some notes on efforts to leverage change using

Report
From remote villages to government
boardrooms: some notes on efforts to
leverage change using renewable energy
Monterey Institute of International Studies
Chris Greacen
April 2012
Outline
• Village scale renewable energy in Thailand and
Burma
– solar electricity for medical clinics in Karen-controlled
Burma
– village micro-hydropower – Thailand
• Energy politics and policy
– Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) program
• Thailand - Tanzania
– Bo Nok / Hin Krud – stopping silly big power plants
• Institutional aikido
• We Care solar suitcase video (4 minutes)
Palang Thai พลังไท
พลัง (palang): n 1. Power. 2. Empowerment.
ไท (thai): adj. 1. Independence. 2. Self-reliance
• Thailand NGO
• Objective:
– To ensure that the transformations that occur in the
region's energy sector: augment, rather than undermine,
social and environmental justice and sustainability.
• Key approaches:
– We teach hands-on energy technology
– We draft / comment on policies
– We work to empower citizens to look critically at
government and industry projects and plans
– We advocate structural reform
•Conflict area
•Little/no rural
electrification
•Joint effort:
•TOPS (Taiwan),
•Palang Thai (Thailand),
•SunEnergy Power
(USA)
• Green Empowerment
(USA)
Border
Green
Energy
Team
Solar
electricity
for 40
medical
clinics for
internally
displaced
inside
Burma
Up to 2 million internally displaced people in Burma
Ruggedized solar electric systems built by
medics in 3-5 day hands-on trainings
• 10 trainings (2003-2012)
• >100 medics trained
• >40 clinics
replace
LED lighting and
0.5-5W solar panels,
coupled with
microfinance energy
loans, can end
kerosene lighting
Barefoot Power is a
social enterprise
delivering such
solutions
Community
micro-hydro
(12 villages)
Micro-hydroelectricity
Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.
Kre Khi village, Tak Province
1 kW for school, clinic, church
Cost: <$3,500
(turbine $250)
Head: 10 meters
Flow: 15 lit/sec
Mae Wei – ‘pump as
turbine’ off-grid
Video… Mae Wei
Border
Green
Energy
Team
Refugee
camp
trainings
So far:
Solar PV
Micro-hydro
Hydraulic ram pump
Solar cooking
7 hybrid solar/diesel systems
Biogas
Solar/diesel hybrid systems for
computer training centers in 7
refugee camps
Border
Green
Energy
Team
Maintenance &
repair trainings
for > 14,000
Thai solar home
systems
Thai government solar
home program
203,000 solar home systems
US$250 million
No maintenance plan
23% failure rate within 20 months
>80% failure rate by 2011 (7 years)
“The Service & Support Department is like the guy in the parade who walks behind
the elephant with a broom and a big bucket”
Thai SHS in Tak province
Rated 120 peak Watt
single crystalline PV module
Rated 150 W,
50 Hz, 230 V
Inverter /
10 A Charge
controller
FORTH
ส ภ า ว ะ ก า ร ทา ง า น
แ ผ ง พ ลั ง ง า น แ ส ง อ า ทิ ต ย์
SOLAR PRODUCT
ป ร ะ จุ แ บ ต เ ต อ รี่
โ ห ล ด / เ กิ น พิ กั ด โ ห ล ด
เ ต็ ม
ปานก ลาง
ต่า
SH-1210M
ส ภ า ว ะ แ บ ต เ ต อ รี่
เ ค รื่ อ ง ค ว บ คุ ม ก า ร ป ร ะ จุ แ บ ต เ ต อ รี่ แ ล ะ แ ป ล ง ก ร ะ แ ส ไ ฟ ฟ้ า
สา ห รั บ ร ะ บ บ พ ลั ง ง า น แ ส ง อ า ทิ ต ย์
แ บ ต เ ต อ รี่
แ ผ ง รั บ พ ลั ง ง า น
แ ส ง อ า ทิ ต ย์
ไ ฟ ฟ้ า ก ระแ ส ส ลั บ
220 โ ว ล ต์ 50 เ ฮิ รต ซ์
ส า ย ดิ น
L N
เ ปิ ด / ปิ ด
ป ลั๊ ก ไ ฟ ฟ้ า ก ร ะ แ ส ส ลั บ
220 โ ว ล ต์ 50 เ ฮิ รต ซ์
HaCo
HaCo
10A
ON
~
AC outlet
for TV or
other
appliances
3K
D EEP CY CLE
EBB 125
3K THAI STORAGE BATTERY PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED
12 V, 125 Ah deep cycle
lead-acid battery
Two 10 W
tube fluorescent lights
with electronic ballasts
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Existing linkages
Tax
payers
$
Ministry of
Interior
$
warranty
PEA
$
Installation
company
SHS
End users
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Missing linkages
Tax
payers
$
Ministry of
Interior
$
warranty
PEA
$
Installation
company
Feedback on status of
systems, failure
modes, successful
interventions
SHS
End users
Warranty
awareness
BG E T
Self-help: local technicians
+ user training
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
SHS Warranty card
(written by BGET)
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
BGET on TV
Goals:

TV-broadcast
discussion of SHS
sustainability, need for
more local capacity

Inform public of
warranty
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
BGET SHS trainings in Tak province
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Observed failure modes - inverter
Failed inverter/charge
controller (~10% of all
systems surveyed).
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Observed failure modes - ballast
Ballast failure ~9% of systems surveyed
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Observed failure modes –battery
battery failure in ~6% of systems surveyed
sulfated
plates
healthy, without
sulfation
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Problems found during training/surveys
Installation error: Battery failure caused by solar panel
installation in shady location
BG E T
14:00 Saw Kre Ka village, Tha Song Yang District
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
Problems found during training surveys
Installation error: Bad panel locations
BG E T
BORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAM
policy & planning level…
Mae Kam Pong village microhydro
Can’t we hook it up and sell power back?
Meeting between National Energy Policy Offic (NEPO) and Mae Kam
Pong villgers to discuss grid interconnection of their village micro-hydro
$
$
Technical regulations:
• Allowable voltage,
frequency, THD
variations
• Protective relays
– 1-line diagrams for all
cases:
•
•
•
•
•
Induction
Synchronous
Inverters
Single/multiple
Connecting at different
voltage levels (LV or MV)
• Communication
channels
Commercial regulations:
• Definitions of
renewable energy, and
efficient cogeneration
• Contract parties
• Cost allocation
• Principle of
standardized tariff
determination
• Invoicing and payment
arrangements
• Arbitration
+ Standardized Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)
Thailand’s
Electricity Industry Structure
Generation
(% share)
SPPs
(10%)
(45%)
IPPs
(42%)
Import
(3%)
EGAT (100%)
Transmission
Distribution
EGAT
PEA
(66%)
MEA
(32%)
Users
Users
Direct Customers
(2%)
Thailand’s
Electricity Industry Structure
Generation
(% share)
SPPs
(10%)
(45%)
IPPs
(42%)
Import
(3%)
EGAT (100%)
Transmission
Distribution
EGAT
PEA
(66%)
MEA
(32%)
Users
Users
Direct Customers
(2%)
VSPPs
Thailand’s
Electricity Industry Structure
Firm / non-firm
Generation
(% share)
SPPs
(10%)
(45%)
IPPs
(42%)
Import
(3%)
EGAT (100%)
Transmission
Distribution
EGAT
Peak / off-peak
PEA
(66%)
MEA
(32%)
Users
Users
Direct Customers
(2%)
VSPPs
Evolution of Thai VSPP regulations
• 2002
– VSPP regulations drafted, approved by Cabinet
– Up to 1 MW export, renewables only
– Tariffs set at avoided cost (bulk supply tariff + FT)
Micro hydropower
•40 kW
•Mae Kam Pong, Chiang Mai,
Thailand
Reduces air and water pollution
Biogas from
Pig Farms
Produces fertilizer
Produces electricity
8 x 70 kW generator
Ratchaburi
Biogas from Pig
Farms
Korat Waste to Energy – biogas
… an early Thai VSPP project
• Uses waste water from cassava to
make methane
• Produces gas for all factory heat (30
MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity
• 3 x 1 MW gas generators
Evolution of Thai VSPP regulations
• 2002
– VSPP regulations drafted, approved by Cabinet
– Up to 1 MW export, renewables only
– Tariffs set at avoided cost (bulk supply tariff + FT)
• 2006
– Up to 10 MW export, renewables + cogeneration
– Feed-in tariff “adder”
– If > 1 MW then utility only pays for 98% of energy
Rice husk-fired power plant
• 9.8 MW
• Roi Et, Thailand
Bangkok Solar 1 MW PV
•
Signed PPAs for 767 MW of PV (SPP + VSPP)
Evolution of Thai VSPP regulations
• 2002
– VSPP regulations drafted, approved by Cabinet
– Up to 1 MW export, renewables only
– Tariffs set at avoided cost (bulk supply tariff + FT)
• 2006
– Up to 10 MW export, renewables + cogeneration
– Feed-in tariff “adder”
– If > 1 MW then utility only pays for 98% of energy
• 2009
– Tariff adder increase, more for projects that offset diesel
http://www.eppo.go.th/power/vspp-eng/ for English version of regulations, and model PPA
Lopburi 73 MW PV (over 1,000 rai = 160 hectares)
• Project size: 1 MW
• Uses self-manufactured a-Si
• Signed PPAs for 767 MW of PV (SPP + VSPP)
Solar thermal electricity
• 5 MW, 135 MW planned
• 900 Million baht (180 baht/watt = US$6/watt) but costs
expected to decrease 20 to 30% to 135 baht/watt
• Commissioned in Kanchanburi on Nov 2011
• Signed PPAs for 1343 MW of solar thermal
VSPP project pipeline as recorded in
EPPO data
Application
under
consideration
Permission
received,
awaiting PPA
PPA signed
Leakage (Project abandoned)
Generating &
selling electricity
Feb 2007
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
Biomass
Solar
Wind
800
600
Garbage
400
Biogas
200
Coal cogen
Natural gas cogen
0
Application
pending
Received
permission, PPA signed
awaiting PPA
Microhydro
Generating
electricity
Thailand VSPP Status
18 MW online
June 2008
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
Biomass
Solar
Wind
800
600
Garbage
400
Biogas
200
Coal cogen
Natural gas cogen
0
Application
pending
Received
permission, PPA signed
awaiting PPA
Microhydro
Generating
electricity
Thailand VSPP Status
June 2009
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
Biomass
Solar
Wind
800
600
Garbage
400
Biogas
200
Coal cogen
Natural gas cogen
0
Application
pending
Received
permission, PPA signed
awaiting PPA
Microhydro
Generating
electricity
Thailand VSPP Status
Mar 2010
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
Biomass
Solar
Wind
800
600
Garbage
400
Biogas
200
Coal cogen
Natural gas cogen
0
Application
pending
Received
permission, PPA signed
awaiting PPA
Microhydro
Generating
electricity
Thailand VSPP Status
Sep 2011
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
Biomass
Solar
Wind
800
600
Garbage
400
Biogas
200
Coal cogen
Natural gas cogen
0
Application
pending
Received
permission, PPA signed
awaiting PPA
Microhydro
Generating
electricity
Thailand VSPP Status
1056 MW online
(58-fold increase since 2007)
PPAs signed for
additional 4318 MW
Solar trends in Thailand
MW Solar installed in Thailand Feb 2007 – Dec 2011
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
PPAs for photovoltaic (PV) solar: 677 MW
PPAs for concentrating solar thermal (CST): 1343 MW
Evolution of Tanzania SPP
regulations
• Approved by regulator August 2009
• Up to 10 MW export, renewables &
cogeneration
• SPP Tariffs at average of LRMC and SRMC
– Grid-connected SPP tariff (2011): $0.072/kWh
– In rural mini-grid areas offsetting diesel (2011):
$0.243/kWh
• 4 SPPs in operation, 12+ in pipeline by
November 2010
www.ewura.go.tz/sppselectricity.html for English versions of regulations, and model PPAs
South-south policy/technology transfer:
Technical Visit of the Delegation
from the United Republic of Tanzania to Thailand
regarding
Thailand’s Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) program
13-20 March 2010
Who have involved in PEA ?
การไฟฟ้ าส่ วนภูมภิ าค
PROVINCIAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY
System
Operation Div.
Research Div.
•First synch. test
•PQ test
•Identify circuit connection
•Control & Operation
•Communication
Relay Div.
call center 1129
•Switchgear &
Relay test
Meter Div.
DG office
• Technical & System Analysis
• Document
• Coordinator
•Meter installation
Area Office 1-12
& Local Office
•Line connecting construction
•Meter reading
Legal Div.
www.pea.co.th
•PPA check
Tariff Div.
•Billing
Finance Dep.
•Settlement
การไฟฟ้าส่วนภูมภิ าค
System Operation Area
Office 1-12
76
Leveraging change
Activity
Leverage
Medical clinic PV in Burma
•40 clinics serve 100,000+
•“It’s hard to do amputations with a
flashlight”
Micro-hydro
* inexpensive(<$2per W)
•Intuitive & local
Refugee camp trainings
* If peace comes and repatriation can
happen, refugees are returning to a ‘blank
slate’
VSPP
* Renewables becomes viable gridconnected business.
* “Power plant” redefined.
Principles
• Commit
• Be flexible and open to opportunities for
equilibrium-shifting change
• Take time for reflection… stay real
• Document and release
• “Many hands make light work”
For more information
Chris Greacen
Palang Thai
[email protected]
Skype: chrisgreacen
www.palangthai.org

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