into absolute emperor
Chinese language in Japanese bureaucracy
Dynastic histories
Etiquette blended from China and Japan
Buddhist art; Confucian practices
Ultimately fail - WHY?
 Buddhist monks overly powerful; aristocratic families seize control
in reaction and move capital to Heian (present-day Kyoto)
 Emperor gives up building conscripted army; relies on local
aristocratic lords to raise an army…
Chinese Influence Upon Japanese
Culture
 Royal Court Proceedings
Emphasized education, politeness, social norms,
literature/poetry/art
Encouraged Japanese form of Buddhism/language
Palaces and Gardens
 The Tale of Genji (~first Novel in any language)
 Written during Heian period (high culture/strict social norms)
 Decline of Chinese influence
Imperial family loses power to powerful landowners
Less stress on importance of Chinese customs which
were deeply connected to Imperial family
Formal gov’t replaced with bakufu (military
government)
The emperor
reigned, but did not
always rule!
Japanese
Feudal
Society
Japanese Social Structure
 Samurai Code of
Honor (Bushido)
Loyalty to lords and
emperor,
Politeness,
Simplicity
Hunting, Archery,
Steel Swords and
Longbow
Seppuku - killing
oneself for
dishonorable deeds
Japanese vs.
European
Feudalism
Japanese vs. European
Feudalism
Europe
Japan
Nobility
king, lords
emperor, shogun,
daimyo
Warriors
knights
samurai
Code of conduct
chivalry
bushido
Evolution
Both practices developed in response to the need
for security and stability
everyone had well-defined social roles
helped preserve law and order
Japanese Economy
 Growth of urban commerce
Guilds
Better crops (soybeans)
Settle in new areas
 Impact on Women
Guild and trade participation in merchant classes
Elite women: lost rights to inherit land and certain
forms of education
Used in marriage alliances
Decline of Post-Classical
Japan
 Shoguns
Gain too much power; manipulated emperors
 Military Divisions
Divide Japan into 300 little kingdoms
 Changes in Warfare
Sneak attacks, untrained forces; decreased focus
on role of samurai
 Peasant Unrest
Badly trained and poorly fed troops
Raid cities; some unsuccessful revolts and
uprisings
Korea in the Post-Classical
Period
Chinese Influence Upon
Korea
 Before arrival of Chinese Influence:
Descendants of Siberia and Manchuria
Settle in Korean by 4th century BCE
 Han Dynasty conquered Korea in 109 BCE;
Chinese settlers to Korea
 Sinification
Adoption of Chinese culture
Aided by Buddhism
 Acceptance of certain Chinese traditions
Writing, unified law code, universities,
bureaucracy
Sinification
 Tang Dynasty conquers Korea (allies with Silla
Dynasty), but eventually removes influence in
668 CE (Silla operates independently)
Korea remains independent until 20th century
 Send groups to China to study Chinese culture
(Tribute system)
 Study Chinese texts
 Art - modeled Chinese pottery, architecture
(templies, pagodas), print-making
 Buddhism
Limited Acceptance
 Which group was most likely to accept
Chinese culture in Korea?
 Why?
Elites did not intermarry or socialize outside of
classes so ideas never spread
Dominated trade with China and Japan
Commoners only related to religious (Buddhist)
aspect due to missionaries and festivals
 After expulsion of Mongols in 1231, Korea
establishes the Yi dynasty which will continue
many of these trends until its rule ends in
1910
Vietnam in the Post-Classical
Period
Vietnam
2nd century BCE - conquered by Han
Pre-conquest: Viets had strong cultural
heritage of their own
Already settled in area when come in
contact with Qin dynasty 100 years before
Resisted cultural influences but accepted
technological innovations and ideas about
government
China views Viets as “southern barbarians”
Chinese vs. Vietnamese Cultures
in Post-Classical Period
 Chinese Culture
Xenophobic
Mandarin Chinese
Emphasis on centralized
government/
bureaucracy
Women’s roles limited to
household
 Vietnamese Culture
 Willing to marry outside of
culture (Khmers in
Cambodia)
 Distinct language
 Emphasized local village
autonomy
 Women have good deal of
independence
 Also have different styles of
dress and hygiene
Influence Upon Vietnamese
Elite
111 BCE - Han conquers Vietnam
Elite look to benefit
Attend Chinese schools
Enforce exam system for gov’t jobs
Adopt irrigation techniques, Chinese
military organization, ancestor worship
Vietnamese Resistance to
Chinese Influence
 Peasants oppose influence - they don’t
benefit as much as elite
 Chinese in Vietnam look down upon lowerclass customs
 Trung sisters led revolt in 39 Ce
Opposed Confucian values - WHY?
 Vietnam difficult for China to control due to
geography (Distance/mountains)
 939 CE - gain independence from China
Remain independent until 19th c. French
colonization

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