Choice method of hydraulic turbines

Report
Students
Vincent Duplantier
Florian Feyt
Hoai Dang Leu
Teachers
Jacques Bernard
Mary Ann Flannery
I.
Presentation of Hydraulic Turbines
Hydraulic turbines overview
2. Hydroelectric plant installation
3. Three types of Hydraulic Turbines
1.
II.
Choice method of Hydraulic Turbines
Conclusion
2
3



Hydraulic turbines : liquid
turns blades to produce
rotation
Potential/Kinetic power ->
Mechanical Power ->
Electric power
Hydroelectricity
• Advantages : Clean and
Renewable
• Disadvantages : damage of
ecosystem, loss of land
4
Components of a Turbine :



Runner : rotational part
(Shaft + blades)
Diffuser (at output) : channelshaped increasing in size
Distributor : optional
component at the input that
controls the angle of attack
5
 Flow: small
head, high velocity (river)
 Flow: great head (in reservoir)
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




Action turbine
No diffuser
High operating head
The wheel is not
submerged
The number of opened
nozzle changes the
power
7
8




Reaction turbine
Change of the flow pressure
Operating head between 20 and 500 meters
Two main components: upstream guide vanne and
runner
9
10
 Evolution
turbine
of the Francis
 The
guidvanes and runner
adapted to the waterflow
 High
efficiency for a wide
range of water flow
 Can
be used as a pump for
Storage pumping
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12
13
14
 Magnet
• 2 poles
• Magnetic field
• + winding = electric current

Alternator
• Produces alternating electric
power
• Qualified by the number of
magnetic poles
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 Electric
Network
Alternator
• Stable characteristics
• Frequency : 50 Hz
 Alternator
Frequency
• Speed of the rotor
• Number of poles
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 For
a same electric frequency (50 Hz) :
• Low speed  many poles
• High speed  less poles
 Many
poles = expensive
4 pairs
750 rpm
40 pairs – 75 rpm
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 Characteristics
of water flow and turbine
Power of the turbine:
Angular velocity:
 = 
 ∝

N
18
Comparison of the specific speed with widely built turbines
 3/4
 =  5/4

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20


One of the first sources of
electricity
 High technological level
and mastery
 Great efficiency
Norway – 98%
The main source of renewable
energy
Brazil – 86 %

High percentage of total
electricity production is
hydroelectricity in some
countries
Canada – 61 %
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