Mexico’s Fight for Independence New Spain(Modern Day Mexico and Central America) was one of Spain's most profitable Colonies Issues in New Spain early 1800’s • Creoles want full equality of the peninsulares – Merchants wanted open trade with other nations • Could only trade with spain • Meztizo working class- Mines & farming wanted better wages – Angry- at elite land owners controlling food prices – Elite would hold onto suplies of food until hit max price • The Indigenous and Mullatos want end to Tribute – Tax paid to large land owners and the gov • Small slave population wants freedom Situation in Spain • 1808-1810 Napoleon takes control of Spain – Creole elites take this opportunity to fight for independence – They fear Napoleons liberal government will take their rights – They “claimed” to fight for King Ferdinand VII Initial uprising • Centered in Queretaro Group of middle and upperclass creoles planned a revolt – needed support of masses so sympathized with demands of the Indigenous and mestizo. – Father Miguel Hidalgo(creole) had influence to recruit the masses • Spanish Authorities began to arrest rebel conspiritors Father Miguel Hidalgos Revolt • Grito de Dolores- Sept 16th 1810 Hidalgo gathered his parishioners declared New Spain free from the Spanish Crown • The mod went on to take control of the city • By Sept 28 took key city of Guanajuato – Killed many Spaniards – Attacked may business ( most owned by Creoles) – Opened to Grain storage for the poor Fear in Hidalgo’s Revolution • Hidalgo’s army fought for the right of the poor • Creole elites wanted freedom not a class and race revolution • Hidalgo’s goals – – – – – – Independence from Spain End of Slavery End of tribute More equality for all social classes No forced labor Better wages • These changes would take power from Creole elites Hidalgo’s Peasant Army • His soldiers began to take vengeance on both Spaniards and Creole elites • His forces were unable to take Mexico City and were driven north • By Summer of 1811 Hidalgo and his leaders were captured and executed Jose Maria Morelos • Morelos was a Priest who continued the fight of Hidalgo – mestizo – His forces centered south of Mexico City His goals were the same as Hidalgos -Independence from Spain, End of Slavery, End of tribute, equality for all social classes, No forced labor, Better wages • He worked to gain more support of some Creole Elites( some views were too radical • His forces were centered in the state of Oaxaca • His use of Guerrilla tactics were very effective National Congress of Chilpancingo1813 • Created a Congress inviting many creole revolutionaries – Set himself as chief executive – Created a Judicial and Legislative Branch – Enacted many of the social changes he planned • Congress only had control of southern territories he controlled • Congress did not have a stable home The Down Fall of Morelos 1. Lost battles to royalist forces using traditional war methods 2. Some of his changes too radical to gain full Creole support -Many fought against him 3. 1814 King Ferdinand VII regains power in Spain -More Spanish troops are sent to stop Rebellion in New Spain In 1815 Morelos is captured, put on trial, and executed 12/22 1815-1820 Guerrilla fighting continued • fighting against Royalists continued with no central Organization • Vicente Guerrero Continued a Guerrilla campaign against Royalist forces in Oaxaca(Southern Mexico) – Mix Creole, Indigenous, Black • The Cost of fighting, high taxes, and mistreatment of Creoles by Spain began to anger the elites Creole Elites Take Control of the Revolution • 1820 Spanish King Ferdinand VII was deposed(temporily) • New Spanish Gov enacted liberal Constitution – This would take some rights from the Creole elite • Augustine Iturbide-Royalist Creole – Feared losing power and used this as an excuse to rebel – Switched sidesto join – Revolutionary • (Ironic- joined rebels to keep creole elite control) Opposites Combine Iturbide asked Guerrero to join in support Guerrero(Liberal) • Independence from Spain • Catholic Church • Representative Republic • Liberal social reforms of Hidalgo Iturbide(Conservative) • Independence from Spain • Catholic Church • Monarchy • Equality of peninsulares and creoles Mexico is Free • Aug 24, 1821 Treaty of Cordoba Signed- The Mexican Empire was declared independent • The combined forces enter Mexico City Minimal resistance • Iturbide is crowned Emperor – Short lived He steps down from power – A Republican government is formed • Name Mexico comes from the name of the Aztecs MEXICA.