Europeans Build Empires in South & Southeast Asia Portugal, Netherlands & Spain Portugal • First European power to gain a foothold in Asia • Do you remember who was there 1st? • Ships were small & fast • Superior firepower helped to win control of the Indian Ocean spice trade Building an Empire in the East • Afonso de Albuquerque – Portuguese commander in India • Mughal Empire controlled most of India • Local princes in southern regions • The Plan • Manipulate the princes • Remove the Mughal • Make Indian Ocean a “Portuguese Lake” Portuguese Trading Outposts • 1510 – seized island of Goa • Military & trading base • Burned coastal towns & crushed Arab fleets • 1511 – seized port of Malacca • Massacred Muslims • Portugal had built a trade empire in less than 50 years • Used these cities as outposts to resupply & repair ships • Controlled spice trade between Europe & Asia Not So Fast!! • A lack of resources and a great deal of resistance prevented Portugal from completely controlling the area • Attacked Muslims & Hindus in an attempt to convert them to Christianity • The Dutch would then compete for Asian trade Here come the Dutch! • 1599 – ships returns from Asia • Pepper, cloves, spices • Netherlands soon became a leader in European trade • Settlement in Cape Town (South Africa) led the way to the east Dutch East India Company • Formed in 1602 by wealthy Dutch merchants • No government control – DEIC dominates the region • Builds armies wages war on natives • Negotiates treaties • Governs territories Why was the VOC this powerful? Dutch Dominance • 1641 – Captured Malacca from Portugal • Monopolized the Spice Islands • Used military force but kept close ties with local rulers • 1700s – Dutch trade empire on the decline • Maintained empire until 1948 Spain gets in the mix • Magellan had claimed Philippines for Spain in 1521 • Would conquer and colonize • Named after King Philip II • Tried to convert Filipinos to Christianity • Shipped silver from Americas to Philippines to trade with China An end to the Mughal • Began in 1520s • Europeans amazed by the luxury items • Spices, textiles, silk and cotton • Granted trading rights to Europeans • Empire weakened over time (civil war, corruption, death of powerful rulers) • England and France built competing companies & fought for power • Mid 1700s – British East India Company forces out the French • England soon rules India directly Answer these… Welcome!! ;-) • How did European nations build empires in South and Southeast Asia? (process) • Why would the Portuguese not attempt to conquer inland territory? • What about the location of the Philippines made them valuable to the Spanish? • Mughal Empire would grant trade rights to several European countries. What does that say about the power of those countries?