Power Point Presentation December 13 2013

Report
Using Self-Determination Theory for
Enhanced Effectiveness of Justice
Education Programs
Applying Research on Motivation & Happiness
to Course Design & Teaching
Catherine F. Klein (USA)
Paula Galowitz (USA)
Freda Grealy (Ireland)
Ernest Ojukwu (Nigeria)
Leah Wortham (USA)
December 13, 2013
1
U.S. Carnegie Commission’s
Legal Education Goal


“formation of competent and committed
professionals”
Integration of three dimensions

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Not only teaching legal doctrine & analysis
But also introduction to aspects of practice leading to
acting responsibly for clients
Formation of professional identity with values
consistent with the fundamental purposes of the legal
profession
2
Our formulation


“capable, ethical, psychologically healthy legal
professionals”
Graduates with





Foundational grounding in substantive law & practice
skills
Combined with skills & motivation for self-direction to
learn new law and enhance skills throughout one’s
career
Along with professional responsibility & personal
integrity in serving clients (or doing other legal work)
Mindfulness for social implications of graduates’ work
Ability to find satisfaction in their careers
3
Presentation’s Theoretical Base

Drive by Daniel Pink (drawing on
Sheldon & Krieger psychological
material + economists & mgt
theorists)
Autonomy
 Mastery
 Purpose (linked to autonomy
& relatedness)

4
Pink Draws On


Self-determination theory (Edward Deci,
applied in Sheldon & Krieger’s work)
 Competence (mastery)
 Autonomy
 Relatedness
Motivation & emotion research
(Johnmarshall Reeve textbook)
 Extrinsic v. intrinsic motivation
 Autonomy-supportive teaching
5
Levels of human motivation

Biological: hunger, thirst, sex

Carrots & sticks: external
rewards & punishments

Intrinsic motivation
6
Daniel Pink



Citations to book & video URL in
bibliography uploaded to website
6-minute excerpt of 20-minute
video
His “21st Century Operating
System”
7
Daniel Pink
Daniel H. Pink. Drive: The Surprising Truth About
What Motivates Us (2009)
http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html
Citation in bibliography
8
Some Implications for Law
Schools




Education needed for complex tasks
Larry Krieger (& works with Kennon Sheldon)
on 1st year shift to extrinsic motivation &
decline in mental health
Resonance with law students
LW observations of anxiety impeding
performance (reference to Michael Hunter
Schwartz)
9
Focus today broader than law
schools alone

Post-graduate professional training
programs

Continuing legal education for lawyers

People’s lives as lawyers

Small group opportunity to focus on
aspect that resonates for each of you
10
Autonomy-Mastery-Purpose

Autonomy: desire to direct our own
lives

Mastery: urge to get better and better
at something that matters

Purpose: yearning to do what we do in
the service of something larger than
ourselves, acting in accordance with our
“true selves”
11
Autonomy


Behaving with full sense of volition &
choice
Contrast to controlled motivation
responding to pressure for specific
outcomes coming from sources external
to oneself

Not independence but acting with choice

Can be autonomous and “happily
interdependent”
12
Autonomy & intrinsic motivation
research (Johnmarshall Reeve synthesis, applied in
Pink)

Autonomous (intrinsic) motivation
promotes




Correlates positively with persistence
Enhances creativity
 Creativity undermined by “being watched,
evaluated, bossed, or rewarded”
Enhanced conceptual understanding &
promotes flexible thinking
Greater levels of psychological well being;
less anxiety, depression & burnout
13
Three archetypal features of
autonomy support

Choice provision

Meaningful rationale provision:

Perspective taking:
where no choice can be provided,
authority explains why
authority shows that he or she is aware
of and cares about the point of view of
the subordinate
14
Sheldon & Krieger (2007) items
measuring autonomy support in two
law schools

What has your been your
impression of instructors in your
program?



Most of my instructors provide me
choices and options
I feel able to share my feelings with
my instructors
My instructors generally listen to
how I would like to do things.
15
Sheldon & Krieger (2007)
Enhanced
Autonomy
Satisfaction
Law School 2
Versus
Law School 1
Perceived
Autonomy
Support
Enhanced
Relatedness
Satisfaction
Enhanced
Competence
Satisfaction
Greater SelfDetermined
Career
Motivation
Better
Subjective
Well-Being
Higher
Graded
Achievement
Mastery - The Virtuoso Way


Mastery is the desire to get better
and better at something that
matters. Mastery is a mindset.”*
Engagement is committed effort
in undertaking a particular task.
*Daniel H. Pink, DRIVE, 2009
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Mastery - The Virtuoso Way


Beryl Blaustone’s work on application of
neuroscience and learning theory to
clinical supervision
See bibliography uploaded to the GAJE
website
18
Mastery



Mastery as a Mindset: desire to get better
& better at something that matters
Achieving Mastery Involves Pain: learning
to lawyer involves intense, persistent
effort, pushing boundaries of discomfort,
periods of “not getting it”
Mastery as an Asymptote that Will Never
Be Fully Reached
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Mastery - The Virtuoso Way



Clear goals and methods promote
engagement
Teacher should model transparency in
practice and not only words
Engagement promotes mastery.
Continual engagement promotes FLOW.
20
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: states of being at differing degrees of
challenge and skill and “FLOW” (focused, concentrated,
autonomous, deep engagement)
CHALLENGES
high
Anxiety
Arousal
FLOW
Worry
Control
Apathy
Boredom Relaxation
low
SKILLS
high
21
Mastery - The Virtuoso Way

Blaustone’s four supervision principles in
IJCLE article (pdf on website)


Affirming law students’ capability to become
good lawyers
Teacher’s communicated clear commitment
to student & teacher’s joint responsibility for
learning & expectations about tasks

Deliberate attention to reducing “fill-in”

Taking time to verify understanding from
supervision
22
Purpose

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S&K’s use of self-determination theory lists
autonomy, competence, & relatedness as
three things necessary to thrive and maximize
positive motivation
This use of autonomy includes doing what
people enjoy “or at least believe in”: purpose
is encompassed, One’s “authentic” self
Victor Frankl: Man’s Search for Meaning
LW externship lawyer guests always talked
about their job’s “meaning” even though I did
not say to do so
23
For enhanced motivation &
productivity on complex tasks

Opportunities for




Autonomy
Mastery
Purpose
Tapping intrinsic rather than
extrinsic motivators
24
First small group discussion
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Check understanding of the theory
How do the concepts of autonomy
support and mastery resonate with
your experience in clinical education
and legal education more generally?
25
Second group task

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Divide into groups of about 5
people
Meet with people you do not
already know & mix nationalities
26
Second group task

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What aspect of the theory about
enhancing perceived autonomy,
mastery & purpose among future
lawyers & practicing lawyers
resonates for your justice
education work?
What does it make you think of
trying?
27
Quick Write
What are your most significant
“take-aways” from the session?


What actions did the session
prompt you to consider?
28

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