 Written
Examination is on:
 Friday 14th
 November 2014
 9.00am – 10.45am
 The
examination will be 90 minutes in length
 Reading time 9.00am – 9.15am
 Writing Time 9.15am – 10.45am
 All
outcomes in Units 3 and 4 will be examined
 Refer to your Study Design
 All
of the key knowledge and skills are examinable
 Contributes 30% to the study score for F&T
 Where
 www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/foodtech/exams.h
 Sample Paper includes:
 -10 multiple choice questions and answers
 -Short answer questions
 -Extended response sample question
 -Exam is worth 30%
 -Exam is out of 100 marks
 The
examination consists of TWO sections:
 Section A:
 -15 multiple choice questions
 -To be completed on a separate multiple
Section B:
 -Short Answer Questions
 -ONE extended response question worth 6-10 marks.
NB/ In Section B questions may be stand alone questions
or multiple-part questions which draws on source
 The questions may relate to previously unseen stimulus
 •Section B is worth 85 marks.
Stem or directional words from 2013 exam paper (Section B)
 Explain x10
 Outline x9
 Describe x10
 Name x1
 Identify x11
 Select x2
 Discuss x1(extended)
 What x1
 Write (the full name) x2
 How to x1
 What is the impact x1
Define - give the precise meaning of a word or phrase as
concisely as possible
 Explain - give a clear account including causes, reasons or
 List - give a sequence of names or other brief answers
with no elaboration, each one clearly separated from the
 State give a specific name, value or other brief answer
(no supporting argument or calculation is necessary)
 Compare - give an account of similarities and differences
between two (or more) items, referring to both (all) of
them throughout (comparisons can be given using a table)
 Describe - give a detailed account, including all the
relevant information
 Identify - find an answer from a number of possibilities
Outline - give a brief account or summary (include
essential information only)
 Analyse - interpret data to reach conclusions
 Discuss - give an account including, where possible, a
range of arguments, assessments of the relative
importance of various factors or comparisons of
alternative hypotheses
 Evaluate - assess the implications and limitations
 Suggest - propose a hypothesis or other possible answer
 Distinguish - give the differences between two or more
different items
 Apply - use an idea, principle, theory or law
You must be able to:
 Define
key terms
 Investigate and explain
 Describe and apply
 Compare factors
 Identify and justify
 Explain
 Analyse
 Assess
 Evaluate
 Develop
Question Dissection -Question 5e
 As a result of secondary processing, canola
seed can be made into canola oil.
 Identify two physical properties of oils. (2
 Identify
and explain one functional property
of fats and oils in food preparation. (2 marks)
 Source:
VCAA F&T examination paper 2013
During baking, a brown crust develops on the
outside of a loaf of bread as the result of:
A dextrinisation
B coagulation
C denaturation
D emulisification
# Now you make a multiple choice question
to share with the class!
Answer is A!
 Know
the lingo!
 Glossary definitions + Glossary terms =
Glossary cards (make these!)
Use can use them for testing yourself and:
 glossary bingo
 snap
Summary tables should be used by those who find this
method of learning useful. Refer to text book or charts
I have provided you in class.
Checkpoints summaries and study cards are good too!
VCAA 2013 Examination Report states:
 Not giving specific examples for questions when
 Not relating the answer to the information provided in
the question
 Not understanding innovative technologies used in food
 Not understanding the role of each level of government
in ensuring safe food for consumers
 Not recognising functional foods
 Not understanding land degradation and what causes
 Not understanding or describing environmental issues in
food production and their impact on the environment
Not explaining functional roles of the natural
food components found in foods such as oils, fats
and cereals in food preparation and processing
 Not explaining the impact of the judgements
made during complex processes on the sensory
properties of a finished product
 Not understanding the quantitative analysis of
 Not understanding terms in the study design, for
example, ‘strategies’, ‘sensory properties’,
‘product development’ and ‘individual
production plans.’
So don’t YOU make the same mistakes!
Not giving specific examples for questions when required
Not relating the answer to the information provided in the question
Not understanding innovative technologies used in food manufacture
Not understanding the role of each level of government in ensuring safe
food for consumers
Not recognising functional foods
Not understanding land degradation and what causes degradation
Not understanding or describing environmental issues in food
production and their impact on the environment
Not explaining functional roles of the natural food components found in
foods such as oils, fats and cereals in food preparation and processing
Not explaining the impact of the judgements made during complex
processes on the sensory properties of a finished product
Not understanding the quantitative analysis of foods
Not understanding terms in the study design, for example, ‘strategies’,
‘sensory properties’, ‘product development’ and ‘individual production
??? Is UNIT 4 key knowledge….Go figure???
 Unit
3 and Unit 4 Areas of Study are
examinable including the SAT content.
 Practical skill knowledge (food preparation
and food processing techniques) are
 Statistical data, case studies, articles, design
briefs, photos and diagrams may be used as
stimuli in order to complete questions on the
examination paper.
 Causes
of food spoilage and food poisoning
 Safety and hygiene practices to prevent
food spoilage and food poisoning
What is food spoilage?
What is food poisoning?
What are the causes of food spoilage and food
 yeasts, moulds and enzymes
 -bacterial, biological and chemical
What are the conditions for bacterial growth /
danger zone?
•Examples of how to prevent food spoilage and
food poisoning such as..
 -personal hygiene and staff training/food
 -premises such as design, cleanliness
 -garbage and pest control
 -purchase/storage/refrigeration of food
 -cross contamination – Can you define it?
How can it be prevented?
Key Knowledge?
 The roles and responsibilities of and the
relationship between national (FSANZ &
AQIS (DFAT)), state and local authorities in
ensuring a safe food supply, including:
 Development and implementation of a Food
Safety Plan for a food premise.
 Action in response to unsafe and/or
hygienic food production premises.
 Food product recall.
Food product recall
Food Safety Plan
Response to
food production
Ensuring a safe
food supply
•What are the three main authorities responsible for
ensuring a safe food supply ?
•What are the roles/responsibilities of FSANZ/AQIS (DFAT)
/STATE/LOCAL authorities in ensuring a safe food supply ?
•Combined efforts of the 3 level of government in
relation to:
-food safety plans
-response to unsafe/unhygienic food production premises
-food product recall
 Food
Standards Code in Australia including
food labelling regulations, nutrition
content claims and health claims
 Purpose
of HACCP system and the role of
each of the steps in ensuring food safety.
 Standard
1.2 (Food Labelling ) and
 Standard 1.1.1 (Nutrition, Health and
Related Claims) – revise the principles
relating to these standards – including
nutrition content claim and health claims
 Standard 3.2 (Food Safety Requirements) in
particular the development of a food safety
plan and food product recalls.
The Food Standards Code includes standards for food additives,
food safety, labelling and foods that need pre-approval such as
GM foods.
The Code is divided into four chapters:
Chapter 1 - General Food Standards includes regulations that
apply to most foods, e.g. labelling requirements, substances that
can be added to food and safety of materials in contact with
food. This chapter also includes permissions for new foods, limits
for chemical and microbiological contaminants and maximum
residue limits of veterinary and chemical residues in foods.
Chapter 2 - Food Product Standards includes compositional
requirements for specific foods e.g. meat, eggs, fish and
alcoholic beverages.
Chapter 3 - Food Safety Standards includes requirements for
food handlers wherever food is sold and applies only in Australia
e.g. good food safety practices such as training staff, keeping
food at the correct temperature, washing hands and keeping
equipment clean.
Chapter 4 - Primary Production Standards also only applies in
Australia. This chapter includes primary production and
processing standards for agricultural commodities such as
seafood, poultry meat, specific cheeses, wine and dairy products.
 Enforcement
and interpretation of the Code
is the responsibility of state and territory
government departments and other food
enforcement agencies in Australia and New
 The Department of Agriculture is responsible
for inspecting and sampling imported food.
 Key
Topic Test 3 – The food standards code
on Compass Resources!
An action taken to remove from sale,
distribution and consumption, foods which
may pose an unacceptable safety risk to
 Examples of possible recalls:
 Presence of broken glass, metal fragments or
other adulteration in a particular product
 Presence of food poisoning bacteria; e.g.
 Incorrect labelling of products, which may
have a potential health risk.
Complete the food labelling activity
 Food labels – Nutritional info panels
(annotate a label to identify what is
A nutrient claim are claims about the content of a certain
nutrient or substances in a food, such as ‘low in fat’ or ‘good
source of calcium.’ For example, with a ‘good source of
calcium’ claim, the food will need to contain more than the
amount of calcium specified in the Standard.
A health claim describes a relationship between the
consumption of a food, or component in the food, and a
health benefit it can provide; for example, this product is
high in calcium, which is good for strong bones and teeth.
There are two levels of claims – general level and high level.
•What is the Food Standards Code? Who is responsible
for this Code?
•What information does this Code include?
•What are the key food labelling requirements?
•Explain each of the labelling requirements.
•What are Nutrient content claims and Health claims ?
Be able to give examples for each.
The seven steps of the HACCP system:
 Analyse hazards
 Identify the critical control points
 Set the critical limits for each critical control point
 Monitor the critical control points
 Establish corrective actions
 Set up records
 Verify that the HACCP system is working correctly
# Find the best Youtube clip and share with the class.
•What is HACCP?
•What is its role in maintaining a safe food supply ?
•Can you name the steps in the HACCP system?
•Explain each step and use in a practical application eg.
apply to the making of a hamburger with the lot?
 The
primary and secondary processing that
occurs from point of origin to the consumer
for one of each type of the following foods:
cereals fruits vegetables, and dairy foods.
 Primary
processing involves a range of processes to
make food safe to eat so that it can be consumed
individually or used in the manufacture of other
food products. The physical form changes very
 •Examples:
 Fruit: harvest, washing, grading, waxing, packaging
 Vegetables: harvest, washing, grading, packaging
 Cereals: harvest, grading, distribution
 Dairy: milking, analysis, pasteurisation,
homogenisation, packaging
 Secondary
processing methods of turning primary
processed food into other food products either on
their own of mixed with other ingredients. The
physical form changes quite significantly as a result
of secondary processing.
 •Examples:
 Fruit: peeling, juicing, baking, labelling, packaging
 Vegetables: cutting, cooking, peeling, frying,
 Cereals: cleaning, conditioning, grinding, packaging
 Dairy: cheese making, yoghurt making,
flavouring (ie choc milk), packaging
 Primary
 makes food safe for consumption
 Secondary processing:
 Easier to transport foods
 Prevents spoilage and wastage
 Can increase nutritional benefit
 Reduces preparation time, increase consumer
 Can make foods more enjoyable to eat
 Increase availability by making food available all
year round, not just when in season
 Increases choice and variety available for
 Improve sensory properties
•What is primary processing ?
•What is secondary processing
•Benefits for consumers/manufacturers when
products undergo secondary processing.
•Primary and Secondary processing for:
cereals(eg rice or wheat), fruits (eg apple),
vegetables (eg potato) and dairy foods (eg
Varies from exam to exam!
 The
physical, sensory and chemical
properties of key foods; including cereals,
fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes,
meats, seafood, dairy foods and eggs
 Physical
properties describe the physical traits of
the product (that contribute to the structure of a
food product.)
 These include:
 Size
 Shape
 Colour
 Viscosity
 Chemical
properties of key foods refer to the
nutrients present in foods, such as:
 Protein
 Fat
 Carbohydrate
 Water
 Enzymes
 Vitamins
 Minerals
 Sensory
properties of key foods refer to the use of
the senses in determining characteristics of foods
 Appearance
 Aroma
 Taste
 Mouthfeel/texture
 The sensory properties of foods develop during the
cooking process.
•What are the physical properties of all key foods?
•What are the sensory properties of all key foods?
•What are the chemical properties of all key foods?
•What are the changes that occur to key foods when
cooked based on the sensory, physical and chemical
Know your terminology!
 Functions
of natural food components of key
foods, including acids, enzymes, alkalis,
proteins, starches and sugars, fats and oils
and their impact on food preparation and
 Acid
 Enzymes
 Proteins
 Alkalis
 Starches
 Sugars
 Fats
and oils
# Create a mindmap with examples of each!
 Acids
are found naturally in some foods but can also
be added in during processing.
 Acids have a pH value of less than 7. The lower the
pH value, the more acidic the food will be.
 Acids perform many functions in foods, such as:
 Improving flavour
 Preservation
 Tenderising meat and fish
 Setting of jams
 Minimisation of enzymes
 Alkalis
are opposite to acids in that they have a pH
value of more than 7, which given them a bitter
taste and slimy mouthfeel.
 Bicarbonate of soda is the alkali food source
 Bicarb soda is used as a raising agent
 Enzymes
are proteins that perform as catalysts and
speed up reactions in food without actually
becoming a part of the reaction.
 Enzymes are mostly found in fruits and vegetables.
 The are responsible for:
 Ripening of fruits and vegetables
 Enzymatic browning
 Tenderising of meat
 Also can prevent gelatinisation from occurring
 Starches
are complex carbohydrates that do not
dissolve in water
 Functions of starches include:
 Gelatinisation (thickening)
 Dextrinitsation – browning colour occurs when dry
heat is applied to a starchy product ie bread
 Maillard reaction – involves dry heat applied to a
starch/sugar and protein ie cake
 Volume and structure
 Proteins
are made up of many amino acids and are
found in plant and animal food products
 When
heat, acids, enzymes and mechanical action
are applied to proteins, they denature, causing the
protein molecules to irreversibly unfold.
 Sugars
are simple carbohydrates that easily dissolve
in water.
 Functions of starches include:
 Sweetness
 Aeration
 Preservation
 Caramelisation
 Maillard reaction
 Setting of jams
 Activating yeast
 Softening the texture of baked products
 Fats
are solid at room temperature and generally
comes from animal sources
 Oils are liquid at room temperature and generally
come from plant sources
 Functions of fats and oils include:
 Moist mouthfeel
 Flavour
 Aeration
 Emulsification
 Increased shelf life
•What are the functional properties of acids on:
-protein foods, starches, sugars, fruits and vegetables
•What are alkalis?
•What is the functional property of alkalis?
•What are enzymes ?
•What function do enzymes play in food preparation
and processing?
•Discuss the properties of sugar in food
preparation and processing?
•What are the functional properties of starch?
•How do proteins affect food preparation and
•Discuss the functional properties of eggs in
food preparation and processing.
•What are the functional properties of fats and
 Techniques of cooking key foods; including
dry methods (roasting, baking, grilling,
frying), wet methods (boiling, poaching,
steaming and stewing) and microwave
 Occurs when molecules of hot air or liquid rise to a
cooler area and cool down ie baking, roasting, boiling
 Occurs when heat is transferred from a heat source to
the food via cooking implement ie frying
 Occurs when heat rays are used to cook the food ie
grilling, toasting
Dry methods involve the use of dry
heat to cook food. They usually involve
the transfer of heat from a heat
source such as a gas jet, electric
heating element or toast grill
 Dry methods include:
 Grilling (barbecuing)
 Baking
 Roasting
 Frying (deep frying, stir frying, dry
frying, saute)
 Dry cooking methods contribute to
many chemical reactions in food such
as, dextrinisation, caramelisation,
coagulation, Maillard reaction!
 The cooking of food in an oven using a minimum of fat or oil
 Is the cooking of food in an oven without the addition of fat or
oil eg…
 A fast, dry method of cooking that uses intense heat radiated
by an electrical element, a gas flame, glowing charcoal, or an
open wood fire.
 Is cooking food by total or part immersion in fat or oil that is
heated to temperatures between 150C and 220C.
 Also:
 Deep frying
 Shallow frying
 Saute
 Stir frying
 Wet
methods use water or another liquid to cook
Wet methods include:
 Steaming
 Boiling
 Stewing
 poaching
 Wet methods of cooking contribute to many
chemical reactions in food such as, gelatinisation,
coagulation and hydration
 Is cooking food in water at 100C.
 The cooking of food in hot liquid kept just below boiling
point (85C)
 Is a method of cooking delicate foods in liquid at a
temperature just below simmering point (85C).
 Is cooking food in the steam from boiling water.
 Is a long, slow method of simmering food in a small
amount of liquid.
microwave oven cooks food using
electromagnetic energy.
 The microwaves penetrate food and cause
water molecules to vibrate together at a high
frequency. This vibration produces heat,
which cooks the food.
 A microwave oven is suitable for cooking
food, defrosting food and reheating left-over
Can you describe the changes to the physical, chemical
and sensory properties when cooked?
 Ie The impact of cooking methods of key food such as
 Dry – baked in cakes or muffins; berries retain their
shape and become soft
 Wet – boiling (preserves); fruit softens and forms a gel
when pectin and sugar are present.
 Dry – baking; retains shape; cell structure breaks down
so apple pulp becomes soft; fruit may change in flavour
as natural sugars caramelise
 Wet – stewing (preserves); cell structure breaks down so
apple does not retain its shape
•Why do we cook food?
•What happens to food when it is cooked? (Physical,
sensory, chemical)
•Define each method of cookery.
•What food examples are best suited to dry methods of
cooking ?
•What food examples are best suited to wet methods of
cooking ?
•How does microwave cooking work?
 Preservation techniques to prevent spoilage
of food, including freezing, dehydration, use
of sugars, use of acids and heat processing
Food is preserved to:
 extend
the shelf life of perishable foods
 ensure
seasonable food is available all year round
 increase
the variety of food available
 Freezing
is the process by which food is subjected
to temperatures below -18C.
 At these temperatures, bacteria are dormant as it is
too cold for them to replicate
 Freezing prevents food spoilage from occurring
 Most foods can be frozen without affecting their
physical properties
Dehydration is the removal of water to between 5% and
 Food can be dried using traditional techniques such as
sun or air drying or modern methods such as an
electronic dehydrator or oven.
Examples of dehydrated foods include:
 Sultanas
 Dried apricots
 Dried tomatoes
 Jerky
 Herbs
 Spices
 The
addition of sugar encourages the uptake of
water into sugar molecules, decreasing the
amount of water available for bacterial growth.
 Sugar is needed in large quantities to preserve
food for an extended period of time.
 Sugar is also required for setting jams, conserves
and jellies.
 Acids
aid in the preservation of foods
by increasing the pH level.
 Bacteria flourish in low acid environments, so by
increasing the acidity level, their ability to
replicate diminishes.
 Vinegar and lemon juice are common acidic
ingredients used to preserve foods.
 Products such as relishes, chutneys and pickles are
preserved using acids.
 Heat
processing ensures that foods are heated
outside of the danger zone (ie above 60C) to
kill off any bacteria that may be present.
 The sterile food is then bottled within a sterile
 Sealing the bottle or jar while it is hot creates
a seal as the product cools. This prevents any
oxygen from getting inside the jar to spoil the
 Remember
preservation methods used for SAT!
•What is preservation ? Why preserve foods ?
•Identify each method of preserving, explain the
preservation method and suggest suitable foods for
each preservation method.
•Discuss the changes that occur to foods once
preserved – sensory, physical and chemical changes.
 The components of the design brief,
including context and specifications
(considerations and constraints)
statement or outline that is developed from
the initial problem or specific need
 Clearly
defines the context (setting,
situation) aims and intentions of a new
 Considerations,
are provided
constraints and specifications
 Must
be a problem that you will attempt to solve
 Thorough description of the context
 Decisions must not be discussed
 Must be creative and show thought processes
 Provides ideas about number of food items
 Issues
or barriers that need to be addressed
 Include the considerations and constraints
 Issues or aspects of the brief that need to be taken
into account when planning
 These are flexible
 Place some restrictions
 Place restrictions
 Are barriers that cannot be overcome
 Not flexible
 These will need to be considered at all stages of
the process of development
 Development
of Criteria for evaluation
that relate to the design brief.
 A set of questions ….. So need a ? at the end!
 Must be directly from the design brief
 Answered as part of the evaluation
 Questions should allow space for answers: Have I
solved the problem and met the need of the brief?
 The
role and the importance of components of
THE DESIGN PLAN. It is an important tool to:
 Develop ideas
 Gather info
 Make decisions
 Solve the problem of the
design brief
 Exploration
of ideas and research that leads to an
outline of a proposed set of four to six food items
(the product) as a response to a design brief
 Properties of ingredients (including physical,
sensory, chemical and functional) to be used in the
preparation of the proposed food items.
• Food preparation and techniques of
cooking and preservation
techniques suitable to produce a
high quality product that meets the
specifications in the design brief.
• Tools and equipment suitable for
preparing and processing the
proposed food items to meet the
specifications of the design brief.
 Food
safety and hygiene requirements necessary to
produce the proposed food items
 Methods of developing an overall timeline for
production of the four to six food items (the
 Safely
and hygienically implement the
production plans for a set of four to six food
items that compromise the product, evaluate
the sensory properties of the food items,
evaluate the product using the evaluation
criteria and evaluate the efficiency and
effectiveness of production activities.
 Planning
processes to implement a design plan,
including production plans comprising a sequence of
operations for a set of four to six food items
 Properties of food (including physical, sensory,
chemical and functional properties)
 Complex
processes, food preparation, processing,
preservation and presentation techniques to
implement the design plan and individual
production plans.
 Food safety and hygiene practices to implement
production plans.
 Definition
of a complex process as found in the
VCAA Food and Technology Study Design:
“Refers to ‘hand-on processes’ that typically involve
a series of decision-making that directly affects an
outcome involving the selection of correct processes
and their correct application.”
 Decisions required can involve type of quality of
ingredients, selection of tools or equipment,
cooking time, cooking temperature, cooking
temperature and storage.
 Can
appear in exam as multiple choice q or…
 Recipe as the stimulus maybe?
In the past we have seen questions based on:
2013 Vanilla ice-cream (recipe provided)….
 Select two steps
 How to judge successfully completed
 Impact on sensory properties
2012 Sponge Cake (recipe provided)….
 Select two steps
 Describe impact of decision on sensory properties
2011 Risotto production…
 Explain the term
 Select a step that is an example of a complex
process and explain importance.
2012 Food and
Technology exam,
Question 5 part C
Key points here are?
 Separating
 Beating egg whites
 Folding in flour
 Lighting oven
 Testing sponge using a skewer
 Whipping cream
 Separating
 Beating egg whites
 Folding in flour
 Lighting oven – decision?
 Testing sponge using a skewer – not used for
 Whipping cream – not in recipe
Be careful – most students simply rewrote the step
and did not explain the decision to be made!
Here is the correct response approach……
 Understand
complex processes!
 Review your SAT recipes that include a complex
Can you:
 Define the term complex process?
 Identify decision making steps?
 Describe the decision to be made?
 Explain the importance of the step?
 Explain the impact on the final outcome (sensory
 Be
able to read a recipe
 Think is there a decision to be made here?
 What happens if this does not occur correctly?
 Will this step have an impact on the final outcome?
Include some complex processes in your revision
notes – start with VCAA list?
 ‘Individual
production plans are written to provide
the chef with important information in order to
produce a food item. Research would have been
carried out before the food item was selected, and
sensory and functional properties of the food item
would have been developed during production.
Health and safety procedures are carried out during
the production of the food item.’
 Source: VCAA 2013 Examination Report.
Part A Question 4
An individual production plan provides important
information for the chef, including the…
A) tools, equipment, processes and ingredients
required to produce the food item
B) research, tools, equipment, processes, ingredients
and time required to produce the food item
C) sensory and functional properties of the food item,
and the processes and ingredients required to
produce the food item.
D) sensory properties of the food item, tools,
equipment, and health and safety procedures
required to produce the food item.
An individual production plan provides important
information for the chef, including the…
A) tools, equipment, processes and ingredients required
to produce the food item
B) research, tools, equipment, processes, ingredients and
time required to produce the food item
C) sensory and functional properties of the food item, and
the processes and ingredients required to produce the
food item.
D) sensory properties of the food item, tools, equipment,
and health and safety procedures required to produce the
food item.
# Can you figure why other responses wrong?
 Methods
of recording evidence of the four to six
food items produced
 Methods of evaluating food items, the product,
processes and production activities
 Why evaluate?
 How to evaluate?
 Parts of an evaluation
 Sustainable farming practices as driving
forces in food production and the reasons for
managing the use of water and chemicals,
prevention of land degradation and adoption
of organic farming methods
 Environmental issues associated with food
manufacturing and food packaging
 Sustainability:
farming practices that are used to
sustain the land so it is available for future
Practices to know and understand….
 Water use
 Use of chemicals
 Land degradation
 Organic production
 Erosion
 Soil
 Depletion of nutrient levels
 Students had to make connections with sustainable
farming practices to manage this land degradation!
Concerns /
Water use
Chemical use
Reasons of the How this is
carried out –
 Manufacturing
 Chemical
 Land
 Water use
 Organic farming
 Energy use
 Waste
 Food
 Minimising waste
 Ie reduce, reuse, refuse or recycle
•What is meant by sustainable farming?
•What are the key areas of concern when looking at
sustainable farming?
•Water use (irrigation)
•Land degradation (salinity)
•Use of chemicals such as pesticides, fertilisers and
•What is organic farming? What are the benefits of
this for producers v consumers v the environment?
•What is the environmental impact of primary food
Driving forces related to the development of food products,
including social pressures, consumer demands, technological
developments and environmental considerations.
 Different ages and social groups places different pressures on
food producers and demand different food items
 The demands made by the people who purchase food. Consumers
can demand food for different reasons.
 Advancements in technology have resulted in changes in the
foods available and the packaging which contains and protects
 With increased consumer awareness of the environment and the
need for sustainability changes in food products available has
•What factors contribute to the development of food
-social factors
-consumer demands
-technological developments
-environmental considerations
and Link to examples of products!
 The
process of food product development and
quantitative and qualitative analysis of new food
 The design process is what a food producer uses in
order to develop a new food item or develop line
 The process of product development follows a
series of important steps.
 Know these…complete the table!
Market research
Design brief
Criteria for evaluation
New product ideas
Development of a prototype
Packaging and labelling
Marketing and launch of product
New food products need to be analysed so that they can
be assessed to find out whether consumers will like the
 Scientific techniques that can be used to measure
features such as size, height, weight, volume, texture,
colour, viscosity, shelf life, gel and nutrient content.
 The analysis of a food product by an individual
subjective preference rather than a fact.
 This is sensory analysis and is used to find out what
consumers think about the organoleptic properties of a
 Preference
 Profiling test
 Difference test
 Revisit
PPT on Product Development…has all
the different tests…or CH 11!
•Stages of Product development
•Life cycle of a product
•Examples of quantitative analysis and how to
use each one
•Examples of qualitative analysis and how each
is used in food product analysis
•Examples of Sensory Analysis tests
•Examples of Difference tests
 Types
of food product development, including Metoos and line extensions.
 The food manufacturer could choose to develop a
new food item or alternative they could copy
another company’s good idea – Me Too or use their
own successful products but change it – Line
# Look for examples in your supermarket!
ME TOOS- A product which is similar to a competitor’s product.
 Examples: Temptins, Promite, Homebrand rice crackers, Select
 Reason for me toos? To rival the already successful product and
get a share of the market!
LINE EXTENSIONS- Most successful type of product development.
They are a:
 Change of shape
 Change of flavour
 Change of ingredient
 Change of weight
 Change of packaging size
 Change of health properties
Why? Already successful product so expand on this popularity! Brand
•Define line extension and me-too?
•Explain the differences between the two?
•Suggest why company’s consider me-too or
line extension products?
•Advantages and disadvantages of line
extensions/me-too’s for companies.
•Know some examples for each!
 New
and emerging foods; including functional foods
and foods to meet particular dietary requirements
and food intolerances.
 These are food products which and new to the
market or are being developed to soon be released
onto the market.
These are foods which provide a health benefit beyond
that of basic nutrition.
Health benefits that these food provide:
 Heart health – reducing cholesterol
 Osteoporosis
 Digestive system and bowel
 Help overweight and obesity
 Food intolerances (gluten free, lactose free)
Inclusion of..
 Omega 3
 Plant sterols
 Low fat
 No sugar
 High fibre etc
 What
are functional foods?
 Why are they necessary?
 What characteristics help determine if it is a
functional food?
 Health benefits of the functional food.
 Who is the target market for the food product?
 Examples of functional foods???
 Innovations
and emerging technologies in food
product development, including genetic
modification, high pressure processing,
microencapsulation and membrane technology.
 Altering
of the genetic material of plants or animals
by duplicating, removing or inserting one or more
new genes to improve its characteristics
 Long-lasting
 Pesticide-resistant canola (allowed in AUS)
 Corn
 Frost-resistant strawberries
 Golden rice
 Non-browning potatoes
 Cotton
Plants can be designed to be drought tolerant, frost
resistant, or able to grow in high-salt soil
 Reduced need for use of chemicals, fertilisers and
 High yielding crops
 Reduced waste
 Less damage to the environment
 Greater diversity of crops able to be grown on reduced
amount of land
 Improved sensory properties
 Increased profits for farmers
 Increased nutritional values
Increased resistance to herbicides
 Pollen may drift into non-GM/Organic crops
 Concern of harmful effects for wildlife, such as
Monarch Butterfly
 No study of long-term health/biodiversity issues
 May reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics
 May lead to the development of new food
 Increase cost due to development of plant and
purchase of seed
 HPP is a method of preserving food that involves
subjecting food to intense pressures to kill
microbes, while maintaining the fresh qualities of
the food product
 After this process, the product looks, feels & tastes
fresh, but has a much longer shelf life
Products are already packaged in final packaging
 Products are then placed in a high-pressure chamber
that is then filled with cold water to surround the
 The pressure of the water is increased and applied
uniformly, and is transmitted through the package and
onto the product itself
 Pressure applied is 6000 times the atmospheric air
pressure at sea level, and is applied for 2 – 5 minutes
 As the pressure is transmitted evenly from all sides, the
food product retains its shape. The product is then
removed, stored and distributed
 This pressure inactivates any microbes and enzymes
that are present to help extend the shelf life of this
 Reduces
 Does not impact functional, sensory and physical
properties of product
 No need for chemical preservatives
 Retains product’s nutrients
 Inactivates microbes
 Increases shelf life
 Microencapsulation
is the packaging of small
particles of an active or functional ingredient in a
minute capsule. This process is to mask the flavour
of ingredients or to extend their shelf life within a
food product
 A range of different materials and methods are used
to produce the microcapsules depending on the
purpose for which the capsule is to be used.
 An
active ingredient, either liquid droplets, solid
particles, or gas compound, is contained or entrapped
in a fine film of food-grade material forming a minute
 The core of the capsule may contain just one
ingredient or several.
 Most microcapsules are very tiny. The wall may be
made of one layer, or be double layered.
• Active ingredient is protected during
• Flavour, colour and odour of the active
ingredient is masked by the film.
• The active ingredient is able to be
released in a controlled manner.
• Can protect ingredients from being
exposed to oxygen and deteriorating.
Membrane technology involves using a porous membrane
or filter to separate particles in a fluid.
Two of the most commonly used forms of membrane
technology in food production are ultrafiltration and
reverse osmosis.
1. Ultrafiltration
 The milk is passed over membranes with minute pores
that can separate larger molecules such as fat from the
water, protein and lactose in the milk. This enables only
a small portion of the collected fat molecules to be
returned to the milk, therefor reducing the amount of
fat it contains.
2. Reverse osmosis
 Is a process similar to ultrafiltration, but with a finer
filter removes most of the larger particles in the milk
such as fat and protein and only allows water to pass
through, leaving a milk concentrate behind.
•What is Genetic modification, high pressure
processing, microencapsulation and membrane
•What are the benefits of each one of these to the
consumer and to the producer ?
•What are the disadvantages for each of these new
technologies ?
•Examples for each listed innovation or emerging
What is
Benefits Disadvanta Examples
 The
purpose of packaging and packaging systems,
including Aseptic packaging and Modified
Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
 Protect
the food
 Preserve the food
 Contain the food
 Communicate information about the product to the
 Convenience
The packaging of a sterile liquid or semi-liquid
food into a sterile container. The filling and
sealing process is done in a sterile environment.
 Why?
 Refrigeration required after opening
 Easy to transport and store
 Long shelf life
 No preservatives
 Maintains sensory and chemical properties
 Food examples??? …
A packaging system that changes or modifies the
atmosphere or gas inside a package from air in order to
extend the shelf life of food.
 Improves shelf life
 Maintains physical, sensory and chemical properties
 Reduces waste
 Extends shelf life
MAP packaging systems:
 Gas packaging
 Vacuum packaging
 Barrier-specific packaging
 Active packaging
•Why do we package food ?
-3 C’s and 2 P’s
 Types of packaging especially Aseptic and MAP
including examples of each!
-Advantages of this packaging system
-Disadvantages of this system
-Environmental impact of each system
 Food
product marketing and promotional strategies,
including ethical food marketing to children.
 Marketing is made up of a series of organised
activities which aim to develop products or services
that consumers want or need and then to sell as
many of these products as possible.
 Product
 Price
 Place
 Promotion
 To
meet the need of the consumer through
the sale of staples and luxury food items.
Effective marketing employs:
 Market research
 Advertising campaigns
 Retail strategies
 Two
for one offer
 Use of celebrity endorsement
 Free samples
 Advertising campaigns utilising media
 Sponsorship of events
 Point of sale displays
Ethics is a term that is linked to moral
principles that are motivated by ideas of right
and wrong or good and bad.
Examples of unethical marketing techniques
targeted at children can include:
 Free toy giveaways with food purchases
 Advertising during children’s tv viewing hours
 Sponsorship of sporting activities and clubs
 Using cartoon characters to promote
 Pester power – nagging parents until they
buy the desired product, usually high fat, high
sugar, energy dense food products.
•Why is marketing an essential tool for companies?
•What is a target market?
•Explain the 4 P’s of marketing
•What methods might be used to market a product?
•What is ethical food marketing?
•How do marketers target children?
•What are the concerns with marketing
to children?
Practice ALL types Exam Questions
 - multiple choice, short answer and
extended response questions
 Focus on HOW to answer the Question
 -look at the sentence stem
 Sit trial papers in allocated time frame
 Practice exam structured questions
 Visit Examiner’s & Assessor’s Report for Tips ..these are
on Compass resources or vcaa website!
Multiple Choice Questions:
 Consider:…
 Read
the whole question/sentence stem
 Understand the question
 Read ALL the choices carefully
 Eliminate the choices you know are WRONG !
 Look at the remaining answers and make an
educated choice.
Underline or circle the key words
 Plan your responses during the reading time
 When provided with stimuli read/study it carefully
and refer to this information in your answers
 Use appropriate F&T terminology
 DO NOT leave the exam early, re-read your answers
and add anything that you may have missed.
 Multiple choice strategies
 Extended response question is fully &
clearly completed …check marks allocated!
 Use
the weighting of marks and lines marked when
answering each question.
 Do not waste time rewriting the questions.
 Arrive at least 15 minutes prior to the examination,
be sure to remember your student number and
know where you are seated.
 Bring the necessary equipment to the exam, write
in black or blue pen, NOT pencil.
Multiple Choice Questions:
Question 10.
When making jam, to test whether a gel has formed it is
important to:
a)stir the jam with a fork
b)make sure that the skin does not form on the jam sample
c)place a saucer in the freezer before beginning the test
d)ensure that a sauce is at room temperature before beginning
the test.
# NB the question is asking you about what is important for
testing jam has formed a gel!
Extended Response Question:
 Break the question down
 Read the whole question carefully
DO ?
 Look at the marking for the question to
help determine the depth of your
Be Prepared
 Do not panic! You do know stuff 
 Read questions carefully
 Write in pen
 Be aware of timing of Exam Questions
 Attempt all questions
 Write clearly and neatly
 Include detail where needed
 Use allocated Marks to help determine depth of
 If it says list 3 then LIST 3!
 If it says explain or justify or compare then do that!
DO Lots of practice questions, especially extended
questions and multiple choice! Compass resources has
heaps for you! Also TSSM topic tests for Units 3 &4!
Revise for SAC Part B- Ch 14, 15 , 16 & 17!
See SAC Preparation doc!
 Checkpoints
 Trial Papers – Home Economics Victoria , VCAA…
 Text Book Exam Style Questions
 Past Exam Papers*
 *Select
parts of questions that are relevant– do not
need to always do the entire paper from past years.
Classroom Activity 1: Kitchen Walk
 In pairs prepare a report relating
to the safety
and hygiene issues in the Food
Technology kitchen including ways to
prevent food spoilage and food
 Duration of Time: 10 minute walk
plus 15 minutes report writing in
You must develop in pairs “Who Am I”
statements and then working in teams to
categories the roles and responsibilities for
each level of authority involved in maintaining
safe food supply.
Test your partner!
Show and Tell
Select from a range of food products
available and discuss the labelling
requirements including the
identification of nutrient content
claims and health claims. Make a
summary list of labelling requirements,
and examples of nutrient content
claims and health claims. Share with
the class!
Let’s Make Lunch !
Using your knowledge about
prepare your own lunch such as a
chicken, salad and mayonaisse roll
and then discuss the HACCP
process in relation to what you
have produced. Use a chart such
as that in your textbook to list
CCP’s and Corrective actions!
Poster Work:
 In pairs use your notes and textbook to develop
summary posters for a key food such as: cereals, fruits,
vegetables and dairy foods including in relation to the
function of the natural components for each.
Students can share their summaries with each other so
that you have revision notes for each key food!
Look, Taste and Discuss:
Focusing on each key food, conduct a taste
test completing a sensory analysis as well as
revising your knowledge about the physical and
chemical components of the food you made a
summary poster on.
 Compare foods and discuss:
 Eg: fresh tomatoes and semi-dried tomatoes.
Cooking Demonstration
You will be allocated students a key
ingredient – eg: potato, apple, pear,
pumpkin etc.
 In pairs demonstrate or explain how you
can cook the food item using a range of
cooking methods.
 Duration: 20 minutes cooking time
Look, Taste, Discuss.
A range of preserved items using a range of
preservation techniques are on display.
Identify the preservation method, briefly
explain the process and then taste test the
item discussing the sensory characteristics
comparing to those of when the food was
Eg jam, dried apricots, pickles, frozen peas.
Classroom Activity1: Complex Processes
Using the VCAA guideline select a number of
complex processes.
In pairs and using your textbook determine
the complex process steps for each and then
share with the rest of the class also
explaining the importance of each step for
success in producing the product!
Eg pastry-making, pasta-making, sponge
making, jam making, yeast baking, cooking
with gelatine, cake making-creaming
method, ice cream making etc
# Use chart on next slide!
Web Search / You tube search
In pairs students surf the net for environmental
issues related to primary food production and
evaluate its impact
Australian Conservation Foundation
CSIRO or search you tube for a video to share
with the class!
Poster Activity:
Using pictures and key words develop a summary
poster or mindmap outlining the key environmental
issues and their impact on primary food production
Use key terms such as:
 Land degradation
 Salinity
 Erosion
 Crop rotation
 Irrigation
Show and Tell
 Choose 3 food products from the tub
provided and outline the driving forces
related to the development of the food
product justifying each to the rest of the
class in a 5 minute talk.
Bus Stop 1: Find out the steps in the product
development process- list in a flow chart.
Bus Stop 2: Summarise Quantitative analysis methods.
Select 3 food items and discuss with your partner to
decide on the most appropriate quantitative analyse
method. Share with the class!
Bus Stop 3:Revise the different qualitiative analysis
testing and using Smarties/M&M’s/Homebrand
conduct Sensory analysis testing eg.
 -Preference test
 -Difference test
 -Profiling test
Report findings back to the class!
Internet Supermarket Walk.
 Using an online supermarket eg Coles online or
Woolworths online identify the me-too items and
the line extensions –
 Present in table format eg.
Original Product
Line Extension
Me too
 What
factors influence or drive the development of
this Donny Boy product?
 What are the Labelling requirements for this
 Explain the primary and secondary processing for
 Preserving – What are suitable techniques for
preserving apples.
 Identify and explain the Technological Innovation
used to make Donny Boy/Preshafruit apple juice?

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