Socializing New Professionals: Leading the Way to a Smooth Entry Tuesday, March 13, 10:15 am Kara Lombardi 2012 NASPA Annual Conference s Phoenix, Arizona s March 10–14, 2012 Interest in Topic • 12 + years in Career Services • Experience with graduating seniors as they engage in the job search process • Work with new student affairs professionals Turnover in Student Affairs • Turnover is well documented (Bender, 1980; Holmes, Verrier, & Chisholm, 1983; Ward, 1995) • Early departure attributed to lack of fit, poor career decisions, and unrealistic expectations (Barham & Winston, 2006; Lorden, 1998; Winston & Creamer, 1997) Organizational Socialization “the social knowledge and skills necessary to assume an organizational role” (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979, p. 211). “Socialization is the process by which new members of an organization come to understand, appreciate, and adopt the customs, traditions, values, and goals of their profession and their new organization” (Tull, Hirt, & Saunders, 2009, p. x). Importance of Socialization • Increases job satisfaction and commitment • Reduces uncertainty, which decreases turnover • Increases identification with organization (Allen, 2006; Bauer, Bodner, Erdongan, Truxillo, & Tucker, 2007; Boehman, 2007; Feldman, 1976a, 1976b; Jones, 1986; Klein, Fan, & Preacher, 2006; Myers & Oetzel, 2003; Saks & Ashforth, 1997; Waldeck & Myers, 2007; Wanous, 1980) Stage Models of Socialization • Stage models provide a framework to examine socialization • Jablin (1987, 2001) provides a four stage model: – Anticipatory socialization – Encounter – Metamorphosis – Exit Socialization Stages from the Student Affairs Perspective • Pre-hire, pre-arrival, the first six months and ongoing after entry (Mather, Bryan, & Faulkner, 2009) • Pre-employment and orientation, transition, and settling in (Renn & Hodges, 2007) • Anticipatory, formal, informal and personal(Collins, 2009) Stage Model • Stage models provide a useful framework, but: – Difficult to determine when one stops and the next begins – Difficult to test without longitudinal studies – Do not account for individuality – Do not recognize that as one is joining, they are also exiting some other organization Anticipatory Socialization • Vocational • Organizational –Graduate school –Recruitment/selection –Pre-entry communication Importance of Anticipatory Socialization • Expectations begin to form • Uncertainty upon entering a new organization • Can help with the transition into a new organization • Much done on orientation, little done on prehire experiences Graduate School • Graduate school is anticipatory socialization (Mendoza, 2008; Renn & Hodges, 2007) • Experiential learning helps to shape expectations • Graduate school experiences influence career decisions (Quinn & Litzler, 2009) • How do new professionals reflect on their graduate school experience? The Recruiting Process • Pre-entry knowledge is a predictor of adjustment (Wanous, 1992) • Realistic pre-entry knowledge is related to role clarity, job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Klein, Fan, & Preacher, 2006) • A natural tendency for both the organization and the new hire to present only the most positive aspects • What role does the recruiting process play in new professionals’ decisions to join new organizations? Relationships • Relationships with supervisors and peers begins before entry • Relationships are critical for overcoming unmet expectations (Major, Kozlowski, Chao, & Garnder, 1995) • Supervisory relationship influence self-image, job satisfaction and professional development (Tull, 2009) • What relationships are being formed during the pre-entry stage? How? Proactive Behaviors • Newcomers seek information to reduce uncertainty (Miller & Jablin, 1991) • Those who are proactive experience a more positive adjustment (Kammeyer-Mueller & Wanberg, 2003) • What proactive behaviors do new professionals engage in during the pre-entry stage? My Study • To understand how new student affairs professionals experience anticipatory socialization – Before the job search begins – During the interview phase – Period between job offer and start date Methodology • Qualitative • Graduate students currently on the job market • Three phases of data collection – Before job search – During interview process – After job offer, before entry Preliminary Observations • • • • Concerns with settling Various levels of proactivity Struggles between confidence and insecurity Exploring the role of past experience on the process • Considering the role of significant others on the process Small Group Discussion • Think about strategies used and/or experienced during the recruitment or preentry stage • What impression did they leave? Or what impression were you hoping to achieve? Discussion • Questions? Thank you Kara Lombardi [email protected] References • • • • • • • • • Allen, D. G. (2006). 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