Surrogacy

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Surrogacy
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Introduction
Surrogacy is where a woman carries and
delivers a child for another person
Did you know?
It is estimated that 650,000 Canadians (or 1 out of 6
couples) are affected with some form of infertility
Intended Parents
Traditional Intended Parents
 A couple where the female is unable to carry the baby because of medical
conditions or other reasons
Intended Fathers
(generally refers to a same-sex male couple)
 Where they want to start a family but needs to search for a surrogate
mother to help them carry the child
*It is very uncommon, where a set of homosexual intended mothers would
seek a surrogate mother, because with two women, the chances of both
experiencing infertility problems becomes rarer
Single Intended Parents
 Wants to start a family but hasn’t found the perfect partner
Reasons women become surrogates
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Want to help someone start a family
Enjoyment of pregnancy
Self‐fulfilment
Surrogacy has been going on for a long time
Experience (new friendship)
Source of income
Surrogacy Qualifications
The Surrogate mother….
 Must have had a least 1 child
 Must be between the ages of 21-40
 Have no history of serious pregnancy complications
 Must be physically and mentally fit
 Must be confident in fulfilling their job and giving up
the child to the intended parents when born
 Must be financially secure
 Must be willing (along with partner) to undergo
psychological and medical assessments

Willing to take IVF medications
Baby M Case: What really happened?
The Baby M case brought out a lot of controversies in 1986
 A traditional carrier Mary Beth Whitehead became instantly attached to
the baby when it was born and decided to keep the baby
 When first becoming a surrogate she has said that she would have
problems giving up the child which the intended parents and clinic ignored
 The intended parents Bill and Betsy Stern blackmailed Mary Beth
Whitehead in order to get custody of the child
 Bill and Betsy Stern ended up keeping the baby
What we learned from this…..
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There must be very strict qualifications
when becoming a surrogate mother, they
must be confident in knowing they will be
able to give up the child
Ethical Issues
Reasons
Argument
Infertile people should adopt
-adoption cost, risks, and limitations make it
very hard
-it’s not their responsibility to adopt (they
should be able to have a child of their own)
It’s only for the wealthy
-If they are dedicated they will save and
sacrifice as much as they can
Surrogacy is against God
-does not involve sexual contact therefore
there is no adultery committed
-everyone believes in something different
Gays Shouldn't Be Allowed to use a Surrogate
-they should be allowed to start a family just
like everyone else
Surrogacy exploits the poor
-they are not forced into it
-brings money for their family
-do it because they want to
Types of Surrogacy
Traditional Surrogacy
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Carrier uses her own egg which will be inseminated with the sperm of the
Intended Father, therefore the child will have a genetic link with the
intended father and the surrogate mother
This is less expensive then gestational but it more controversial because
the mother may have difficulties in giving up the baby
Since the surrogate mother will have a genetic link with the child the
intended parents may look at the surrogates….
Family History
Make sure her family history is free of diseases
 Appearance
The intended parents will usually look for someone who resembles the
intended mother or they will look for an attractive woman with a certain hair
and eye colour, height, weight, etc..
 Qualities
The Intended parents will look at the carrier’s hobbies, skills, IQ, etc.
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Gestational Surrogacy
Where the Carrier has no genetic link to the child
Mother's egg, father's sperm
 Example: this would be chosen if the biological mother was unable
to carry for medical reasons, the baby will be genetically related to
the parents
Donor egg, father's sperm
 Example: if there is no intended mother or if there was a question
about egg quality of the mother, or there were no ovaries
Mother's egg, donor sperm
 Example: if there is no intended father or if the sperm quality of the
father was questioned
Donor egg, donor sperm
 Example: if the intended parents are unable to produce either
sperm, egg or embryo, both the intended and surrogate mother will
have no genetic relation to the baby
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Average Costs for Gestational Surrogacy
IVF Cycles
$10,000-$20,000+
Surrogate mother Expenses (PrePregnancy)
$1,500-$3,000+
Childcare, clothing, food,
airfare/accommodations etc.
Surrogate mother expenses (during
pregnancy
$10,000-$25,000+
Clothing, food, childcare, travel costs, lost wages,
medications etc..
Additional Surrogate mother expense
(1)Csection birth (2)Multiple Births
(1)$1,000-$3,000
(2)$1,000-$3,000
Medical Evaluation
$800-$1,500
Legal Fees
$3,000-$10,00
Psychological Examinations
$500-$1000
1 year life insurance policy
$300-$500
DNA Diagnostics
$1,500
Total
$26.600-$68.500+
Average Costs for Traditional Surrogacy
IUI Cycle/Home insemination/ IVF Cycle
$0-$20,000+
Surrogate mother Expenses (PrePregnancy)
$1,500-$3,000+
Childcare, clothing, food,
airfare/accommodations etc.
Surrogate mother expenses (During
Pregnancy
$10,000-$25,000+
Clothing, food, childcare, travel costs, lost wages,
medications etc..
Additional Surrogate mother expense
(1)Csection birth (2)Multiple Births
(1)$1,000-$3,000
(2)$1,000-$3,000
Medical Evaluation
$800-$1,500
Legal Fees
$3,000-$10,00
Psychological Examinations
$500-$1000
1 year life insurance policy
$300-$500
DNA Diagnostics
$1,500
Total
$19,600-$68.500+
Treatment
Traditional Surrogacy
 artificial insemination may be used either at a clinic or in
her home in order to achieve pregnancy
Gestational Surrogacy
 Gestational Surrogacy Transfer (Embryo Transfer)
 IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)
Gestational Surrogacy Transfer
Before
 Birth control pills to regulate her cycles (or injectable Lupron - medication
may vary)
 Estradiol medications to build the lining of her uterus (make it the optimal
thickness for the transfer)
 She will undergo ultrasounds as well as blood tests to check the uterus and
hormone levels
 3-5 days before the day of the transfer surrogate will start progesterone
through injections, vaginal suppository or both
During
 The actual embryo transfer procedure takes only a few minutes and is
simple and painless
 The surrogate mother may be required to consume a large amount of
water before the transfer, so that the doctor will have an easier time seeing
her uterus on an ultrasound machine
The surrogate may be given Valium to help her relax
 The reproductive endocrinologist will tell the intended parents how many
embryos are viable for the transfer
 He/she will cleanse the cervix, with a saline solution
 He/she will inset the embryos through the cervix and into the uterus
through a small thin catheter
After
 The surrogate must rest one hour before leaving the clinic
 A pregnancy blood test is given 10-14 days after the embryo transfer and if
the surrogate mother is pregnant, she will continue taking medications for
another 10-14 weeks
NOTE
 As a result of the IVF procedure there is a chance of carrying twins, triplets
etc., this is because more than one embryo is used (to increase the possibility
of the embryos surviving) . Since the surrogates are healthy its more likely
that more than one embryo will survive the process.
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In Vitro Fertilization
The difference between commercial
surrogacy and altruistic surrogacy
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Commercial surrogacy is where the surrogate mother
receives a fee
Altruistic surrogacy is where the surrogate mother does
not receive a fee for her own use she is only reimbursed
for out-of-pocket expenses ( food, clothing, medication,
lost wages etc.)
Commercial surrogacy is now prohibited in Canada
Surrogacy Laws in Canada
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No person can consider to pay or pay a female to be a
surrogate mother
No person can counsel or induce a female person to
become a surrogate mother, or perform any medical
procedure to assist a female person to become a
surrogate mother who is under 21 years of age
Commercial surrogacy is illegal
Criminal penalty: A fine of up to $500,000 and up to 10 years in jail.
Surrogacy in India
A couple might choose India to find a surrogate because….
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The Cheaper Price (lower cost of living)
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The Experience
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Helping another Family
*The amount of money a surrogate mother in India
receives is approximately $5,000, an amount typically equal to 10 years worth of salary
Complications…
• The intended parents and surrogate
mother might need a translator
• The distance
• The culture difference
In conclusion there is no right or wrong to whether or not you choose surrogacy
in India
Surrogacy in other countries
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Surrogacy is banned in Switzerland, Germany, Belgium
(and many others)
In Israel, commercial surrogacy is legal but altruistic
surrogacy is banned (religious reasons related to adultery
and incest)
In the US, some states recognize surrogacy and some
have banned it
The UK and Australia permit altruistic surrogacy only
What’s new with Surrogacy?
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Surrogacy in India has become a popular topic
New laws enforced to make surrogacy better
Has become more acceptable to people because of
media, friends, and celebrities
References
Websites
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"Gestational carriers (surrogacy)." BabyCenter . N.p., n.d.Web. 21 May 2012.
<http://www.babycenter.com/0_gestational-carriers-surrogacy_4099.bc?page=1>.
"Types of Surrogacy." Canadian Surrogacy Options Inc.. N.p., n.d.Web. 21 May 2012.
<http://
www.canadiansurrogacyoptions.com/
types_of_surrogacy.html>.
"Overview of the Surrogacy Process | Resources | Human Rights Campaign." Human Rights
Campaign. N.p., n.d.Web. 21 May 2012.
<http://www.hrc.org/resources/entry/overview-of-the-surrogacy-process >.
Perkins, Rayven. "Simple Surrogacy Getting Started Guide." Information on Surrogacy Helping Surrogates and Intended Parents. N.p., n.d.
Web. 21 May 2012.
<http://www.information-on-surrogacy.com/ >.
Rhoads-Heinrich, Sally. "FAQ." Surrogacy in Canada Online. N.p., n.d.Web. 21 May 2012.
<http://www.surrogacy.ca/
res
ourcesfaq.html>.
Pictures
 http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/indias-babyfarm/2008/01/05/1198950126650.html
 http://novaivf.com/surrogacy-california.htm
 http://www.fertilityspecialist.co.za/services/surrogacy/
 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/In-Vitro-Fertilization
 http://electronics1175.blogspot.ca/
 http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,20245143,00.html
 http://www.surrogacy.ca/
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baby_M
 http://alreadyafamily.blogspot.ca/2010/09/infertility-starting-with-art.html
 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/21/health/21brod.html?pagewanted=2&_r
=1&sq=sarah%20jessica%20parker%20surrogacy&st=cse&scp=1

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