Written Examination is on: Friday 14th November 2014 9.00am – 10.45am The examination will be 90 minutes in length Reading time 9.00am – 9.15am Writing Time 9.15am – 10.45am All outcomes in Units 3 and 4 will be examined Refer to your Study Design All of the key knowledge and skills are examinable Contributes 30% to the study score for F&T Where to? www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/foodtech/exams.h tml Sample Paper includes: -10 multiple choice questions and answers -Short answer questions -Extended response sample question -Exam is worth 30% -Exam is out of 100 marks The examination consists of TWO sections: Section A: -15 multiple choice questions -To be completed on a separate multiple choice ANSWER SHEET. Section B: -Short Answer Questions -ONE extended response question worth 6-10 marks. NB/ In Section B questions may be stand alone questions or multiple-part questions which draws on source materials. The questions may relate to previously unseen stimulus material •Section B is worth 85 marks. Stem or directional words from 2013 exam paper (Section B) Explain x10 Outline x9 Describe x10 Name x1 Identify x11 Select x2 Discuss x1(extended) What x1 Write (the full name) x2 How to x1 What is the impact x1 Define - give the precise meaning of a word or phrase as concisely as possible Explain - give a clear account including causes, reasons or mechanisms List - give a sequence of names or other brief answers with no elaboration, each one clearly separated from the others State give a specific name, value or other brief answer (no supporting argument or calculation is necessary) Compare - give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items, referring to both (all) of them throughout (comparisons can be given using a table) Describe - give a detailed account, including all the relevant information Identify - find an answer from a number of possibilities Outline - give a brief account or summary (include essential information only) Analyse - interpret data to reach conclusions Discuss - give an account including, where possible, a range of arguments, assessments of the relative importance of various factors or comparisons of alternative hypotheses Evaluate - assess the implications and limitations Suggest - propose a hypothesis or other possible answer Distinguish - give the differences between two or more different items Apply - use an idea, principle, theory or law You must be able to: Define key terms Investigate and explain Describe and apply Compare factors Identify and justify Explain Analyse Assess Evaluate Develop Question Dissection -Question 5e As a result of secondary processing, canola seed can be made into canola oil. Identify two physical properties of oils. (2 marks) Identify and explain one functional property of fats and oils in food preparation. (2 marks) Source: VCAA F&T examination paper 2013 During baking, a brown crust develops on the outside of a loaf of bread as the result of: A dextrinisation B coagulation C denaturation D emulisification # Now you make a multiple choice question to share with the class! Answer is A! Know the lingo! Glossary definitions + Glossary terms = Glossary cards (make these!) Use can use them for testing yourself and: glossary bingo snap Summary tables should be used by those who find this method of learning useful. Refer to text book or charts I have provided you in class. Checkpoints summaries and study cards are good too! VCAA 2013 Examination Report states: Not giving specific examples for questions when required Not relating the answer to the information provided in the question Not understanding innovative technologies used in food manufacture Not understanding the role of each level of government in ensuring safe food for consumers Not recognising functional foods Not understanding land degradation and what causes degradation Not understanding or describing environmental issues in food production and their impact on the environment Not explaining functional roles of the natural food components found in foods such as oils, fats and cereals in food preparation and processing Not explaining the impact of the judgements made during complex processes on the sensory properties of a finished product Not understanding the quantitative analysis of foods Not understanding terms in the study design, for example, ‘strategies’, ‘sensory properties’, ‘product development’ and ‘individual production plans.’ So don’t YOU make the same mistakes! 2013 AREAS OF WEAKNESSES Not giving specific examples for questions when required Not relating the answer to the information provided in the question Not understanding innovative technologies used in food manufacture Not understanding the role of each level of government in ensuring safe food for consumers Not recognising functional foods Not understanding land degradation and what causes degradation Not understanding or describing environmental issues in food production and their impact on the environment Not explaining functional roles of the natural food components found in foods such as oils, fats and cereals in food preparation and processing Not explaining the impact of the judgements made during complex processes on the sensory properties of a finished product Not understanding the quantitative analysis of foods Not understanding terms in the study design, for example, ‘strategies’, ‘sensory properties’, ‘product development’ and ‘individual production plans.’ RED ??? Is UNIT 4 key knowledge….Go figure??? Unit 3 and Unit 4 Areas of Study are examinable including the SAT content. Practical skill knowledge (food preparation and food processing techniques) are examinable. Statistical data, case studies, articles, design briefs, photos and diagrams may be used as stimuli in order to complete questions on the examination paper. Causes of food spoilage and food poisoning Safety and hygiene practices to prevent food spoilage and food poisoning What is food spoilage? What is food poisoning? What are the causes of food spoilage and food poisoning? yeasts, moulds and enzymes -bacterial, biological and chemical contaminants What are the conditions for bacterial growth / danger zone? •Examples of how to prevent food spoilage and food poisoning such as.. -personal hygiene and staff training/food handling -premises such as design, cleanliness -garbage and pest control -purchase/storage/refrigeration of food -cross contamination – Can you define it? How can it be prevented? Key Knowledge? The roles and responsibilities of and the relationship between national (FSANZ & AQIS (DFAT)), state and local authorities in ensuring a safe food supply, including: Development and implementation of a Food Safety Plan for a food premise. Action in response to unsafe and/or hygienic food production premises. Food product recall. FSANZ & State AQIS (DFAT) Food product recall Food Safety Plan Response to unsafe/unhygienic food production premises Ensuring a safe food supply Local •What are the three main authorities responsible for ensuring a safe food supply ? •What are the roles/responsibilities of FSANZ/AQIS (DFAT) /STATE/LOCAL authorities in ensuring a safe food supply ? •Combined efforts of the 3 level of government in relation to: -food safety plans -response to unsafe/unhygienic food production premises -food product recall Food Standards Code in Australia including food labelling regulations, nutrition content claims and health claims Purpose of HACCP system and the role of each of the steps in ensuring food safety. Standard 1.2 (Food Labelling ) and Standard 1.1.1 (Nutrition, Health and Related Claims) – revise the principles relating to these standards – including nutrition content claim and health claims Standard 3.2 (Food Safety Requirements) in particular the development of a food safety plan and food product recalls. The Food Standards Code includes standards for food additives, food safety, labelling and foods that need pre-approval such as GM foods. The Code is divided into four chapters: Chapter 1 - General Food Standards includes regulations that apply to most foods, e.g. labelling requirements, substances that can be added to food and safety of materials in contact with food. This chapter also includes permissions for new foods, limits for chemical and microbiological contaminants and maximum residue limits of veterinary and chemical residues in foods. Chapter 2 - Food Product Standards includes compositional requirements for specific foods e.g. meat, eggs, fish and alcoholic beverages. Chapter 3 - Food Safety Standards includes requirements for food handlers wherever food is sold and applies only in Australia e.g. good food safety practices such as training staff, keeping food at the correct temperature, washing hands and keeping equipment clean. Chapter 4 - Primary Production Standards also only applies in Australia. This chapter includes primary production and processing standards for agricultural commodities such as seafood, poultry meat, specific cheeses, wine and dairy products. Enforcement and interpretation of the Code is the responsibility of state and territory government departments and other food enforcement agencies in Australia and New Zealand. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for inspecting and sampling imported food. FOOD AND TECHNOLOGY 2013 Unit 3 Key Topic Test 3 – The food standards code on Compass Resources! An action taken to remove from sale, distribution and consumption, foods which may pose an unacceptable safety risk to consumers. Examples of possible recalls: Presence of broken glass, metal fragments or other adulteration in a particular product batch Presence of food poisoning bacteria; e.g. Salmonella Incorrect labelling of products, which may have a potential health risk. Complete the food labelling activity Food labels – Nutritional info panels (annotate a label to identify what is required!) Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aeJi_lutjg g&list=UU2enxm49bh91sQ6Oi6adGAg&index =8&feature=plcp NUTRIENT CLAIMS V HEALTH CLAIMS A nutrient claim are claims about the content of a certain nutrient or substances in a food, such as ‘low in fat’ or ‘good source of calcium.’ For example, with a ‘good source of calcium’ claim, the food will need to contain more than the amount of calcium specified in the Standard. A health claim describes a relationship between the consumption of a food, or component in the food, and a health benefit it can provide; for example, this product is high in calcium, which is good for strong bones and teeth. There are two levels of claims – general level and high level. •What is the Food Standards Code? Who is responsible for this Code? •What information does this Code include? •What are the key food labelling requirements? •Explain each of the labelling requirements. •What are Nutrient content claims and Health claims ? Be able to give examples for each. The seven steps of the HACCP system: Analyse hazards Identify the critical control points Set the critical limits for each critical control point Monitor the critical control points Establish corrective actions Set up records Verify that the HACCP system is working correctly # Find the best Youtube clip and share with the class. •What is HACCP? •What is its role in maintaining a safe food supply ? •Can you name the steps in the HACCP system? •Explain each step and use in a practical application eg. apply to the making of a hamburger with the lot? The primary and secondary processing that occurs from point of origin to the consumer for one of each type of the following foods: cereals fruits vegetables, and dairy foods. Primary processing involves a range of processes to make food safe to eat so that it can be consumed individually or used in the manufacture of other food products. The physical form changes very little. •Examples: Fruit: harvest, washing, grading, waxing, packaging Vegetables: harvest, washing, grading, packaging Cereals: harvest, grading, distribution Dairy: milking, analysis, pasteurisation, homogenisation, packaging Secondary processing methods of turning primary processed food into other food products either on their own of mixed with other ingredients. The physical form changes quite significantly as a result of secondary processing. •Examples: Fruit: peeling, juicing, baking, labelling, packaging Vegetables: cutting, cooking, peeling, frying, packaging Cereals: cleaning, conditioning, grinding, packaging Dairy: cheese making, yoghurt making, flavouring (ie choc milk), packaging Primary Processing: makes food safe for consumption Secondary processing: Easier to transport foods Prevents spoilage and wastage Can increase nutritional benefit Reduces preparation time, increase consumer convenience Can make foods more enjoyable to eat Increase availability by making food available all year round, not just when in season Increases choice and variety available for consumers Improve sensory properties •What is primary processing ? •What is secondary processing •Benefits for consumers/manufacturers when products undergo secondary processing. •Primary and Secondary processing for: cereals(eg rice or wheat), fruits (eg apple), vegetables (eg potato) and dairy foods (eg milk). Varies from exam to exam! The physical, sensory and chemical properties of key foods; including cereals, fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, meats, seafood, dairy foods and eggs Physical properties describe the physical traits of the product (that contribute to the structure of a food product.) These include: Size Shape Colour Viscosity Chemical properties of key foods refer to the nutrients present in foods, such as: Protein Fat Carbohydrate Water Enzymes Vitamins Minerals Sensory properties of key foods refer to the use of the senses in determining characteristics of foods Appearance Aroma Taste Mouthfeel/texture The sensory properties of foods develop during the cooking process. •What are the physical properties of all key foods? •What are the sensory properties of all key foods? •What are the chemical properties of all key foods? •What are the changes that occur to key foods when cooked based on the sensory, physical and chemical properties? Know your terminology! NATURAL COMPONENTS OF KEY FOODS Functions of natural food components of key foods, including acids, enzymes, alkalis, proteins, starches and sugars, fats and oils and their impact on food preparation and processing. Acid Enzymes Proteins Alkalis Starches Sugars Fats and oils # Create a mindmap with examples of each! Acids are found naturally in some foods but can also be added in during processing. Acids have a pH value of less than 7. The lower the pH value, the more acidic the food will be. Acids perform many functions in foods, such as: Improving flavour Preservation Tenderising meat and fish Setting of jams Minimisation of enzymes Alkalis are opposite to acids in that they have a pH value of more than 7, which given them a bitter taste and slimy mouthfeel. Bicarbonate of soda is the alkali food source Bicarb soda is used as a raising agent Enzymes are proteins that perform as catalysts and speed up reactions in food without actually becoming a part of the reaction. Enzymes are mostly found in fruits and vegetables. The are responsible for: Ripening of fruits and vegetables Enzymatic browning Tenderising of meat Also can prevent gelatinisation from occurring Starches are complex carbohydrates that do not dissolve in water Functions of starches include: Gelatinisation (thickening) Dextrinitsation – browning colour occurs when dry heat is applied to a starchy product ie bread Maillard reaction – involves dry heat applied to a starch/sugar and protein ie cake Volume and structure Proteins are made up of many amino acids and are found in plant and animal food products When heat, acids, enzymes and mechanical action are applied to proteins, they denature, causing the protein molecules to irreversibly unfold. Sugars are simple carbohydrates that easily dissolve in water. Functions of starches include: Sweetness Aeration Preservation Caramelisation Maillard reaction Setting of jams Activating yeast Softening the texture of baked products Fats are solid at room temperature and generally comes from animal sources Oils are liquid at room temperature and generally come from plant sources Functions of fats and oils include: Moist mouthfeel Flavour Aeration Emulsification Increased shelf life •What are the functional properties of acids on: -protein foods, starches, sugars, fruits and vegetables •What are alkalis? •What is the functional property of alkalis? •What are enzymes ? •What function do enzymes play in food preparation and processing? •Discuss the properties of sugar in food preparation and processing? •What are the functional properties of starch? •How do proteins affect food preparation and processing? •Discuss the functional properties of eggs in food preparation and processing. •What are the functional properties of fats and oils? KEY KNOWLEDGE: Techniques of cooking key foods; including dry methods (roasting, baking, grilling, frying), wet methods (boiling, poaching, steaming and stewing) and microwave cooking. Convection Occurs when molecules of hot air or liquid rise to a cooler area and cool down ie baking, roasting, boiling Conduction Occurs when heat is transferred from a heat source to the food via cooking implement ie frying Radiation Occurs when heat rays are used to cook the food ie grilling, toasting Dry methods involve the use of dry heat to cook food. They usually involve the transfer of heat from a heat source such as a gas jet, electric heating element or toast grill Dry methods include: Grilling (barbecuing) Baking Roasting Frying (deep frying, stir frying, dry frying, saute) Dry cooking methods contribute to many chemical reactions in food such as, dextrinisation, caramelisation, coagulation, Maillard reaction! ROASTING The cooking of food in an oven using a minimum of fat or oil eg... BAKING Is the cooking of food in an oven without the addition of fat or oil eg… GRILLING A fast, dry method of cooking that uses intense heat radiated by an electrical element, a gas flame, glowing charcoal, or an open wood fire. FRYING Is cooking food by total or part immersion in fat or oil that is heated to temperatures between 150C and 220C. Also: Deep frying Shallow frying Saute Stir frying Wet methods use water or another liquid to cook foods. Wet methods include: Steaming Boiling Stewing poaching Wet methods of cooking contribute to many chemical reactions in food such as, gelatinisation, coagulation and hydration BOILING Is cooking food in water at 100C. SIMMERING The cooking of food in hot liquid kept just below boiling point (85C) POACHING Is a method of cooking delicate foods in liquid at a temperature just below simmering point (85C). STEAMING Is cooking food in the steam from boiling water. STEWING Is a long, slow method of simmering food in a small amount of liquid. A microwave oven cooks food using electromagnetic energy. The microwaves penetrate food and cause water molecules to vibrate together at a high frequency. This vibration produces heat, which cooks the food. A microwave oven is suitable for cooking food, defrosting food and reheating left-over food. Can you describe the changes to the physical, chemical and sensory properties when cooked? Ie The impact of cooking methods of key food such as fruit Berries Dry – baked in cakes or muffins; berries retain their shape and become soft Wet – boiling (preserves); fruit softens and forms a gel when pectin and sugar are present. Apples Dry – baking; retains shape; cell structure breaks down so apple pulp becomes soft; fruit may change in flavour as natural sugars caramelise Wet – stewing (preserves); cell structure breaks down so apple does not retain its shape •Why do we cook food? •What happens to food when it is cooked? (Physical, sensory, chemical) •Define each method of cookery. •What food examples are best suited to dry methods of cooking ? •What food examples are best suited to wet methods of cooking ? •How does microwave cooking work? KEY KNOWLEDGE: Preservation techniques to prevent spoilage of food, including freezing, dehydration, use of sugars, use of acids and heat processing (bottling) Food is preserved to: extend the shelf life of perishable foods ensure seasonable food is available all year round increase the variety of food available Freezing is the process by which food is subjected to temperatures below -18C. At these temperatures, bacteria are dormant as it is too cold for them to replicate Freezing prevents food spoilage from occurring Most foods can be frozen without affecting their physical properties Dehydration is the removal of water to between 5% and 25%. Food can be dried using traditional techniques such as sun or air drying or modern methods such as an electronic dehydrator or oven. Examples of dehydrated foods include: Sultanas Dried apricots Dried tomatoes Jerky Herbs Spices The addition of sugar encourages the uptake of water into sugar molecules, decreasing the amount of water available for bacterial growth. Sugar is needed in large quantities to preserve food for an extended period of time. Sugar is also required for setting jams, conserves and jellies. Acids aid in the preservation of foods by increasing the pH level. Bacteria flourish in low acid environments, so by increasing the acidity level, their ability to replicate diminishes. Vinegar and lemon juice are common acidic ingredients used to preserve foods. Products such as relishes, chutneys and pickles are preserved using acids. Heat processing ensures that foods are heated outside of the danger zone (ie above 60C) to kill off any bacteria that may be present. The sterile food is then bottled within a sterile environment. Sealing the bottle or jar while it is hot creates a seal as the product cools. This prevents any oxygen from getting inside the jar to spoil the food. Remember preservation methods used for SAT! •What is preservation ? Why preserve foods ? •Identify each method of preserving, explain the preservation method and suggest suitable foods for each preservation method. •Discuss the changes that occur to foods once preserved – sensory, physical and chemical changes. KEY KNOWLEDGE: The components of the design brief, including context and specifications (considerations and constraints) A statement or outline that is developed from the initial problem or specific need Clearly defines the context (setting, situation) aims and intentions of a new product Considerations, are provided constraints and specifications Must be a problem that you will attempt to solve Thorough description of the context Decisions must not be discussed Must be creative and show thought processes Provides ideas about number of food items Issues or barriers that need to be addressed Include the considerations and constraints CONSIDERATIONS: Issues or aspects of the brief that need to be taken into account when planning These are flexible Place some restrictions CONSTRAINTS: Place restrictions Are barriers that cannot be overcome Not flexible These will need to be considered at all stages of the process of development Development of Criteria for evaluation that relate to the design brief. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION A set of questions ….. So need a ? at the end! Must be directly from the design brief Answered as part of the evaluation Questions should allow space for answers: Have I solved the problem and met the need of the brief? The role and the importance of components of THE DESIGN PLAN. It is an important tool to: Develop ideas Gather info Make decisions Solve the problem of the design brief Exploration of ideas and research that leads to an outline of a proposed set of four to six food items (the product) as a response to a design brief Properties of ingredients (including physical, sensory, chemical and functional) to be used in the preparation of the proposed food items. • Food preparation and techniques of cooking and preservation techniques suitable to produce a high quality product that meets the specifications in the design brief. • Tools and equipment suitable for preparing and processing the proposed food items to meet the specifications of the design brief. Food safety and hygiene requirements necessary to produce the proposed food items Methods of developing an overall timeline for production of the four to six food items (the product) Safely and hygienically implement the production plans for a set of four to six food items that compromise the product, evaluate the sensory properties of the food items, evaluate the product using the evaluation criteria and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of production activities. Planning processes to implement a design plan, including production plans comprising a sequence of operations for a set of four to six food items Properties of food (including physical, sensory, chemical and functional properties) Complex processes, food preparation, processing, preservation and presentation techniques to implement the design plan and individual production plans. Food safety and hygiene practices to implement production plans. Definition of a complex process as found in the VCAA Food and Technology Study Design: “Refers to ‘hand-on processes’ that typically involve a series of decision-making that directly affects an outcome involving the selection of correct processes and their correct application.” Decisions required can involve type of quality of ingredients, selection of tools or equipment, cooking time, cooking temperature, cooking temperature and storage. Can appear in exam as multiple choice q or… Recipe as the stimulus maybe? EXAMINING ‘THE COMPLEX PROCESS’ will be tested……. In the past we have seen questions based on: 2013 Vanilla ice-cream (recipe provided)…. Select two steps How to judge successfully completed Impact on sensory properties 2012 Sponge Cake (recipe provided)…. Select two steps Describe impact of decision on sensory properties 2011 Risotto production… Explain the term Select a step that is an example of a complex process and explain importance. 2012 Food and Technology exam, Question 5 part C Key points here are? Separating eggs Beating egg whites Folding in flour Lighting oven Testing sponge using a skewer Whipping cream Separating eggs Beating egg whites Folding in flour Lighting oven – decision? Testing sponge using a skewer – not used for sponges! Whipping cream – not in recipe Be careful – most students simply rewrote the step and did not explain the decision to be made! Here is the correct response approach…… Understand complex processes! Review your SAT recipes that include a complex process… Can you: Define the term complex process? Identify decision making steps? Describe the decision to be made? Explain the importance of the step? Explain the impact on the final outcome (sensory properties) Be able to read a recipe Think is there a decision to be made here? What happens if this does not occur correctly? Will this step have an impact on the final outcome? Include some complex processes in your revision notes – start with VCAA list? ‘Individual production plans are written to provide the chef with important information in order to produce a food item. Research would have been carried out before the food item was selected, and sensory and functional properties of the food item would have been developed during production. Health and safety procedures are carried out during the production of the food item.’ Source: VCAA 2013 Examination Report. Part A Question 4 An individual production plan provides important information for the chef, including the… A) tools, equipment, processes and ingredients required to produce the food item B) research, tools, equipment, processes, ingredients and time required to produce the food item C) sensory and functional properties of the food item, and the processes and ingredients required to produce the food item. D) sensory properties of the food item, tools, equipment, and health and safety procedures required to produce the food item. An individual production plan provides important information for the chef, including the… A) tools, equipment, processes and ingredients required to produce the food item B) research, tools, equipment, processes, ingredients and time required to produce the food item C) sensory and functional properties of the food item, and the processes and ingredients required to produce the food item. D) sensory properties of the food item, tools, equipment, and health and safety procedures required to produce the food item. # Can you figure why other responses wrong? Methods of recording evidence of the four to six food items produced Methods of evaluating food items, the product, processes and production activities EVALUATION: Why evaluate? How to evaluate? Parts of an evaluation KEY KNOWLEDGE: Sustainable farming practices as driving forces in food production and the reasons for managing the use of water and chemicals, prevention of land degradation and adoption of organic farming methods Environmental issues associated with food manufacturing and food packaging Sustainability: farming practices that are used to sustain the land so it is available for future generations. Practices to know and understand…. Water use Use of chemicals Land degradation Organic production Erosion Soil acidification Depletion of nutrient levels Students had to make connections with sustainable farming practices to manage this land degradation! Concerns / Issues Water use Chemical use Land degradation Organic farming Reasons of the How this is sustainable carried out – farming strategies? practice Manufacturing Chemical Land degradation Water use Organic farming Energy use Waste Food packaging Minimising waste Ie reduce, reuse, refuse or recycle •What is meant by sustainable farming? •What are the key areas of concern when looking at sustainable farming? •Water use (irrigation) •Land degradation (salinity) •Use of chemicals such as pesticides, fertilisers and herbicides •What is organic farming? What are the benefits of this for producers v consumers v the environment? •What is the environmental impact of primary food production? Driving forces related to the development of food products, including social pressures, consumer demands, technological developments and environmental considerations. SOCIAL PRESSURES Different ages and social groups places different pressures on food producers and demand different food items CONSUMER DEMANDS The demands made by the people who purchase food. Consumers can demand food for different reasons. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS Advancements in technology have resulted in changes in the foods available and the packaging which contains and protects food. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS With increased consumer awareness of the environment and the need for sustainability changes in food products available has occurred. •What factors contribute to the development of food products? -social factors -consumer demands -technological developments -environmental considerations and Link to examples of products! The process of food product development and quantitative and qualitative analysis of new food products. THE PROCESS OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT The design process is what a food producer uses in order to develop a new food item or develop line extension. The process of product development follows a series of important steps. Know these…complete the table! STEPS IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Market research Design brief Criteria for evaluation New product ideas Development of a prototype Production Packaging and labelling Marketing and launch of product Evaluation EXPLAIN New food products need to be analysed so that they can be assessed to find out whether consumers will like the product. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Scientific techniques that can be used to measure features such as size, height, weight, volume, texture, colour, viscosity, shelf life, gel and nutrient content. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS The analysis of a food product by an individual subjective preference rather than a fact. This is sensory analysis and is used to find out what consumers think about the organoleptic properties of a product. # TRY A SAKATA BISCUITS VS HOMEBRAND ANALYSIS? Preference test Profiling test Difference test Revisit PPT on Product Development…has all the different tests…or CH 11! •Stages of Product development •Life cycle of a product •Examples of quantitative analysis and how to use each one •Examples of qualitative analysis and how each is used in food product analysis •Examples of Sensory Analysis tests •Examples of Difference tests Types of food product development, including Metoos and line extensions. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: The food manufacturer could choose to develop a new food item or alternative they could copy another company’s good idea – Me Too or use their own successful products but change it – Line Extensions! # Look for examples in your supermarket! ME TOOS- A product which is similar to a competitor’s product. Examples: Temptins, Promite, Homebrand rice crackers, Select icecream. Reason for me toos? To rival the already successful product and get a share of the market! LINE EXTENSIONS- Most successful type of product development. They are a: Change of shape Change of flavour Change of ingredient Change of weight Change of packaging size Change of health properties Why? Already successful product so expand on this popularity! Brand loyalty! •Define line extension and me-too? •Explain the differences between the two? •Suggest why company’s consider me-too or line extension products? •Advantages and disadvantages of line extensions/me-too’s for companies. •Know some examples for each! New and emerging foods; including functional foods and foods to meet particular dietary requirements and food intolerances. NEW FOODS These are food products which and new to the market or are being developed to soon be released onto the market. These are foods which provide a health benefit beyond that of basic nutrition. Health benefits that these food provide: Heart health – reducing cholesterol Osteoporosis Digestive system and bowel Help overweight and obesity Food intolerances (gluten free, lactose free) Inclusion of.. Omega 3 Plant sterols Low fat No sugar High fibre etc What are functional foods? Why are they necessary? What characteristics help determine if it is a functional food? Health benefits of the functional food. Who is the target market for the food product? Examples of functional foods??? Innovations and emerging technologies in food product development, including genetic modification, high pressure processing, microencapsulation and membrane technology. GENETIC MODIFICATION Altering of the genetic material of plants or animals by duplicating, removing or inserting one or more new genes to improve its characteristics Long-lasting tomatoes Pesticide-resistant canola (allowed in AUS) Corn Frost-resistant strawberries Golden rice Non-browning potatoes Cotton Plants can be designed to be drought tolerant, frost resistant, or able to grow in high-salt soil Reduced need for use of chemicals, fertilisers and pesticides High yielding crops Reduced waste Less damage to the environment Greater diversity of crops able to be grown on reduced amount of land Improved sensory properties Increased profits for farmers Increased nutritional values Increased resistance to herbicides Pollen may drift into non-GM/Organic crops Concern of harmful effects for wildlife, such as Monarch Butterfly No study of long-term health/biodiversity issues May reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics May lead to the development of new food allergies Increase cost due to development of plant and purchase of seed HIGH PRESSURE PROCESSING (HPP) HPP is a method of preserving food that involves subjecting food to intense pressures to kill microbes, while maintaining the fresh qualities of the food product After this process, the product looks, feels & tastes fresh, but has a much longer shelf life Products are already packaged in final packaging Products are then placed in a high-pressure chamber that is then filled with cold water to surround the product. The pressure of the water is increased and applied uniformly, and is transmitted through the package and onto the product itself Pressure applied is 6000 times the atmospheric air pressure at sea level, and is applied for 2 – 5 minutes As the pressure is transmitted evenly from all sides, the food product retains its shape. The product is then removed, stored and distributed This pressure inactivates any microbes and enzymes that are present to help extend the shelf life of this product Reduces waste Does not impact functional, sensory and physical properties of product No need for chemical preservatives Retains product’s nutrients Inactivates microbes Increases shelf life Microencapsulation is the packaging of small particles of an active or functional ingredient in a minute capsule. This process is to mask the flavour of ingredients or to extend their shelf life within a food product A range of different materials and methods are used to produce the microcapsules depending on the purpose for which the capsule is to be used. An active ingredient, either liquid droplets, solid particles, or gas compound, is contained or entrapped in a fine film of food-grade material forming a minute capsule The core of the capsule may contain just one ingredient or several. Most microcapsules are very tiny. The wall may be made of one layer, or be double layered. • Active ingredient is protected during processing. • Flavour, colour and odour of the active ingredient is masked by the film. • The active ingredient is able to be released in a controlled manner. • Can protect ingredients from being exposed to oxygen and deteriorating. Membrane technology involves using a porous membrane or filter to separate particles in a fluid. Two of the most commonly used forms of membrane technology in food production are ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. 1. Ultrafiltration The milk is passed over membranes with minute pores that can separate larger molecules such as fat from the water, protein and lactose in the milk. This enables only a small portion of the collected fat molecules to be returned to the milk, therefor reducing the amount of fat it contains. 2. Reverse osmosis Is a process similar to ultrafiltration, but with a finer filter removes most of the larger particles in the milk such as fat and protein and only allows water to pass through, leaving a milk concentrate behind. •What is Genetic modification, high pressure processing, microencapsulation and membrane technology? •What are the benefits of each one of these to the consumer and to the producer ? •What are the disadvantages for each of these new technologies ? •Examples for each listed innovation or emerging technology. Innovation/ Technology GM HPP Microencapsulation Membrane technology What is it? Benefits for consume r Benefits Disadvanta Examples for ges of… producer s The purpose of packaging and packaging systems, including Aseptic packaging and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) PURPOSE OF PACKAGING Protect the food Preserve the food Contain the food Communicate information about the product to the consumer Convenience The packaging of a sterile liquid or semi-liquid food into a sterile container. The filling and sealing process is done in a sterile environment. Why? Refrigeration required after opening Easy to transport and store Long shelf life No preservatives Maintains sensory and chemical properties Food examples??? … A packaging system that changes or modifies the atmosphere or gas inside a package from air in order to extend the shelf life of food. Why? Improves shelf life Maintains physical, sensory and chemical properties Reduces waste Extends shelf life MAP packaging systems: Gas packaging Vacuum packaging Barrier-specific packaging Active packaging •Why do we package food ? -3 C’s and 2 P’s Types of packaging especially Aseptic and MAP including examples of each! -Advantages of this packaging system -Disadvantages of this system -Environmental impact of each system Food product marketing and promotional strategies, including ethical food marketing to children. WHAT IS MARKETING? Marketing is made up of a series of organised activities which aim to develop products or services that consumers want or need and then to sell as many of these products as possible. Product Price Place Promotion To meet the need of the consumer through the sale of staples and luxury food items. Effective marketing employs: Market research Advertising campaigns Retail strategies Two for one offer Use of celebrity endorsement Free samples Advertising campaigns utilising media Sponsorship of events Point of sale displays Ethics is a term that is linked to moral principles that are motivated by ideas of right and wrong or good and bad. Examples of unethical marketing techniques targeted at children can include: Free toy giveaways with food purchases Advertising during children’s tv viewing hours Sponsorship of sporting activities and clubs Using cartoon characters to promote products. Pester power – nagging parents until they buy the desired product, usually high fat, high sugar, energy dense food products. •Why is marketing an essential tool for companies? •What is a target market? •Explain the 4 P’s of marketing •What methods might be used to market a product? •What is ethical food marketing? •How do marketers target children? •What are the concerns with marketing to children? Practice ALL types Exam Questions - multiple choice, short answer and extended response questions Focus on HOW to answer the Question -look at the sentence stem Sit trial papers in allocated time frame Practice exam structured questions Visit Examiner’s & Assessor’s Report for Tips ..these are on Compass resources or vcaa website! Multiple Choice Questions: Consider:… Read the whole question/sentence stem Understand the question Read ALL the choices carefully Eliminate the choices you know are WRONG ! Look at the remaining answers and make an educated choice. Underline or circle the key words Plan your responses during the reading time When provided with stimuli read/study it carefully and refer to this information in your answers Use appropriate F&T terminology DO NOT leave the exam early, re-read your answers and add anything that you may have missed. Multiple choice strategies Extended response question is fully & clearly completed …check marks allocated! Use the weighting of marks and lines marked when answering each question. Do not waste time rewriting the questions. Arrive at least 15 minutes prior to the examination, be sure to remember your student number and know where you are seated. Bring the necessary equipment to the exam, write in black or blue pen, NOT pencil. Multiple Choice Questions: Question 10. When making jam, to test whether a gel has formed it is important to: a)stir the jam with a fork b)make sure that the skin does not form on the jam sample c)place a saucer in the freezer before beginning the test d)ensure that a sauce is at room temperature before beginning the test. # NB the question is asking you about what is important for testing jam has formed a gel! Extended Response Question: Break the question down Read the whole question carefully WHAT IS THE QUESTION ASKING YOU TO DO ? Look at the marking for the question to help determine the depth of your response! Be Prepared Do not panic! You do know stuff Read questions carefully Write in pen Be aware of timing of Exam Questions Attempt all questions Write clearly and neatly Include detail where needed Use allocated Marks to help determine depth of response If it says list 3 then LIST 3! If it says explain or justify or compare then do that! DO Lots of practice questions, especially extended questions and multiple choice! Compass resources has heaps for you! Also TSSM topic tests for Units 3 &4! Revise for SAC Part B- Ch 14, 15 , 16 & 17! See SAC Preparation doc! Resources: Checkpoints Trial Papers – Home Economics Victoria , VCAA… Text Book Exam Style Questions Past Exam Papers* *Select parts of questions that are relevant– do not need to always do the entire paper from past years. Classroom Activity 1: Kitchen Walk In pairs prepare a report relating to the safety and hygiene issues in the Food Technology kitchen including ways to prevent food spoilage and food poisoning. Duration of Time: 10 minute walk around plus 15 minutes report writing in pairs! You must develop in pairs “Who Am I” statements and then working in teams to categories the roles and responsibilities for each level of authority involved in maintaining safe food supply. Test your partner! Show and Tell Select from a range of food products available and discuss the labelling requirements including the identification of nutrient content claims and health claims. Make a summary list of labelling requirements, and examples of nutrient content claims and health claims. Share with the class! Let’s Make Lunch ! Using your knowledge about HACCP prepare your own lunch such as a chicken, salad and mayonaisse roll and then discuss the HACCP process in relation to what you have produced. Use a chart such as that in your textbook to list CCP’s and Corrective actions! Poster Work: In pairs use your notes and textbook to develop summary posters for a key food such as: cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy foods including in relation to the function of the natural components for each. Students can share their summaries with each other so that you have revision notes for each key food! Look, Taste and Discuss: Focusing on each key food, conduct a taste test completing a sensory analysis as well as revising your knowledge about the physical and chemical components of the food you made a summary poster on. Compare foods and discuss: Eg: fresh tomatoes and semi-dried tomatoes. Cooking Demonstration You will be allocated students a key ingredient – eg: potato, apple, pear, pumpkin etc. In pairs demonstrate or explain how you can cook the food item using a range of cooking methods. Duration: 20 minutes cooking time Look, Taste, Discuss. A range of preserved items using a range of preservation techniques are on display. Identify the preservation method, briefly explain the process and then taste test the item discussing the sensory characteristics comparing to those of when the food was fresh. Eg jam, dried apricots, pickles, frozen peas. Classroom Activity1: Complex Processes Using the VCAA guideline select a number of complex processes. In pairs and using your textbook determine the complex process steps for each and then share with the rest of the class also explaining the importance of each step for success in producing the product! Eg pastry-making, pasta-making, sponge making, jam making, yeast baking, cooking with gelatine, cake making-creaming method, ice cream making etc # Use chart on next slide! STEP OR JUDGEMENT TO BE MADE ICE CREAM MAKING REASON FOR IMPORTANCE Web Search / You tube search In pairs students surf the net for environmental issues related to primary food production and evaluate its impact Eg: Australian Conservation Foundation Greenpeace CSIRO or search you tube for a video to share with the class! Poster Activity: Using pictures and key words develop a summary poster or mindmap outlining the key environmental issues and their impact on primary food production Use key terms such as: Land degradation Salinity Erosion Crop rotation Irrigation Show and Tell Choose 3 food products from the tub provided and outline the driving forces related to the development of the food product justifying each to the rest of the class in a 5 minute talk. Bus Stop 1: Find out the steps in the product development process- list in a flow chart. Bus Stop 2: Summarise Quantitative analysis methods. Select 3 food items and discuss with your partner to decide on the most appropriate quantitative analyse method. Share with the class! Bus Stop 3:Revise the different qualitiative analysis testing and using Smarties/M&M’s/Homebrand conduct Sensory analysis testing eg. -Preference test -Difference test -Profiling test Report findings back to the class! Internet Supermarket Walk. Using an online supermarket eg Coles online or Woolworths online identify the me-too items and the line extensions – Present in table format eg. Original Product Line Extension Me too What factors influence or drive the development of this Donny Boy product? What are the Labelling requirements for this product? Explain the primary and secondary processing for apples. Preserving – What are suitable techniques for preserving apples. Identify and explain the Technological Innovation used to make Donny Boy/Preshafruit apple juice?