Writing Scientific Article Journal - International Scientific Publication

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WRITING SCIENTIFIC ARTILE
JOURNAL
Wani Hadi Utomo
PPIKID UB
Pelatihan penulisan artikel mahasiswa S3 UB
28 Oktober 2014
• Landasan hukum:
• SE Dirjen Pendidikan Tinggi No. 152/E/T/2012
tertanggal 27 Januari 2012:
Setelah Agusus 2012 dberlakukan ketentuan:
1. untuk lulus program sarjana: 1 artikel di
jurnal ilmiah
2. Untuk lulus program Magister: 1 artikel di
jurnal ilmiah nasional terakredisasi
3. Untuk lulus program doktor: 1 artikel di
jurnal ilmiah internasional
•
•
Landasan hukum
PERATURAN REKTOR UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA No :225/PER/2010 (Doktor), 2
Agustus 2010
Pasal 8, ayat:
3. Mahasiswa wajib menggunakan materi/subtansi disertasi untuk.menyusun
pubrikasi yang diterima untuk diterbitkin di Jurnalilmiah Internasional yang
diakui rem6nterian pendidikan Naslonai sebanvak 1 (satu) artikel dan/atau 2
artikel di jurnal ilmiah nasional terakredisasi , dan mahasiswa tetap harus
menyusun disertasi untuk dinilai oleh majelis penguji dalam suatu Ujian
Tertutup.
4. Apabila mahasiswa. tidak dapat memenuhi tetentuan pada ayat 3, maka
materi Disertasi sekurang kurangnva harus diterima untuk diternitkan
menjadi 1 artikel di Jurnal ilmiah nasional terakreditasi dan 2 (dua) makalah
yang disajikan dalam seminar nasional ….dst
5. Dalam hal mahasiswi menctpli ptestasi istimewa dengan menulis
materi/substansi Disertasi menjadi 2 (dua) artikel ilmiah yang diterbitkan
jurnal ilmiah internasional yang diakui Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional atau
4 artikel dalam jurnal ilmiah nasional terakredisasi , maka mahasiswa tetap
harus menulis disertasi, tanpa harus diuji, dan dinyatakan lulus disertasi
dengan nilai A
• PERATURAN REKTOR UNIVERSITAS BRAWTJAYA Nomor: 336/PER/2012 tentang
PENERBITAN KARYA ILMIAH PADA TERBITAN BERKALA ILMIAH SEBAGAI SYARAT
KELULUSAN PADA PENDIDIKAN PROGRAM SARJANA, MAGISTER DAN DOKTOR
DI UNIVERSITAS BRAWJAYA, 26 Juli 2012
• Pasal 2 : Persyaratan Karya llmiah dalam terbltan Berkala ilmlah
2. Untuk lulus program magister, mahasiswa diwajibken untuk menghasilkan
sekurang-kurangnya 1 karya ilmlah yang relevan dengan bidang keilmuannya
untuk diterbitkan pada terbitan berkala nasional yang terakreditasi oleh
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi kementertan Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaan Republlk lndonesia,
3. Untuk lulus program doktor, mahasiswa diwaJibkan untuk menghsilkan
sekurang-kurangnya 1 satu) karya ilmiah yang relevan dengan bidang ilmunya
untuk diterbitkan pada terbitan berkala ilmiah internasional yang diakui oleh
Direktorat Jenderal pendidikan Tinggi Kementerian Pendidikan dan
kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.
4. Penerapan ketentuan di luar yang telah diatur pada ayat 1, 2, atau 3 harus
seijin Rektor.
peraturan tersebut kemudian dilengkapi dengan:
1. Peraturan Rektor No. 427/2012 (Peraturan Akademik Program Magister)
2. Peraturan Rektor No. 428/2012 (Peraturan akademik Program Doktor)
• SE REKTOR Nomor : 5744 /UN10/LL/2011
• Perihal : Evaluasi Publikasi Artikel Ilmiah Mahasiswa
Menindaklanjuti Peraturan Rektor Universitas Brawijaya No. 224/PER/2010
dan No. 225/PER/2010 tanggal 2 Agustus 2010 tentang Pedoman
Pelaksanaan Tesis sebagai Tugas Akhir Pendidikan Program Magister dan
Disertasi sebagai Tugas Akhir Pendidikan Program Doktor di Universitas
Brawijaya khususnya pasal 8 ayat 3, 4, dan 5 terkait dengan kewajiban
publikasi artikel ilmiah bagian dari tesis dan disertasi pada jurnal atau
seminar nasional atau internasional sebagai syarat atau pengganti ujian
akhir, serta mengingat sangat bervariasinya kualitas publikasi artikel ilmiah
pada saat ini, maka dengan ini diberitahukan bahwa Rektor Universitas
Brawijaya menugaskan kepada Unit Peningkatan Publikasi Internasional
Karya Ilmiah Dosen untuk Internasionalisasi Universitas Brawijaya untuk
mengevaluasi kelayakan publikasi artikel sebagai syarat atau pengganti ujian
akhir tesis atau disertasi dengan memperimbangkan masukan dari Pengelola
Program Pascasarjana di mana mahasiswa bersangkutan sedang studi.
•
Bagaimana PPKID mengamankan dan mengawal
peraturan Rektor.
1. Untuk tahap peralihan agar tdk memperlama masa
studi mhsw, mhsw dipersilahkan mempublikasikan
artikelnya di semua Jurnal Internasional yg
memenuhi persyaratan sebagai JI (editor dan
penulis berasal dari bbrp negara, dlm bhs
Internasional)
2. Menyediakan bantuan untuk menulis artikel
(pelatihan, pendampingan)
3. Menilai artikel yg telah diterbitkan (utk artikel yg
tdk mengikuti pelatihan/pendampingan)
Format article
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Title
Abstract
Key words
Introduction
Materials and method
Result and discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgement
references
Abstract
Abstract
Write this last
An abstract needs to capture the essence
of a paper and highlight the key findings
Do not dwell on introduction or
Methodology (abstract is not summary)
The abstract ‘sells’ your paper
The Change of Catechin Antioxidant during
Vacuum Roasting of Cocoa Powder
• Concentration of catechin antioxidant in cocoa seed decreased greatly
during processing into powder, especially in the conventional roasting
process (without vacuum). Therefore, vacuum roasting process was
developed. The objective of this research was to analyze the change of
catechin in cocoa seed during vacuum-roasting of cocoa powder. The
treatments consisted of roasting with vacuum (45.6 and 60.8 cmHg) and
without vacuum at three roasting temperatures (100°C, 110°C, 120°C) for
25, 35, and 45 minutes. For catechin analysis, the standard catechin
component of (+)-catechin was used, and LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography
Mass Spectrometer) with formic acid solvent (0.1% in water, pH 2.5) and
methanol solvent was used for identification. Result of research indicated
that vacuum roasting at 60.8 cmHg in 100°C for 25 minutes resulted in the
highest percentage of catechin in cocoa powder. The increase of catechin
in cocoa powder during vacuum roasting was considered as strong due to
the change or degradation of procyanidin (either in form of dimer, trimer
or tetramer)
Key words
• Aims: to broaden audience, increasing citation
• What in the key words: 3-7 words related to
the content of the article, not in the Title
The Change of Catechin Antioxidant during Vacuum
Roasting of Cocoa
Powder
• Keywords: Cocoa powder; Roasting; Vacuum;
Catechin
Introduction
Introduction
This highlights the relevance of your work
and explains why you have conducted the
study
It is a brief literature survey that must be
to be interesting and readable: include
theory and past works
Cite latest references; you need to be
aware of the current state of your subject
area
Introduction
1. Problem statement: the important of the
problem (support by data)
2. Theoritical consideration (support by
literature)
3. Previous research (support by literature)
4. Novelty/originality/the objective of the
research (latest literature in point 2 and 3)
The Characteristics of Rice Husk Biochar and Its Influence on the Properties of Acid
Sulfate Soils and Rice Growth in West Kalimantan
•
1. Introduction
•
Increasing food production both to meet in-country requirements and to help the world overcome food crises
is one of the major issues facing Indonesia today. However, good productive land is limited and has mostly
been utilized either for food crop production or other uses. The only available land for this purpose is that of
acid sulfate soil, having a total area of about 6.7 millions ha and is spread out in Sumatera, Kalimantan, and
Papua (Widjaja-Adi et al., 1992). These soils have a high iron sulfate mineral content of predominantly Pyrite,
and when the soil is drained it will release sulfuric acid, which in turn will release Fe, Al, and other heavy
metals that are dangerous for plants and other living organisms. When these soils are used for rice, Moore
(1990) found that the most important constraints were: (i) acidity (which includes the combined effects of pH,
Al toxicity, and P deficiency), and (ii) Fe stress (which is due to the combined effects of Fe toxicity and
deficiencies of other divalent cations such as Ca).
The acid sulfate soil in Sungai Kakap, West Kalimantan has been utilized for intensive rice growing since 1980.
Thus, in addition to the above problems, growing rice in these lands faces the problem of soil compaction due
to intensive tillage with puddling and removal of biomass continuously. Measurement prior to the conduction
of the experiment showed that soil organic matter in these soils was less than 0.9%. In this soil, organic matter
is very important because in addition to being a source of plant nutrition, organic matter is the major source of
negative charge, which is important for helping the soil to adsorb cations in the soil solution (Ponamperuma,
1982)
A common treatment to reduce the solubility of Al, Fe and other heavy metals in soil is to increase the soil pH,
which is mostly done by liming (Ahmad and Tan, 1982; Hakim et al., 1989; Haby, 2002). The ability of liming to
increase soil pH, decrease Al and Fe solubility, and increase crop yield is widely known (Shamshuddin and
Auxtero, 1991; Haby, 2002; Kadery, Brown et al., 2008). In Indonesia, the source of lime materials exists mostly
in Java, which is far from the location where the liming needs to be done. Furthermore, liming only treats the
symptoms of acid sulfate soils rather than the cause (Thomas et al., 2003); therefore, the beneficial effects of
liming are short lived, and it has to be done repeatedly (Shamsuddin et al., 1998). This makes liming very
expensive and it is often un-economic for small farmers to obtain lime materials.
•
•
Intro… (continued)
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The other treatment suggested for improving the properties of acid sulfate soil is the application of
organic matter (Kaderi, 2004; Shamsuddin et al., 2004). With negative charge provided by carboxyl
compounds, organic matter is able to minimize toxicity by decreasing the solubility of heavy metals in
the soil solutions. Positive effects of organic matter application on the properties of acidic soils, such
as increasing soil pH and CEC, and decreasing heavy metal toxicity, have been reported elsewhere
(see Hesse, 1982; El Sharkawi et al., 2006). Organic matter is easy to find locally and is relatively
cheap, especially if the organic matter used is the un-harvested biomass of the crop itself. Again, the
main limitation in using such organic matter is the easiness of these materials to be decomposed,
and therefore its application must be done repeatedly from year to year. On the other hand, there is
now competition in biomass utilizations with the emergence of demand in the sectors of energy
resources and animal feeding. In addition, decomposition and mineralization of organic matter has
been attributed as one of the major sources of global warming due to emissions of methane and
nitrous-oxide (Rondon et al., 2007)
Lately, looking the recalcitrant C-organic in a black carbon material termed “biochar”, and lately
many scientists are interested in using this black carbon material as a soil amendment (Glasser et al.,
2002; Topolianz et al., 2007; Woolf, 2008). Although there are still some objections (Ernsting and
Smolker, 2009; Senjen,2009), a lot of experimental results have indicated that biochar applications
can improve soil properties (Lehman et al., 2003; Liang et al., 2006; Chan et al., 2007) and increase
crop yield (Yamato et al., 2006; Chan et al., 2008 ). Chan et al. (2007) showed that biochar application
had improved some physical soil properties, such as increased soil aggregation, water holding
capacity, and decreased soil strength. An increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity of upland rice
soil
The objective of the works reported here was to study the characteristics of biochar produced from
rice husk grown in acidic soil and its potential to improve the properties and productivity of acid
sulfate soils and the growth of lowland rice in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.
•
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The Change of Catechin Antioxidant during Vacuum
Roasting of Cocoa Powder
1. Introduction
Cocoa seed is a main output of cocoa which contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate concentration and
mineral. Cocoa seed also contains antioxidant, such as catechin, in high level of concentration. Catechin
is a compound with some functions such as antioxidant, antibacterial, improving endothelial function,
reducing blood pressure, increasing insulin sensitivity, and repairing platelet function [1-4].
Some researchers showed that the increase of cardiovascular function in human after consuming cocoa
is related to the presence of metabolite, which is coming from catechin inside plasma [5,6]. However,
catechin concentration of cocoa powder greatly decreases during processing in the conventional
roasting stage.
Conventional roasting is usually conducted in open batch (without vacuum) such that free oxygen
interferes into roasting space. Indeed, roasting can change catechin in cocoa seed [7,8]. Heating
temperature in roasting process may trigger oxidation, degradation, and epimerization of catechin, thus
reducing antioxidant activity. The reduction of catechin during processing is due to the combination of
the effects of oxidation, epimerization, degradation and interaction with protein.
Heating (at 110-200°C) during conventional roasting system (without vacuum) allows oxygen in the
roasting atmosphere to activate. During roasting, oxygen is heated which then can activate formation of
singlet oxygen from the initially stable oxygen (triplet oxygen) this singlet oxygen is very reactive and
easily reacted with organic molecule in the food material [9]. This reactive oxygen will then oxidize
catechin in cocoa seed. Oxidation may change catechin structure into semiquinon compound, which it
will change into quinone through further process [10]. Misnawi explained that quinone is one of the
compounds which produce a distinctive taste of cocoa during roasting process in addition to reducer
sugar, peptide and amino acid [11].
It is reasonable to say that oxygen in the roasting space can be minimized by vacuum roasting system
because it seems possible to reduce oxidation. This system can reduce the possibility of catechin
reduction but with the consequence of less maximum production of taste producer compounds. The
final product may be then organoleptically different compared to conventional roasting system (without
vacuum). Some effects in the vacuum roasting process must be further examined to ensure the
reduction of the possibility of catechin reduction and loss.
Materials and Methods
Materials and Methods
You must present sufficient detail such that
anybody reading your paper can repeat
your experiment to investigate your claims
It is essential in this section to describe
populations and sample sizes and
replication
Repetition of your work (copying) is the
highest form of flattery!
• Materials and Methods
1. Valid and Reliable
2. Clear but not too elaborate: explained only
the principle; if the method is already used
as the standard method enough to be shown
the reference
3. Statistical analysis: Clear what the analytical
to be used
The Characteristics of Rice Husk Biochar and Its Influence on the
Properties of Acid Sulfate Soils and Rice Growth in West Kalimantan
2. Materials and methods
•
2.1. Production and characterization of biochar
To ensure that the rice husk had come from the acid sulfate soil of West Kalimantan, Indonesia, we harvested it directly the rice from the field
and then brought it for rice milling to get the rice husk. The rice husk was then put in a piece of pyrolysis apparatus which consisted of a
stainless reactor of 500mm length with a 15cm inside diameter. The rice husk was then heated externally by an electric furnace (5000 W) to a
temperature of 600oC. The reactor for the biochar production is presented in Figure 1.The Biochar was ground to pass through a 0.50 mm
sieve……
•
2.2. Experimental setup
A glass house experiment was set up to study the effect of rice husk biochar on rice growth. The soil used was collected from the
experimental station of BPTP West Kalimantan in Sungai Kakap. Soil samples were collected from depths of up to 20cm, and then dried,
ground, and passed through a 2.0mm sieve. 5kg of ground soil was then put in a plastic pot with an inside diameter of 30cm. The organic soil
amendments used were:
(1) No soil amendment, as the control (Co)
(2) Rice Straw (RS), 15 t/ha
(3) Rice husk (RH), 15 t/ha,
etc.
These six treatments were arranged in Fully Randomized Design with 4 replications. The amount of soil amendment applied was calculated
based on the surface area of the plastic pot, and the amendments were mixed to a 20cm depth, after which they were incubated at water
content close to the field capacity for 30 days.
•
2.3. Soil Analysis
Particle size analysis was performed by the pipette method (Soil Survey Laboratory Staff, 1992), and soil bulk density was determined by the
clod method as described by Blake and Harke (1986). Soil pH was measured in 1:2.5 ratio soil solutions (with de-ionized water) with a pH
meter (Jenway 3305). The Walkley and Black wet oxidation method was used to determine organic C content (Soil Survey Laboratory Staff,
1992. Total N content was measured by the Kjeldhal method (Bremner and Mulyaeny, 1982). Exchange Al3+ and Fe2+ were extracted with
1M KCl (Barnhisel and Bertsch, 1982). The CEC was extracted with 1M NH4Oac (buffered at pH 7.0), and exchangeable base concentrations
were measured using AAS (Shimatzu).
The data was analysis …………………
The Change of Catechin Antioxidant during Vacuum
Roasting of Cocoa Powder
• Material and Methods
• Sample preparation
Dried cocoa seeds are collected from public cocoa plantation at Lasusua subdistrict, North Kolaka
District, Southeast Sulawesi. The seeds were processed into powder using a hydraulic press of 50 tones
pressure strength, powder milling tool, 80-mesh screen, and some supporting tools (such as packager
and others). The powder was then divided into two groups in which one group was not roasted and
another group of cocoa powder was roasted either using vacuum frying device (equipped with water jet
system) or without vacuum device to obtain dried cocoa powder. Following roasting process, the dried
cocoa powder was treated sequentially to form dried extract of cocoa powder using the method of
Ruzaidi and Othman [1,12] with few modifications. Briefly, dried cocoa powder is concentrated using
ethanol 70% (1 gram dried cocoa powder is dissolved in 25 ml solvent (ethanol 70%) for 120 minutes at
50°C using orbital shaker. It was then cooled at room temperature and screened with No.1 Whatman
Paper. Result of screening is re-extracted for twice with similar solvent, and then evapo-concentrated
using rotary vacuum evaporator (HEIDOLPH Type Laborota 4000 Vacuum-Controller VC2) to obtain the
dried extract of cocoa powder.
• Laboratory analysis
Catechin analysis: Beside catechin content of roasted and unroasted cocoa powder, catechin content
of dried cocoa seed, nib and unroasted cocoa powder were also analyzed and the results were used as
control. The preparation of sample for the identification and analysis of catechin used the method of
Othman [1] with modification. Briefly, sample solution (dried extract of cocoa powder made in the
methanol (500 or 1000 times of dilution) was aspirated about 2 mL and 0.1 ml of 10% aluminum
chloride and 0.1 ml of 1 M potassium acetate were added into the sample. It was further added by 2.8
ml deionized water prior to incubation for 30 minutes at room temperature and given a pressure at 415
nm. The absorbance concentration was compared to that in catechin standard curve (Sigma, Co.
Chemical, St. Louis, USA) to determine the percentage of catechin concentration.
o
Materials and Methods (cont……)
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The identification of catechin with LC-MS: The sample was prepared with a modified method of
Subagio and Calderon [13,14]. Briefly, one gram of dried extract of cocoa powder (extracted by
rotary evaporator with ethanol 70%) was diluted into MeOH (50 ml) and put into ultrasonic
(sonicator) for an hour. The sample was then resided for an hour before screened and dried using
nitrogen gas. The LC-MS analysis was implemented using formic acid solvent (0.1% in air, pH.5) and
methanol solvent. LC-MS type used was Shimadzu (Columbia, MD) LC-10A HPLC system and the
Leap (Carrboro, NC) HTS PAL
autosampler interfaced to an Applied Biosystems (Foster City, CA) API
4000 triple-quadruple mass spectrometer.
Design experiment and data analysis
The research consisted of three factors. Factor I was vacuum pressure (V) which consisted of 45.6,
60.8 (cmHg) and non-vacuum (Vo). Factor II was three levels of roasting temperature (T) (100°C,
110°C, 120°C). Factor III was roasting length (L) (25, 35, and 45 minutes). These three factors would
produce 27 (3×3×3) combinations of treatment with 2 replications, and thus, 54 units of
experiments were obtained.
Data were tabulated and analyzed using statistical procedure of the analysis of variance. The
differences between treatments were compared by using Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5 levels.
Results and Discussion
Results and Discusion
It is often easier to discuss your results as
you present them, but various journals
have different systems
Justify your points based on accepted
theories or previously published work
It is fine to make bold new statements; but
you must ensure such a statement is
justified
Results and discussion
•
•
•
•
Present in Table, Figure?
What Figure?
Describe the important results
Do not duplicate Table and Figure; Table,
Figure and explanation
• Discuss it (why the phenomenon happens)
• Comparing your results with other works
Discussion
What is Science?
•
•
•
Daniel Nocera, MIT
“ In the discussion section, where you talk
about the implications of the work, you
can sound smart or stupid, and tell an
interesting story”
“ You may sometimes be stupid and you
may sometimes be smart, but you must
always be good”
“ When I read the results section of your
paper, everything in there has got to be
right”
The Characteristics of Rice Husk Biochar and Its Influence on the Properties
of Acid Sulfate Soils and Rice Growth in West Kalimantan, Indonesia
•
Results and Discussion
•
The effect of rice husk biochar and other soil amendments on the chemical properties of acid
sulfate soil in West Kalimantan is presented in Table 3. In general, application of organic soil
amendments significatly improved the chemical properties of acid sulfate soil. There was an
increase in soil organic matter content, soil pH, and CEC and a decrease in exchangeable Al and
soluble Fe. The results in Table 3 also show that application of organic soil amendments increased
the level of P, K and Ca, but did not significantly influence the amount of Mg and Na.
•
Table 3
•
Rice husk ash and rice husk biochar had a high pH (Table 1); therefore, it is reasonable that the soil
treated with rice husk biochar and rice husk ash also had a high pH. This results indicated that rice
husk biochar could be used as a substitution for lime materials to increase the pH of acidic soils.
The increase in CEC of the soil with organic soil amendments would probably be due to the
negative charge arising from the carboxyl groups of the organic matter. The increase in CEC and soil
pH with the addition of organic matter has been shown elsewhere (see Bot and Benites, 2005).
Biochar has a high CEC (see Table 1), and with its high recalcitrance (Glaser et al., 2002), it is
reasonable that soil applied with biochar had the highest CEC. An increase in soil CEC with the
application of biochar has also been shown by Chan et al. (2007)
The increase in elemental plant nutrients P, K, and Ca is as a result of addition of plant nutrients in
the organic soil amendments as has been suggested by Ponamperuma (1982). For the P nutrient,
however, this increase could have also been as a result of increasing the soil pH due to rice husk ash
or rice husk biochar application. It is interesting to note that, although the C-organic content in rice
husk biochar is lower than that of rice straw or rice husk, the highest level of soil organic matter
was observed in rice husk biochar tretaed soil. This phenomenon indicated the recalcitrance of Corganic in rice husk biochar as has been suggested by many researchers (e.g. Glasser et al. 2002;
Lehman et al., 2003; Rondon et al., 2007)
•
Conclussion
Conclusions
This is where you bring your key points
together and is often the second part of the
paper scanned (after the abstract)
You want to leave the reader with a take
home message
Start with bullet points, then link these
together
Do not bring new material (references) into
the conclusion
The Characteristics of Rice Husk Biochar and Its
Influence on the Properties of Acid Sulfate Soils and
Rice Growth in West Kalimantan, Indonesia
• 4. Conclusion
• The experimental results of biochar made from rice husk
grown in acid sulfate soil had a characteristics of ………..
• Application of rice husk biochar and other organic soil
amendment applications improve some properties of the
acid sulfate soil of West Kalimantan, Indonesia, namely:
decreasing soil bulk density, soil strength, exchangeable Al,
and soluble Fe, and increasing soil pH, soil organic matter,
total P, CEC, exchangeable K, and exchangeable Ca.
• The improvement of soil properties with organic soil
amendment applications resulted in an improvement of
rice growth as shown by an increase in plant height,
number of tillers, and dry biomass. A significant negative
correlation occurred between dry biomass and
exchangeable Al, soluble Fe, and soil strength; and a
significant positive correlation occurred between dry
biomass, soil organic matter, and total P.
Fundamental to looks
• Methodology: should clear enough so other
people can do your work as you done without
a lot of questions
• Do not to elaborate
• If you use the existing method enough cited
the sources (references)
Fundamentals to look
Statistics
Science depends on critical analysis of data
This data must be statistically sound;
means are not different unless they are
statistically different at a stated probability
(e.g. 0.05 or 95%)
A paper will be rejected if statistics are not
sound
So choose replication carefully during the
design of an experiment
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
Presentation
make you manuscript look good
Figures should be of uniform size and
shape
Watch font size and style in axis, titles and
legend characters
Watch the width of lines on graphs
Watch the colour of shading of graphs; put
yourself in the shoes of the reader
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
350
300
-1
B C o n . (m g k g )
250
200
150
300
100
B r ate v s C I
250
50
-1
B c o n . (m g k g )
200
0
0
10
20
30
-1
B ra te (kg h a )
150
100
B r ate v s C m
50
0
0
5
10
15
20
-1
B ra te ( kg h a )
S o u rc e : K h a n e t a l. M a s s e y U n iv e r s ity
25
30
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
0.3
0.25
root shoot B ra tio
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
B ra te (kg /h a )
S o u rc e : K h a n e t a l. M a s s e y U n iv e r s ity
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
Presentation
Some software applications do a better job
than others and are easier to use
If possible use alternatives to excel for
drawing graphs
Place images into your manuscript in a final
form; do not manipulate figures in your
Word document
Aim to use high resolution figures
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
Presentation
Some software applications do a better job
than others and are easier to use
If possible use alternatives to excel for
drawing graphs
Place images into your manuscript in a final
form; do not manipulate figures in your
Word document
Aim to use high resolution figures
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
Referencing
Any concept, output, knowledge, data or
discussion that is not your own must be
referenced
Avoid referencing obscure works that are
not easily obtainable (can be tracked online)
Avoid personal communications where
possible and try not to cite unpublished data
Used a more journal article; the latest reference
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Referencing
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in the text and the reference list
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present your original science; your
manuscript will be cited as the first
presentation of a new concept, output,
knowledge, data or discussion
Review Precess
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of the work
Grant proposals are also reviewed
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Help the reviewer by attending to as much
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ensure that what you submit is of
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Fundamentals to look (cont....)
Under
r e v ie w
Yo u m u s t p a y a t t e n t i o n t o r e v i e w e r
c o m m e n ts
Fa ilu re o f a c a d e m ic s t o fo llo w p e e r re v ie w
is lin k e d t o t h e b ig g e s t s c ie n t ific s c a n d a l o f
t h e t w e n t ie t h c e n t u r y
C o ld F u s io n , P o n s a n d F le is c h m a n n fro m
t h e U n iv e r s it y o f U t a h
K e y p ro b le m w a s d is c lo s u re o f re s u lt s
b e fo re re v ie w a n d p u b lic a t io n
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
D o n ’t b e c o n c e rn e d a b o u t
r e je c t i o n
T h is is p a r t o f life
W e a l l g e t r e je c t e d a t s o m e t i m e
U s e c o m m e n t s t o im p ro v e m a n u s c r ip t fo r
n e x t jo u r n a l ; o r , a r g u e f o r a c c e p t a n c e w i t h
e d it o r
S o m e r e v i e w e r s a r e ju s t m e a n !
U n lik e ly y o u ’ ll g e t s a m e re v ie w e r t w ic e in
d i f f e r e n t jo u r n a l s
B u t , m a k e s u re y o u a t le a s t c o n s id e r
re v ie w e r c o m m e n t s
What Journal ?
• Journal bereputasi
• Impact factor? Indexes ?
• Karya ilmiah di jurnal internasional yang diusulkan dalam kenaikan jabatan
akan di periksa apakah terindeks di laman Thomson ISI Knowledge atau di
Scopus SJR Journal Ranking atau Microsoft academic search. Apabila
ditemukan di salah satu laman tersebut maka akan memenuhi kriteria sebagai
jurnal internasional. Bila karya ilmiah tidak ditemukan disalah satu laman
tersebut maka akan di periksa di
laman scholarlyoa.com/publishers/ dan scholarlyoa.com/individualjournals yang memberikan informasi tentang publisher dan jurnal-jurnal
meragukan (questionable journal). Dilaman ini juga dijelaskan alasan mengapa
suatu jurnal sebagai jurnal meragukan. Bila jurnal yang diusulkan tidak pernah
ditemukan sebagai jurnal yang tidak patut dalam penilaian Tim PAK maka
jurnal yang diragukan tetap dinilai tetapi karya ilmiahnya tidak dapat dijadikan
pemenuhan syarat kenaikan jabatan ke Guru Besar atau kenaikan jabatan ke
Lektor Kepala dalam masa mukim 1-3 tahun. Jika jurnal meragukan tersebut
telah ditemukan oleh Tim PAK dan ada hal-hal yang tidak patut, contohnya ada
karya ilmiah di suatu jurnal internasional dibuat dari suatu template karya
ilmiah dan lupa di delete maka jurnal tersebut tidak dinilai.
Diskusi ttg Bells’ List
• Setelah membaca “Jurnal yang tidak dinilai untuk kenaikan
pangkat/jabatan dosen”, saya ingin mengetahui kriteria jurnal yang
dapat digunakan untuk kenaikan pangkat dosen. Saya sudah
beberapa kali publikasi di J. Chem. Chem. Eng. terbitan David
Publishing Company. Penulis di jurnal ini berasal dari berbagai
negara dan review-nya cukup teliti, jadi mengapa diragukan?. Sekali
lagi saya ingin mengetahui apa kriteria jurnal yang dapat digunakan
untuk kenaikan pangkat dosen, supay ke depan dalam publikasi
tidak sia-sia
• Beberapa informasi dan pengalaman lapangan banyak jurnal dari
David Publishing yang meragukan, bukan berarti tdk bisa dinilai.
Disarankan agar mencari journal yang masuk dalam Scopus atau
yang setara misalnya di ISI -Thomson Reuter sehingga proses
penilaian akan lebih cepat
Diskusi Bells’ list (lanjutan)
• Jika TIM PAK DIKTI konsisten memvalidasinya dengan SCIMago
Journal Rank (SJR), maka IJPS menurut Journal Analyzer dari Scopus
memiliki nilai SJR = 0.247 dan SNIP = 1.118. Setiap naskah direview,
dan hasil review dikembalikan ke author. IJPS merupakan salah satu
jurnal yang menurut Jeffrey Bealls sebagai predatory journal. Tetapi
faktanya memiliki nilai SJR. Sumber rujukan Jeffrey Bealls masih perlu
divalidasi. Saran sebaiknya para anggota TIM PAK DIKTI mencoba
untuk menulis naskah dan mengirimkannya ke journal-journal yang
dianggap meragukan, sehingga bisa menarik kesimpulan. Silahkan
untuk komparasi bagaimana Australia mengelola publikasi dalam
suatu sistem Excellence Research Australia (ERA) atau Malaysia dengn
sistem MyRA yang mengkategorikan kelompok jurnal yang diakui
untuk promosi ke jenjang akademik. Mohon tanggapannya. Terima
kasih
• Terima kasih atas tanggapannya. Laman Jeffrey Bealls, scimagojr,
microsoft academic research hanya merupakan masukan tambahan,
tetap saja karya yang diusulkan akan diperisa oleh tim PAK sesuai
dengan bidangnya, dan keputusan penilaian ada di beliau.
Fundamentals to look (cont....)
Good luck ........
Take pride in your manuscript; the quality
and presentation is a reflection of you
Always ask for help when you need it
The scientific community has no
boundaries, so do not hesitate to ask
international experts for their opinion

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