louis xiv

Report
Royal Theories
A ruler with COMPLETE control
 Make
laws, taxes, administer justice, control
administration, determine foreign policy
God hand-picks those who
rule and therefore Monarchs should have complete
control – because they are God’s choice
 Bishop
Jacques Bossuet -
French Monarchy


Henry IV (Navarre) dies and son
takes throne
Louis XIII (1610-1643)
 Young, weak leader
 Cardinal Richelieu takes
control
 Chief minister and most
trusted adviser
 Determined to strengthen
monarchy
To strengthen Monarchy Richelieu…




Created a network of spies
Sent out
to execute orders of central
government
Increase taille – annual direct tax – in 1643
Cut off Port city of La Rochelle, to take control from
Huguenots



14 months, until starving citizens surrendered
Ordered walls to be torn down
Turn all churches Catholic
Punished Nobles for Revolts
 Biggest Move: Sided with Protestants in 30 Years war to
undermine defeat
Hapsburg
power
La Rochelle’s
was
a signal to all

Protestants to GET OUT of France!
FRANCE

Louis XIII died, Cardinal Mazarin dominated
government
(1648-1649) – nobles and
of Paris
(important court) revolted in reaction to taxes to pay for 30
Year War
 Parlement of Paris regained power, people looked to King
to restore stability

LOUIS XIV (1643-1715)
 “I
am the State” (didn’t need a Cardinal’s help)
 “Sun King”- source of light for his people
 Tried to be absolute, but towns and provinces had much
control
How did Louis XIV create absolute power?

Removed Nobles and princes from
royal council and invited them to:



Versailles –Louis’ palace and center of
government
Influenced dress, dining and other
aspects of noble life
“one king, one law, one faith”
:
 Revokes Edict of Nantes, outlaws
Protestantism, destruction of churches
 200,000 Huguenots flee
Louis XIV creates Financial Issues
Building of Versailles and other palaces
 Maintaining court
 Pursuing wars


Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683)
Controller general of finances
 Adhered to

Improved quality of French manufacturing to increase exports
 Built roads and canals to better transportation for internal goods
 Raised tariffs on foreign manufactured goods


Louis XIV spent the saved money faster than Colbert could
make it

Taxes fell to the peasants to pay
Louis’ Wars

Louis XIV developed a
professional army
 War

an incessant activity
Waged four wars 1667-1713
 1667:
invaded Spanish
Netherlands
 Lost
to Dutch, English, Swedes
 1672:
Dutch War: invaded
United Provinces
 Brandenburg,
war
Spain, HRE ended
Louis’ Wars
 1689:
 Annexation
of Alsace and Lorraine,
city of Strasbourg led to:
 League of Augsburg – Spain, HRE,
United Provinces, Sweden, England
united against Louis
 Treaty of Ryswick- made Louis
give up most conquests

1701
Spanish King, Charles II, died, left throne to Louis XIV’s
grandson
 Other monarchs didn’t want this Bourbon connection
between the two countries, feared they would unite
 England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire fought France
 Fought in North America too

:
Louis’s Grandson gets throne, but France and Spain can’t be
ruled by same monarchs
 England got Newfoundland, Hudson Bay Territory, Nova
Scotia; emerged as great naval power

How did Spain go from the most
populous empire in the world to ruin?

Treasury was empty: Philip II went bankrupt in 1596




Government was inefficient
Armed forces out of date
Philip III (1598-1621)


Wars, excesses of court
Weaknesses became apparent
Philip IV (1621-1665)
Put country in hands of Gaspar de Guzman, count of
Olivares
 30 Years War caused revolts and civil war


Dutch Independence declared in Peace of Westphalia

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