Chapter 14-2

Report
CHAPTER 14
SECTION 2
Social Crisis, War, and Revolution
OBJECTIVES:
Describe the results of the Thirty Years’ War
 Explain the Witchcraft Trials
 Analyze the revolutions in England

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CRISIS

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Economic problem- Inflation: rising prices

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From 1560-1650 Europe experienced economic and
social problems.
Gold from Americas, Increased Population
1600- Economic slowdown,
Spain’s economy fell by 1640 due to less American
silver, pirates, and decrease in artisans.
 1620- Population declined

THE WITCHCRAFT TRIALS
Belief in witchcraft, or magic, had been culturally
significant for centuries.
 The Inquisition soon focused on witchcraft, and
Europe was seized with hysteria.
 More than 1,000 people were accused, and 75%
were women.

Accused witches were tortured and usually confessed
to various things.
 By 1650 the witchcraft hysteria had lessened, and as
government strengthened they were not tolerant to
disruptions.

THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR

Religious disputes continued in Germany after
the Peace of Augsburg in 1555

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Reason: It didn’t recognize Calvinism.
Religion, politics, and territory all played a role
in the Thirty Years’ War, called the “last of the
religious wars.”
The war began in the Holy Roman Empire in 1618 as
a fight between the Hapsburg HRE and the
Protestant nobles in Bohemia.
 The nobles rebelled against the Hapsburgs, and all
major European countries but England became
involved.
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Struggle between France and Spain with the
HRE for European Leadership.

Battle took place on German soil.
Ended by The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, with
France as the victor.
 The Peace of Westphalia said that all German
states could decide their own religion and ended
the Holy Roman Empire.


Germany would be divided for nearly 200 years.
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE THIRTY YEARS WAR

Most destructive war of Europe to date.

Flintlock musket with bayonet
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Increased use of firearms, more movable armies, and
government supported military.

By 1700, France had a standing army of 400,000.
REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND

Where in the world is there still conflict between
Catholics and Protestants?
17th century saw England’s civil war, known as
the English Revolution.
 It was a struggle between Parliament and the
king to determine the power of each in governing
England.

THE STUARTS AND DIVINE RIGHTS
The Tudor dynasty ended with Elizabeth’s death
in 1608.
 The Stuart king of Scotland, James I, ascended
the throne.
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He believed in the divine right of kings, but
Parliament wanted an equal role in governing
England.

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Puritans (one group of English Calvinists)
disagreed with the kings defense of the Church of
England, wanting it to be more Protestant.
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Religion was an issue as well.
Many Puritans served in the House of Commons,
giving them power.
Conflict erupted under Charles I, who believed in
the divine right of kings, like his father.

1628: Parliament passed a petition prohibiting
passing taxes without their consent.
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At first Charles agreed, but later changed his mind.
Charles also tried to add rituals to the Protestant
service, which Pilgrims believed was like
Catholicism.

Thousands of pilgrims went to the America’s rather
than follow Charles’s religious policies.
CIVIL WAR AND THE COMMONWEALTH
Civil War broke out in 1642 between supporters
of the kings (Cavaliers, or Royalists) and those of
Parliament (Roundheads)
 Roundheads won largely because of the New
Model Army and it’s leader, Oliver Cromwell.

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Cromwell’s army was made up of extreme Puritans,
known as Independents, who believed they were
doing battle for God.

Cromwell purged Parliament of those who did
not support him.

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Had Parliament execute Charles I in 1649, which
horrified Europe.
Parliament abolished the monarchy and the
House of Lords, and declared a republic, or
commonwealth.

Cromwell soon dismissed Parliament and set up a
military dictatorship, and ruled until his death in
1658.
THE RESTORATION
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Parliament restored the monarchy.
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Parliament regained new control and restored
the Church of England.
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Charles II took the throne and under the restored
Stuart monarchy.
This restricted the rights of Catholics and Puritans.
In 1685, James II became king. He was a devote
Catholic.
THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
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Parliament did not want James II’s Catholic son
to assume the throne.
English noblemen invited the Dutch leader, William
of Orange, husband of James’s daughter Mary, to
invade England.
 William and Mary raised an army and marched to
England.
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James and his family fled with almost no
violence, and England underwent its “Glorious
Revolution”- but who would be monarch?
William and Mary accepted the throne in 1689,
along with the Bill of Rights
 The Bill of Rights:

allowed Parliament to make laws and raise taxes
 Citizens allowed to bear arms
 Trial by jury

Created a government based on the rule of the
law and a freely elected Parliament.
 Laid the grounds for a limited, or constitutional,
monarchy

The Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritans, not
Catholics, the right of free public worship.
 Few English citizens were persecuted for religion
ever again.
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By deposing one king and establishing another,
Parliament had destroyed the divine right theory of
kingship.
CLOSURE:
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Top 5 on Section 2
HOMEWORK/CLASSWORK
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Page 439 1,2,4-6

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