At the Clinic ScenarioEndocrine System By: Dennisse Perez Azucena Santiago Brian is in a 50-mile bike-a-thon on a hot summer day. He’s breathing dust at the back of the pack, he’s sweating profusely, and now he’s lost his water bottle. Brian is not having a good time. How will his hormones respond to decreased intake of water and the stress of the situation? Endocrine System The endocrine system helps regulate and maintain various body functions by sinthesizing (making) and release hormones, chemical messengers. Hormone levels can be influenced by factors such as stress, infection, and changes in the balance of fluid and minerals in blood. The major areas of control and integration include responses to stress, and injury, growth and development, absorption of nutrients, energy metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, reproduction and lactation. Water Stress and Scarcity When the intake water decreased the urine volume decreases Hormone levels are influenced by stress, infection, and changes in the balance, causes the body to excrete nutrients and adversely affects the immune system. Adrenal Gland The adrenal gland are located above the kidneys. Adrenal glands produce and release several different hormones that maintain internal fluid levels, maintain sodium and potassium levels, and mediate the stress response. The adrenal cortex converts cholesterol into glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, and androgens. The glucocorticoids role is regulating body glucose levels. The major glucocorticoid produced. The major glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal is cortisol. Cortisol is also known as the stress hormone because the body releases cortisol in order to help cope with stressful situations. The mineralcorticoids are so named due to their role in establishing mineral and water levels in the body. The major mineralcorticoid produced by the adrenal gland is aldosterone. The primary role of aldosterone is to regulate the balance of potassium, sodium, and water by affecting the absorption of all three in the kidney. Briefly, aldosterone causes the kidney to reabsorb more water and sodium, while causing potassium to be excreted in exchange for the sodium. When too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, as in primary aldosteronism, the level of potassium in the blood is low (hypokalemia) and the retention of sodium and water is high. Hormones and Dehydration Running 10 kilometres every alternate day is 'distressing ' the body mass muscle and deprive it to repair and rejuvenate properly and hence breaking down the body towards a negative direction in unsound lifestyle. Stress to the human body immediately translates into dehydration. The available body resources of water and food products will be distributed according to battle-station (organs, tissues, cells) requirements. Hormones and Dehydration How is this done? Five major regulators become operatives of the system: Vasopressin indicates a water shortage and a rationing of water delivery into the interior of certain cells. It opens small holes in the cell membrane and forces water (H2O molecules) through the membrane, one by one in, so that cells sensitive to vasopressin will benefit more from the available water supply. Vasopressin regulates water delivery into the cells until there is an unmistakable signal of abundant water supply for all body functions. Vasopressin also tightens the arterial system to put a squeeze on the blood volume to force serum out of the vessels. This enables some of the water content of the serum to enter the dehydrated cells through the holes in their membrane. The sequence of events in water regulation of the human body at times of severe dehydration. Dehydration Is The Cause of Pain, Disease, Decay, and Premature Death. Vasopressin and interleukin-1 begin and continue the process as long as the human body remains dehydrated. The hospital practice of Saline IV drip is to prevent further dehydration at cellular level. It is this mechanism that results in immune system suppression when the human body becomes dehydrated and remains dehydrated. Never use medication to further suppress the dehydrated body, use water instead to rehydrate is the only sound remedy. It is the water which most patients drink together with the pills that does the real work of re hydrating the body, not the drugs. Endorphins are the natural opiates of the human body. They bring about immediate pain relief at the time of battle; they enhance the efficiency of your body in the process of fight or flight. When the human body is exposed to injury or great stress, even during physical exercises, endorphins are released. Renin-Angiotensin (RA) The RA system codes for water intake and its retention and distribution in the human body by forcing a salt appetite and the collection of salt in the watery areas outside those trillions of cells. RA is responsible for the closing some of the blood vessels in the periphery so that the shunting of circulation to other more vital parts, according to a priority plan, can be established. RA is also responsible for decreased urine production. RA is produced in the kidneys, which play a part in water preservation of the human body. The RA system is a focus of attention by the pharmaceutical industry in anti-hypertension therapy. Instead of giving the system more water to pass through the kidneys, chemical products, inorganic substances to worsen the situation, are given to attempt to block the drive of the human body for salt retention by the RA system.