File - Dismuke`s Awesome English 9 and 10

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Sentence Structure Basics
An LTF Lesson
Bell-ringer:
Copy these definitions in your notes section.
 A phrase is a group of words that does not
contain both a subject and a verb.
Collectively, the words in a phrase function
as a single part of speech.
 A clause is a group of words that contains a
subject and a verb. An independent clause
can stand alone as a sentence, expressing a
complete thought. A dependent clause
cannot stand alone as a sentence. It begins
with a subordinating conjunction or a
relative pronoun.
Independent Clauses
The following slides are examples of
independent clauses (or simple
sentences) that contain a subject, a verb,
and different types of phrases.We will
identify the parts of each independent
clause.You may use the Phrase Toolbox to
help you.
Independent Clauses
1. Let’s do the first sentence together:
Johnny Reeves, a Ku Klux Klan member,
burned a cross during the night in a small
Vermont town.
Subject: Johnny Reeves
burned
Verb:
a Ku Klux Klan member
Appositive phrase:
Prepositional phrase: during the night
Prepositional phrase: in a small Vermont town.
Independent Clauses
2. Now it’s your turn:
Leonora Sutter, frightened by the flaming
cross, hid to find security and comfort.
Subject:
Verb:
Participial phrase:
Infinitive phrase:
Independent Clauses
3. Using one of the sentences below as a model,
write an independent clause (a simple
sentence) containing a subject, a verb, and at
least two different phrases.
Johnny Reeves, a Ku Klux Klan member,
burned a cross during the night in a small
Vermont town.
Leonora Sutter, frightened by the flaming
cross, hid to find security and comfort.
Compound Sentences
A compound sentence consists of two or
more independent clauses joined by a
semicolon or by a comma and a coordinating
conjunction.
4. Using a comma and a coordinating
conjunction, create a compound sentence by
combining the independent clause you wrote
for Activity One with one of the other
independent clauses provided in that activity.
Adjust the wording or use pronouns if
necessary.
Example

Lenora Sutter was frightened by the
flaming cross, and the fire department was
called to put out the flame.
Compound Sentences
5. Combine the same two clauses again,
using a semicolon to create a compound
sentence.
6. If you consider both meaning and effect,
which combination works best? Why?
Example

Lenora Sutter was frightened by the
flaming cross; the fire department was
called to put out the flame.
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence consists of one
independent clause and one or more
dependent clauses.
A dependent clause begins with a
subordinating conjunction such as
because, when, if, although or a relative
pronoun such as that, which, who.
Complex Sentences
7. Create subordinate clauses by placing a
different subordinating conjunction at the
beginning of each independent clause
from Activity One.
 Example: Because Johnny Reeves, a Ku
Klux Klan member, burned a cross during
the night in a small Vermont town...
Complex Sentences
8. Create a complex sentence by combining one
of these subordinate clauses with one of the
independent clauses from Activity One.
 Example: When Johnny Reeves, a Ku Klux Klan
member, burned a cross during the night, he
seemed to be happy with his accomplishment.

Note: If the dependent clause comes before the
independent clause, you should separate the two
clauses with a comma. If the dependent clause
comes after the independent clause, no comma is
needed.
Example
Because Johnny Reeves, a Ku Klux Klan
member, burned a cross during the night,
the fire department was called to put the
flames out.
 red: dependent clause
 blue: independent clause

Complex Sentences
9. Now place a subordinating conjunction in
front of the other independent clause to
make a dependent clause. Combine the
two clauses to create a different
complex sentence.
10. Which complex sentence seems to be
better or more logical? Why?
Compound-Complex Sentences
A compound-complex sentence
contains two or more independent
clauses and one or more dependent
clauses.
Compound-Complex Sentences
11. Copy the following compound-complex
sentence. Underline the dependent clause
once and each independent clause twice.

When Johnny Reeves, a Ku Klux Klan member,
burned a cross during the night, he seemed to
be happy with his accomplishment, but
Leonora Sutter, frightened by the flaming
cross, hid to find security and comfort.
Compound-Complex Sentences
12. Using the independent and dependent
clauses from the previous activities, write
a compound complex sentence of your
own. Underline the dependent clause
once and the independent clauses twice.
Ticket Out
Write a paragraph about your Christmas break.
Your paragraph should contain all of the
following sentence structures in any order you
wish:
Simple
Compound
Complex
Compound-Complex

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