Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, and

Socializing New Professionals:
Leading the Way to a Smooth Entry
Tuesday, March 13, 10:15 am
Kara Lombardi
2012 NASPA Annual Conference s Phoenix, Arizona s March 10–14, 2012
Interest in Topic
• 12 + years in Career Services
• Experience with graduating seniors as they
engage in the job search process
• Work with new student affairs professionals
Turnover in Student Affairs
• Turnover is well documented (Bender, 1980;
Holmes, Verrier, & Chisholm, 1983; Ward,
• Early departure attributed to lack of fit, poor
career decisions, and unrealistic expectations
(Barham & Winston, 2006; Lorden, 1998;
Winston & Creamer, 1997)
Organizational Socialization
“the social knowledge and skills necessary to
assume an organizational role” (Van Maanen &
Schein, 1979, p. 211).
“Socialization is the process by which new members
of an organization come to understand, appreciate,
and adopt the customs, traditions, values, and goals
of their profession and their new organization”
(Tull, Hirt, & Saunders, 2009, p. x).
Importance of Socialization
• Increases job satisfaction and commitment
• Reduces uncertainty, which decreases
• Increases identification with organization
(Allen, 2006; Bauer, Bodner, Erdongan, Truxillo, & Tucker,
2007; Boehman, 2007; Feldman, 1976a, 1976b; Jones,
1986; Klein, Fan, & Preacher, 2006; Myers & Oetzel, 2003;
Saks & Ashforth, 1997; Waldeck & Myers, 2007; Wanous,
Stage Models of Socialization
• Stage models provide a framework to examine
• Jablin (1987, 2001) provides a four stage
– Anticipatory socialization
– Encounter
– Metamorphosis
– Exit
Socialization Stages from the Student
Affairs Perspective
• Pre-hire, pre-arrival, the first six months and
ongoing after entry (Mather, Bryan, &
Faulkner, 2009)
• Pre-employment and orientation, transition,
and settling in (Renn & Hodges, 2007)
• Anticipatory, formal, informal and
personal(Collins, 2009)
Stage Model
• Stage models provide a useful framework, but:
– Difficult to determine when one stops and the
next begins
– Difficult to test without longitudinal studies
– Do not account for individuality
– Do not recognize that as one is joining, they are
also exiting some other organization
Anticipatory Socialization
• Vocational
• Organizational
–Graduate school
–Pre-entry communication
Importance of Anticipatory
• Expectations begin to form
• Uncertainty upon entering a new organization
• Can help with the transition into a new
• Much done on orientation, little done on prehire experiences
Graduate School
• Graduate school is anticipatory socialization
(Mendoza, 2008; Renn & Hodges, 2007)
• Experiential learning helps to shape
• Graduate school experiences influence career
decisions (Quinn & Litzler, 2009)
• How do new professionals reflect on their
graduate school experience?
The Recruiting Process
• Pre-entry knowledge is a predictor of adjustment
(Wanous, 1992)
• Realistic pre-entry knowledge is related to role
clarity, job satisfaction and organizational
commitment (Klein, Fan, & Preacher, 2006)
• A natural tendency for both the organization and
the new hire to present only the most positive
• What role does the recruiting process play in new
professionals’ decisions to join new
• Relationships with supervisors and peers begins
before entry
• Relationships are critical for overcoming unmet
expectations (Major, Kozlowski, Chao, & Garnder,
• Supervisory relationship influence self-image, job
satisfaction and professional development (Tull,
• What relationships are being formed during the
pre-entry stage? How?
Proactive Behaviors
• Newcomers seek information to reduce
uncertainty (Miller & Jablin, 1991)
• Those who are proactive experience a more
positive adjustment (Kammeyer-Mueller &
Wanberg, 2003)
• What proactive behaviors do new
professionals engage in during the pre-entry
My Study
• To understand how new student affairs
professionals experience anticipatory
– Before the job search begins
– During the interview phase
– Period between job offer and start date
• Qualitative
• Graduate students currently on the job market
• Three phases of data collection
– Before job search
– During interview process
– After job offer, before entry
Preliminary Observations
Concerns with settling
Various levels of proactivity
Struggles between confidence and insecurity
Exploring the role of past experience on the
• Considering the role of significant others on
the process
Small Group Discussion
• Think about strategies used and/or
experienced during the recruitment or preentry stage
• What impression did they leave? Or what
impression were you hoping to achieve?
• Questions?
Thank you
Kara Lombardi
[email protected]
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