african americans in the war - St. Mary of Gostyn Community

Report
http://www.superhypeblog.com/wpcontent/uploads/2009/09/lincoln_emanc
ipation.jpg
By: Clare Johnson, Lauren Bartosz, Grania O’Flaherty, Nicole Budzynski,
Clare Southworth, and Mia Ullmer
Emancipation Proclamation
o African Americans were at the heart of
the nation’s struggle
• Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free the
slaves
o Emancipation- the freeing of slaves
• Lincoln did not believe he had the
constitutional power to enforce it
• Lincoln worried about effects
Clare Southworth
Clare
Southworth
Northerner’s Opinions of
Emancipation:
• Democratic Party (included many laborers)- opposed in fear
of freed slaves would take jobs
• Abolitionists- argued war would be pointless if didn’t free
slaves
• Lincoln’s government- worried that this would anger voters &
loosing support for war
• Secretary of War Edwin Stanton- agreed with Lincoln to make
war
• Wanted slaves to be recruited into army
Mia Ullmer
Flier used to recruit
African American
Soldiers:
Mia Ullmer
http://www.pslweb.org/liberationnews/assets/images/content
New Soldiers
• African American
soldiers:
• Massachusetts
Infantry
• Company E of the 4th
U.S. Colored infantry
• Fought proudly- felt it
was first sign of
independence
Mia Ullmer
http://www.civilwaracademy.com/images/Black-Soldiers.jpg
Lincoln & The Emancipation
Proclamation:
•1862- Lincoln wrote the Emancipation
Proclamation
•Order to free Confederate slaves
•Military order to free slaves controlled in
Confederacy
Mia Ullmer
No Immediate Effect:
•Impossible for Federal govt. to enforce
proclamation in rebelled states
•Did not stop slavery in border states
•Federal govt. still had power to enforce it
•Impact more symbolic then real
Mia Ullmer
Powerful Position Before War:
•Lincoln- wanted to be in strong position in
war
•Then would announce plan
•The Battle of Antietam gave him victory he
needed
•Emancipation Proclamation- issued on
September 22, 1862
Went to effect on January 1, 1863 Mia Ullmer
Reaction to the Proclamation
o January 1, 1863- African Americans were
free
• African Americans gave thanks
• Abolitionists rejoiced
o William Lloyd Garrison was quick to note
that slavery continued to exist
• Especially in the South
Clare Southworth
Reaction to the Proclamation (Cont.)
o Proclamation encouraged slaves to escape
when Union troops came near
• Union troops protected them and hid
them
o The loss of slaves crippled the South’s
ability to wage war
Clare Southworth
Clare Southworth
Abraham Lincoln
o 1809-1865
o Was born in Kentucky
o Went to school for less than a year and
taught himself law
o Against slavery
o Helped lead the nation through the Civil
War
o Killed by John Wilkes Booth at age 56
Clare Southworth
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Abraham_Lincoln_Nove
mber_1863.jpg
African Americans
Participate in the War
Grania O.
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE WAR
•African Americans volunteered in the war
•Not all whites were ready to accept them
•Frederick Douglass thought this would
help the gain rights
•July 1862-Congress allowed Africans to
join the union army in South Carolina
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE WAR
•Only contrabands - escaped slaves
were allowed to serve
• About 180,000 free slaves joined
•The would receive $10 a month
•White men would receive $13 a
month
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
th
54
MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY
•54TH Massachusetts infantry- mostly free
Africans. July 1863 this regiment led heroic
charge on South Carolina’s Fort Wagner
•There were huge casualties because the
attack failed
•Half of the regiment was killed, wounded or
captured
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
th
54
MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY
• The bravery of the 54th regiment made it most celebrated African
American unit
• African Americans faced special horrors on the battlefield
• Confederates often sold or killed there black captives
• Lincoln rewarded the Africans in the 1864 election
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
FORT WANGER
• July 16 1863, the first time the 54th
Massachusetts infancy is put into action
• They attack Morris island in South Carolina
• Losing 45 men
• Few days later they attack Fort Wagner with a
disappointing loss
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
PRIMARY SOURCE:LETTER
June 23, 1863
Joseph E. Williams, an African American soldier and recruiter from
Pennsylvania, wrote this letter describing why African Americans fought for the
Union.
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
“We are now determined to hold every step which has been offered
to us as citizens of the United States for our elevation [benefit],
which represent justice, the purity, the truth, and aspiration [hope] of
heaven. We must learn deeply to realize the duty, the moral and
political necessity for the benefit of our race… Every consideration of
honor, of interest, and of duty to God and man, requires that we
should be true to our trust.”
—quoted in A Grand Army of Black Men, edited by Edwin S. Redkey
NEW SOLDIERS
GRANIA O’FLAHERTY
Growing Opposition
By: Nicole Budzynski
Copperheads
•Group of northern Democrats began
speaking against the war
oLed by Clement L. Vallandigham
oCalled themselves Peace Democrats
•Enemies called them Copperheads or,
midwestern's that agreed with the South and
opposed abolition
Nicole Budzynski
Copperheads Cont.
•Lincoln saw Copperheads as a threat
oSuspended Habeas corpus- a
constitutional protection against unlawful
imprisonment
oUnion officials jailed enemies and
Copperheads without a trial
•Angered Democrats and Republicans
Nicole Budzynski
Northern Draft
•March 1863- Congress approved draft, or
forced military service
oFor $300 men were allowed to buy their way
out of the military service
oUnskilled laborers- 1years wages
oCritics called the war “Rich man’s war and a
poor man’s fight”
Nicole Budzynski
Northern Draft Cont.
•July 1863- riots broke out when African
Americans began to replace Irish dock workers
in New York City
•City also holding a war draft
•Events angered rioters- 100 people died
Nicole Budzynski
Northern Draft Cont.
•1864 Election northern Democrats
nominated former General George
McClellan
oWanted an end to the war
•Lincoln beat McClellan in the popular vote400,000 out of 4 million
•Electoral vote was not even close- Lincoln 212,
McClellan 21
Nicole Budzynski
General George McClellan 1826-1885
•Began military career after he entered the
United States Military Academy in 1842
•Outbreak of Civil War- Ohio’s governor
William Dennison appointed McClellan as a
major general of the Ohio Volunteers
•Lincoln promoted him later to a major
general in the Regular Army- made him one
of the highest ranks in the military service.
Nicole Budzynski
Nicole Budzynski
Life For Soldiers and Civilians
Lauren Bartosz
ON THE BATTLEFIELD
• Soldiers fought on ancient battlefield formation
• Endless rows of army troops
• Would attach bayonets to their guns and run
towards the enemy
• Doctors and nurses in the field saved many
peoples lives
• Didn’t have medicine for infections
• infected legs and arms amputated without
painkillers, and infections caused many deaths
Lauren Bartosz
ON THE BATTLEFIELD CONT.
• The biggest killer of the Civil War – Diseases
• Diseases such as:
- typhoid
- pneumonia
- tuberculosis
• Nearly twice as many soldiers died of diseases and
infections in combat
Lauren Bartosz
PRISONERS OF WAR
• Military prisoners on both sides lived In a
unimaginable misery
• Prison camps were in:
- Andersonville, GA
- Elmira, NY
• Soldiers were packed into camps designed only to
hold only a fraction of their numbers
• Had little shelter, food, or clothing
• Starvation and diseases killed thousands of
Lauren Bartosz prisoners
BATTLEFIELD COMMUNICATIONS
The drummer was an essential member of every Civil War unit. Drummers served
army commanders by drumming specific beats that directed troop movements
during battle. Different beats were used to order troops to prepare to attack, to
fire, to cease fire, and to signal a truce. Drummers had to stay near their
commanders to hear orders. This meant that the drummers—some as young as
nine years old—often saw deadly combat conditions. The Civil War gave birth to
the Signal Corps, the army unit devoted to communications.
Lauren Bartosz
Union Signal Corps
Modern battlefield communications
Life as a Civilian
By: Clare Johnson
Home Front
•The North’s home front was mostly
industrial; they made things in factories
for the war
•The South’s home front was mostly
living; the citizens had shortages of food
and supplies
Clare J.
Home Front
Clare J.
Women in the War
•Women in the North helped sew
uniforms, helped nurse wounded
soldiers, and worked to make the
soldiers feel comfortable
•People also worked on farms and in
factories
Clare J.
Clara Barton
•Clara was a school teacher
•She helped everyone get an education
•She became a nurse and helped others
•She helped with the Red Cross
•She helped start it in America
Clare J.
Clara Barton
Clare J.
Video
• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/2
7984-assignment-discovery-the-life-of-a-civilwar-soldier-video.htm
Bibliography
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http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/george-mcclellan.html
United States History Beginnings to 1877
Cover slide picture- http://www.civilwar-pictures.com/articles/civil-war-art/civil-war-posters/
George McClellan- http://www.history.com/photos/civil-war-union-military-leaders/photo12
http://my.hrw.com/index.jsp
http://www.masshist.org/online/54thregiment/essay.php?entry_id=528#wagner
https://www.google.com/search?q=africans+in+the+civil+war&source
http://www.ducksters.com/biography/women_leaders/clara_barton.php
http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/life_during_the_civil_war.php
• Nicole Budzynski, Grania O’Flaherty, Clare Johnson

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