1. INTERSTATE FREEWAYS A. FREE B. TOLL 2. MAJOR DIVIDED HIGHWAYS 3. SECONDARY HIGHWAYS 4. LOCAL ROADS A. COUNTY ROADS B. MUNICIPAL STREETS AND ROADS County road Interstate highway Major divided highway Dirt road THE MAIN GOAL OF THE HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IS TO MOVE PEOPLE AND GOODS FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER AS SAFELY AS POSSIBLE. TO UNIFY THE TRAFFIC LAWS FROM STATE TO STATE. THERE ARE 3 PARTS OF THE HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM: 1. VEHICLESTO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF ALL VEHICLES 2. PEOPLE – THE LICENSING OF ALL PEOPLE WHO ARE ELIGIBLE TO OBTAIN A DRIVING LICENSE. 3. ROADWAYSTO ENSURE SAFE HIGHWAY DESIGNS 1. PAVED – A. CONCRETE B. ASPHALT 2. GRAVEL 3. DIRT 4 UNDER CONSTRUCTION 1. VISIBILITY REFERS TO WHAT YOU CAN SEE FROM BEHINDTHE WHEEL AND HOW WELL YOU CAN SEE IT. IT ALSO REFERS TO THE ABILITY OF OTHER DRIVERS TO SEE YOU. 2. TIME INVOLVES THE ABILITY TO JUDGE YOUR SPEED AND THE SPEED OF OTHER VEHICLES . 3. SPACE – REFERS TO DISTANCE. KEEPING YOUR VEHICLE AT A GOOD SAFETY MARGAIN. A SPACE CUSHION AROUND YOUR VEHICLE OF 3 TO 5 SECONDS. THE SMITH SYSTEM OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING 1950’S DEVELOPED BY HAROLD SMITH FORD MOTOR CO. EXECUTIVE 5 STEP PROCESS: AIM HIGH – USE THE 15 SECOND RULE (LOOK FAR DOWN THE ROAD, NOT JUST RIGHT IN FRONT OF THE CAR). KEEP YOUR EYES MOVING – DON’T STARE DOWN THE MIDDLE OF THE ROAD MOVE YOUR EYES SIDE TO SIDE. GET THE BIG PICTURE – LOOK FOR HAZARDS (15 SECONDS AHEAD) (OTHER MOTORISTS, PEDESTRAINS, VEHICLES, BICYCLES, ETC.) LEAVE YOURSELF AN OUT – MONITOR THE SPACE CUSHION AROUND VEHICLE MAKE SURE OTHERS CAN SEE YOU – USE YOUR SIGNALS- DIRECTIONAL, HEADLIGHTS, BRAKE LIGHTS, HORN MAKE EYE CONTACT. THIS DRIVING SYSTEM WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1960’S. THE ACRONYM STANDS FOR I – STANDS FOR IDENTIFY YOU MUST LOCATE HAZARDS AND POTENTIAL CONFLICTS. IDENTIFY objects or conditions within 12-15 seconds ahead OF YOU P stands for PREDICT PREDICT what may happens based on your observations and prepare for what you may have to do to reduce your risk of being involved in an accident. DETERMINE WHAT THE HAZARD MIGHT DO……….. P stands for PREDICT PREDICT what may happen based on your observations and prepare what you may have to do to reduce your risk of being involved in an accident. DETERMINE WHAT THE HAZARD MIGHT DO……….. D – STANDS FOR DECIDE DETERMINE WHAT YOU NEED TO DO BASED ON YOUR PREDICTION E - STANDS FOR EXECUTE CARRY OUT YOUR DECISION POSSIBLE ACTIONS: 1. ADJUSTMENTS OF SPEED (ACCELERATION, SLOWING OR STOPPING) 2. ADJUSTMENTS OF POSITION (CHANGING LANE POSITION OR COMPLETELY CHANGING DIRECTION) THIS DRIVING SYSTEM WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1970s. THE ACRONYM STANDS FOR S - STANDS FOR SEARCH – KEEP YOUR EYES MOVING AT ALL TIMES. SEARCHING PROVIDES YOU A MEANS OF LOOKING FOR HAZARDS. THERE ARE 3 GROUPS OF HAZARDS YOU NEED TO BE AWARE OF: 1. CARS, TRUCKS AND OTHER VEHICLES 2. PEDESTRIANS AND ANIMALS 3. STATIONARY OBJECTS I – STANDS FOR IDENTIFY YOU MUST LOCATE HAZARDS AND POTENTIAL CONFLICTS. IDENTIFY objects or conditions within 1215 seconds ahead OF YOU P stands for PREDICT PREDICT what may happen based on your observations and prepare what you may have to do to reduce your risk of being involved in an accident. DETERMINE WHAT THE HAZARD MIGHT DO……….. D – STANDS FOR DECIDE DETERMINE WHAT YOU NEED TO DO BASED ON YOUR PREDICTION E - STANDS FOR EXECUTE CARRY OUT YOUR DECISION POSSIBLE ACTIONS: 1. ADJUSTMENTS OF SPEED (ACCELERATION, SLOWING OR STOPPING) 2. ADJUSTMENTS OF POSITION (CHANGING LANE POSITION OR COMPLETELY CHANGING DIRECTION) THE SAFE METHOD FOR DRIVING WAS DEVELOPED IN THE EARLY 2000’S TO COME UP WITH A NEWER AND NOT SO OUT-DATED METHOD OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING. THE ACRONYM STANDS FOR: S – STANDS FOR SCAN KEEP YOUR EYES MOVING AT ALL TIMES TO EFFECTIVELY SEE IMMINENT DANGER A – STANDS FOR ASSESS IDENTIFY OR LOCATE POTENTIAL THREATS (ROADWAY FEATURES) TAKE NOTICE OF HAZARDS THAT COULD CAUSE YOU TROUBLE. F – STANDS FOR FIND TO FIND “AN OUT” AN ESCAPE ROUTE THAT ALLOWS YOU TO AVOID A COLLISION. E STANDS FOR EXECUTE EXECUTE A SAFE COURSE OF ACTION TO AVOID A DANGEROUS SITUATION. THE 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING: KNOWLEDGE - A GOOD DRIVER WILL HAVE A GOOD KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRAFFIC LAWS. ALERTNESS – A GOOD DRIVER IS ALERT TO WHAT IS GOING ON AROUND THEM. ANTICIPATION - GOOD DRIVERS ANTICIPATE WHAT MAY OR MAY NOT HAPPEN, AND THEY TAKE ACTION TO AVOID MANY PROBLEMS. JUDGMENT - GOOD DRIVERS DO NOT MAKE RISKY MANEUVERS LIKE TRYING TO BEAT A RED LIGHT. SKILL – THEY HAVE THE TECHNICAL SKILLS TO OPERATE A VEHICLE SAFELY THROUGH TRAFFIC. THEY CAN HANDLE HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS. It is the general term used to describe the experience of feeling sleepy, tired, or exhausted when driving a vehicle. Heavy eyelids. Tired or sore eyes. Poor concentration. Yawning. Restlessness. Drowsiness. Slow reaction. Boredom. Feeling irritable. Missing road signs. Having difficulty staying in the lane/over steering. Succumbing to micro sleeps. Good nights sleep. Pull over and stop. Affects of medication. Adjust environment. Radio usage. Napping. Nutrition. Stay hydrated Do not use cruise control. Remember, once fatigue sets in—sleep is the only cure! WHAT IS HIGHWAY HYPONSIS? Highway hypnosis is a very dangerous situation that really occurs when you're driving, generally late at night; generally on lonely stretches of road where there's a lack of mental stimulation. The best way to stay aware while driving is to constantly look around. You should be checking your speedometer periodically anyway, as well as your rear-view mirror and side view mirrors. Staying aware of any changes in road markers, such as a two-lane road becoming a one-lane road, is very important when driving long distances. AVOID EATING HEAVY MEALS BEFORE TRAVELING GET PLENTY OF SLEEP THE NIGHT BEFORE PLAY THE RADIO COOL THE TEMPERATURE OF THE CAR DOWN DRINK COFFEE STOP AT A REST AREA AND WALK AROUND OR JUST TAKE A NAP.