Europeans Build Empires in South & Southeast Asia

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Europeans Build
Empires in South &
Southeast Asia
Portugal, Netherlands & Spain
Portugal
• First European power to gain a foothold in Asia
• Do you remember who was there 1st?
• Ships were small & fast
• Superior firepower helped to win control of the
Indian Ocean spice trade
Building an Empire in the East
• Afonso de Albuquerque – Portuguese
commander in India
• Mughal Empire controlled most of India
• Local princes in southern regions
• The Plan
• Manipulate the princes
• Remove the Mughal
• Make Indian Ocean a “Portuguese Lake”
Portuguese Trading Outposts
• 1510 – seized island of Goa
• Military & trading base
• Burned coastal towns & crushed Arab fleets
• 1511 – seized port of Malacca
• Massacred Muslims
• Portugal had built a trade empire in less than 50 years
• Used these cities as outposts to resupply & repair ships
• Controlled spice trade between Europe & Asia
Not So Fast!!
• A lack of resources and a great
deal of resistance prevented
Portugal from completely
controlling the area
• Attacked Muslims & Hindus in
an attempt to convert them to
Christianity
• The Dutch would then
compete for Asian trade
Here come the Dutch!
• 1599 – ships returns
from Asia
• Pepper, cloves, spices
• Netherlands soon
became a leader in
European trade
• Settlement in Cape Town
(South Africa) led the
way to the east
Dutch East India Company
• Formed in 1602 by wealthy Dutch merchants
• No government control – DEIC dominates the region
• Builds armies  wages war on natives
• Negotiates treaties
• Governs territories
Why was the VOC this powerful?
Dutch Dominance
• 1641 – Captured
Malacca from
Portugal
• Monopolized the
Spice Islands
• Used military force
but kept close ties
with local rulers
• 1700s – Dutch trade
empire on the
decline
• Maintained empire
until 1948
Spain gets in the mix
• Magellan had claimed Philippines for
Spain in 1521
• Would conquer and colonize
• Named after King Philip II
• Tried to convert Filipinos to
Christianity
• Shipped silver from Americas to
Philippines to trade with China
An end to the Mughal
• Began in 1520s
• Europeans amazed by the luxury items
• Spices, textiles, silk and cotton
• Granted trading rights to Europeans
• Empire weakened over time (civil war,
corruption, death of powerful rulers)
• England and France built competing
companies & fought for power
• Mid 1700s – British East India
Company forces out the French
• England soon rules India directly
Answer these… Welcome!! ;-)
• How did European nations build empires in South and
Southeast Asia? (process)
• Why would the Portuguese not attempt to conquer inland
territory?
• What about the location of the Philippines made them
valuable to the Spanish?
• Mughal Empire would grant trade rights to several European
countries. What does that say about the power of those
countries?

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