louis xiv

Royal Theories
A ruler with COMPLETE control
 Make
laws, taxes, administer justice, control
administration, determine foreign policy
God hand-picks those who
rule and therefore Monarchs should have complete
control – because they are God’s choice
 Bishop
Jacques Bossuet -
French Monarchy
Henry IV (Navarre) dies and son
takes throne
Louis XIII (1610-1643)
 Young, weak leader
 Cardinal Richelieu takes
 Chief minister and most
trusted adviser
 Determined to strengthen
To strengthen Monarchy Richelieu…
Created a network of spies
Sent out
to execute orders of central
Increase taille – annual direct tax – in 1643
Cut off Port city of La Rochelle, to take control from
14 months, until starving citizens surrendered
Ordered walls to be torn down
Turn all churches Catholic
Punished Nobles for Revolts
 Biggest Move: Sided with Protestants in 30 Years war to
undermine defeat
La Rochelle’s
a signal to all
Protestants to GET OUT of France!
Louis XIII died, Cardinal Mazarin dominated
(1648-1649) – nobles and
of Paris
(important court) revolted in reaction to taxes to pay for 30
Year War
 Parlement of Paris regained power, people looked to King
to restore stability
LOUIS XIV (1643-1715)
 “I
am the State” (didn’t need a Cardinal’s help)
 “Sun King”- source of light for his people
 Tried to be absolute, but towns and provinces had much
How did Louis XIV create absolute power?
Removed Nobles and princes from
royal council and invited them to:
Versailles –Louis’ palace and center of
Influenced dress, dining and other
aspects of noble life
“one king, one law, one faith”
 Revokes Edict of Nantes, outlaws
Protestantism, destruction of churches
 200,000 Huguenots flee
Louis XIV creates Financial Issues
Building of Versailles and other palaces
 Maintaining court
 Pursuing wars
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683)
Controller general of finances
 Adhered to
Improved quality of French manufacturing to increase exports
 Built roads and canals to better transportation for internal goods
 Raised tariffs on foreign manufactured goods
Louis XIV spent the saved money faster than Colbert could
make it
Taxes fell to the peasants to pay
Louis’ Wars
Louis XIV developed a
professional army
 War
an incessant activity
Waged four wars 1667-1713
 1667:
invaded Spanish
 Lost
to Dutch, English, Swedes
 1672:
Dutch War: invaded
United Provinces
 Brandenburg,
Spain, HRE ended
Louis’ Wars
 1689:
 Annexation
of Alsace and Lorraine,
city of Strasbourg led to:
 League of Augsburg – Spain, HRE,
United Provinces, Sweden, England
united against Louis
 Treaty of Ryswick- made Louis
give up most conquests
Spanish King, Charles II, died, left throne to Louis XIV’s
 Other monarchs didn’t want this Bourbon connection
between the two countries, feared they would unite
 England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire fought France
 Fought in North America too
Louis’s Grandson gets throne, but France and Spain can’t be
ruled by same monarchs
 England got Newfoundland, Hudson Bay Territory, Nova
Scotia; emerged as great naval power
How did Spain go from the most
populous empire in the world to ruin?
Treasury was empty: Philip II went bankrupt in 1596
Government was inefficient
Armed forces out of date
Philip III (1598-1621)
Wars, excesses of court
Weaknesses became apparent
Philip IV (1621-1665)
Put country in hands of Gaspar de Guzman, count of
 30 Years War caused revolts and civil war
Dutch Independence declared in Peace of Westphalia

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