At the Clinic Scenario

At the Clinic ScenarioEndocrine System
By: Dennisse Perez
Azucena Santiago
Brian is in a 50-mile bike-a-thon on a
hot summer day. He’s breathing dust
at the back of the pack,
he’s sweating profusely,
and now he’s lost his
water bottle. Brian is
not having a good time.
How will his hormones
respond to decreased intake of water
and the stress of the situation?
Endocrine System
 The endocrine system helps regulate
and maintain various body functions
by sinthesizing (making) and release
hormones, chemical messengers.
 Hormone levels can be influenced by
factors such as stress, infection, and
changes in the balance of fluid and
minerals in blood.
 The major areas of control and
integration include responses to stress, and injury, growth
and development, absorption of nutrients, energy
metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, reproduction
and lactation.
Water Stress and Scarcity
When the intake water decreased the urine volume
 Hormone levels are influenced by stress, infection,
and changes in the balance, causes the body to
excrete nutrients and adversely affects the immune
Adrenal Gland
 The adrenal gland are located above the kidneys.
 Adrenal glands produce and release several
different hormones that maintain internal fluid levels,
maintain sodium and potassium levels, and mediate
the stress response.
 The adrenal cortex converts cholesterol into glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids,
and androgens. The glucocorticoids role is regulating body glucose levels.
 The major glucocorticoid produced. The major glucocorticoid produced by the
adrenal is cortisol. Cortisol is also known as the stress hormone because the
body releases cortisol in order to help cope with stressful situations.
 The mineralcorticoids are so named due to their role in establishing mineral and
water levels in the body. The major mineralcorticoid produced by the adrenal
gland is aldosterone.
 The primary role of aldosterone is to regulate the balance of potassium, sodium,
and water by affecting the absorption of all three in the kidney. Briefly,
aldosterone causes the kidney to reabsorb more water and sodium, while
causing potassium to be excreted in exchange for the sodium. When too much
aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, as in primary aldosteronism, the
level of potassium in the blood is low (hypokalemia) and the retention of sodium
and water is high.
Hormones and Dehydration
 Running 10 kilometres every
alternate day is 'distressing ' the
body mass muscle and deprive it to
repair and rejuvenate properly and
hence breaking down the body towards
a negative direction in unsound lifestyle.
 Stress to the human body immediately
translates into dehydration.
 The available body resources of water and
food products will be distributed according
to battle-station (organs, tissues, cells)
Hormones and Dehydration
How is this done?
 Five major regulators become operatives of the system:
 Vasopressin indicates a water shortage and a rationing of water delivery
into the interior of certain cells. It opens small holes in the cell
membrane and forces water (H2O molecules) through the membrane,
one by one in, so that cells sensitive to vasopressin will benefit more
from the available water supply.
 Vasopressin regulates water delivery into the cells until there is an
unmistakable signal of abundant water supply for all body functions.
 Vasopressin also tightens the arterial system to put a squeeze on the
blood volume to force serum out of the vessels. This enables some of the
water content of the serum to enter the dehydrated cells through the
holes in their membrane.
 The sequence of events in water regulation of the human body at times
of severe dehydration. Dehydration Is The Cause of Pain, Disease,
Decay, and Premature Death.
 Vasopressin and interleukin-1 begin and continue the process as
long as the human body remains dehydrated. The hospital practice
of Saline IV drip is to prevent further dehydration at cellular level.
 It is this mechanism that results in immune system suppression
when the human body becomes dehydrated and remains
 Never use medication to further suppress the dehydrated body, use
water instead to rehydrate is the only sound remedy. It is the water
which most patients drink together with the pills that does the real
work of re hydrating the body, not the drugs.
 Endorphins are the natural opiates of the human body. They bring
about immediate pain relief at the time of battle; they enhance the
efficiency of your body in the process of fight or flight.
 When the human body is exposed to injury or great stress, even
during physical exercises, endorphins are released.
Renin-Angiotensin (RA)
 The RA system codes for water intake and its retention and
distribution in the human body by forcing a salt appetite and the
collection of salt in the watery areas outside those trillions of cells.
 RA is responsible for the closing some of the blood vessels in the
periphery so that the shunting of circulation to other more vital
parts, according to a priority plan, can be established.
 RA is also responsible for decreased urine production.
 RA is produced in the kidneys, which play a part in water
preservation of the human body.
 The RA system is a focus of attention by the
pharmaceutical industry in anti-hypertension
therapy. Instead of giving the system more
water to pass through the kidneys, chemical
products, inorganic substances to worsen the
situation, are given to attempt to block the drive
of the human body for salt retention by the RA

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