Do Now

Report
• 2/25 Focus:
– The Crusades and improvements in farming
helped contribute to renewed interest in trade
in Western Europe
• Do Now:
– How did the Crusades renew interest in trade
in Western Europe?
Improvements in Farming
• Iron Plow
– The use of the Iron
plow made farming
easier and increased
food production
• The Horse Collar and
iron horse shoes
– allowed farmers to
use horses rather
than oxen to plow
fields
– Horses were faster
and more efficient
•
Improvements in Farming
• The Three Field
System
– Increased food
production and
made soil more
fertile
•
Trade Improves
• Rise of
trading
centers
– Italy in
southern
Europe
• Genoa and
Venice
– Flanders in
Northern
Europe
•
Trade Improves
• Trade
Fairs
– Took place
in towns
where
trade
routes
met
Trade Improves
• The
Hanseatic
League
– Association
of Germanic
cities to
protect
economic
interests
– Protected
traders
from piracy
Trade Improves
• Improvements in trade
led to Commercial
Revolution
– Increased use of
currency
– Banking and investment
increases
– Rise of Capitalism
• Economic system where
business is owned privately
to make a profit
• Competition is a key
component
Growth of Towns
• Trading centers and
Trade Fairs led to
the birth of towns
– Walled and
protected near the
manor
– King or lord granted
charter
• Setup the rights and
privileges of a town
– People governed and
defended the town
Growth of Towns
• Many serfs left the
manors and moved into
towns/cities
– Could be free in cities if
they hid from their lord
for a year and one day
– Increased populations in
towns
• Towns were often
overcrowded and dirty
– Led to a decline in
feudalism
Closure
• Identify one way that farming improved
during the Middle Ages
• What were trade guilds?
• 2/26 Focus:
– During the High Middle Ages, European
society became more stable and made
cultural gains in the areas of art, literature,
and architecture
• Do Now:
– Identify one effect that the renewal of
trade had on Western Europe
Trade Guilds
• Association of
businesses and
craftsmen
– Set prices for goods,
wages, and standards
for quality
– Apprentices worked
for 3-11 years under a
master
– Strangers had to pay a
toll to the guilds to
sell their products in a
town
– Guilds took care of
widows and children of
deceased members
Results of Trade Improvements
• Commercial Revolution
• Growth of middle class
• New jobs titles
– Bankers, manufacturers, craftsmen
• Rise of national kingdoms
Revival of Learning
• The University
– Increased the flow
of Greek learning
into Europe
– Goal of attending
universities was
often to get a job in
government or with
the Church
– Helped to create a
new educated class
•
Literature
• Literacy began to increase in Europe
after 1200 AD.
– Coincided with growth of cities
• Authors began writing in the language of
their countries rather than just Latin
Literature
• Epics and Romances
were long poems that
tell a story
– Epics
• Often related to war and
heroes
• The Song of Roland
– Romances
• Love stories and chivalry
• King Arthur and the
Knights of the Roundtable
Literature
• The Canterbury
Tales by Geoffrey
Chaucer
– Collection of stories
about a group of
pilgrims from
various social groups
– Provide a
description of life in
the middle ages
Philosophy
• Thomas Aquinas
– Studied the works
of Greek
philosophers
• Aristotle
– Attempted to use
logic and reason to
prove Christian
teachings and prove
the existence of
God
• Scholasticism
Architecture
• Gothic
Architecture used
to build churches
• Used high spires
and flying
buttresses
• Replaced Roman
style of arches
and domes
Architecture
• The flying buttress
allowed churches to
be built much taller
and larger window
– Supported walls from
the outside
– Allowed for higher
ceilings and large
stained glass windows
– Eliminated the need
for columns
•
•
•
Illumination
• The process of
decorating a written
manuscript with
pictures or designs
– Often used in religious
text
•
Tapestries
• Large wool wall coverings that depicted
life in the Middle Ages
Closure
• Identify one example of medieval
literature.
• Identify the architectural style that
developed in Europe during the High
Middle Ages.
• What were trade guilds?

similar documents