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AP PHYSICS MONDAY 15.02.02 PERIOD 3 Warm Up Explain (in a paragraph) in your own words how force and energy is related. STANDARDS: f3A describing forces with velocity, acceleration, etc. I –Independent Resilient Individuals RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources into coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,… WHST.11-12.7: research to aid in problem solving Learning Goal: SWBAT score at least 60% on AP Multiple Choice Problems Agenda: 1. Warm Up 2. Collect HW EAP #5 3. Test Homework Make up any unfinished HW AP PHYSICS TUESDAY 15.01.27 STANDARDS: 3D.1&.2 change in momentum happens over time and is a vector pointing in the direction of the net force. I –Independent Resilient Individuals RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources into coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,… WHST.11-12.7: research to aid in problem solving Warm Up Brainstorm the concept of momentum. Things to consider: What do you think of when you hear momentum? How would you represent it mathematically (equation)? Don’t research, use only prior knowledge. Learning Goal: SWBAT demonstrate understanding of conditions under which momentum changes and the consequences of the change in momentum. Agenda: 1. Warm Up 2. Turn in HW 3. Momentum Notes 4. Momentum Practice M#1 Homework Map#1 AP PHYSICS WEDNESDAY 15.01.21 STANDARDS: Warm Up An 8 kg, 80 N object initially traveling at 20m/s falls for 10 seconds. What is the final momentum of this object? WHST.11-12.7: research to aid in problem solving . I –Independent Resilient Individuals RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources into coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,… WHST.11-12.7: research to aid in problem solving Learning Goal: SWBAT apply conservation of energy to a car rolling down a ramp. Agenda: 1. Warm Up 2. Review Hw Cap#5 & eap #1 3. Newton’s Pendulum Lab Homework Map#2 AP PHYSICS THURSDAY 15.01.29 STANDARDS: 3D.1&.2 change in momentum happens over time and is a vector pointing in the direction of the net force. I –Independent Resilient Individuals RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources into coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,… WHST.11-12.7: research to aid in problem solving Warm Up A 2kg hockey puck travels across a fairly smooth concrete surface with an initial velocity of 22 m/s. If 10 N of friction acts on the puck for 3 seconds, what is its impulse? How far did the hockey puck travel during this time? Learning Goal: SWBAT distinguish between conservation of energy and conservation of momentum Agenda: 1. Warm Up 2. Review MAP#2 Homework Catch up with HW AP PHYSICS FRIDAY 15.01.30 STANDARDS: 3D.1&.2 change in momentum happens over time and is a vector pointing in the direction of the net force. I –Independent Resilient Individuals RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources into coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,… WHST.11-12.7: research to aid in problem solving Warm Up A 0.5 kg car released from rest at the top of a smooth incline has gravitational energy of 6 J relative to the base of the incline. a. calculate the cart’s speed at the bottom of the incline. b. Calculate the gravitational potential energy ½ way down the incline. Learning Goal: SWBAT use conservation of momentum to solve collision problems. Agenda: 1. Warm Up 2. Guided Practice Homework MAP#3 #1 VERTICAL CIRCLE LAB Using a timer, triple beam balance, a mass on a string, and a meter stick, experimentally find the Tension in the string at the top of the circle and at the bottom. Hint: The following equations should help you determine which quantities you should measure, Fnet=ma, ac=v2/r, v=2πr/T . Free body diagrams and Free body diagram expressions, will make the process much easier also. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE F=Gm1m2/r2, Fc=mv2/r, MOMENTUM & IMPULSE MAP#1 1. In 1987, Marisa Canofoglia, of Italy, roller-skated at a record-setting speed of 40.3 km/h. If the magnitude of Canofoglia’s momentumwas 6.60x102 kgm/s, what was her mass? 2. One of the smallest planes ever flown was the Bumble Bee II, which had a mass of 1.80x10 2 kg. If the pilot’s mass was 7.0x101 kg, what was the velocity of both plane and pilot if their momentum was 2.08x10 4 kgm/s to the west? 3. Among the largest passenger ships currently in use, the Norway has been in service the longest. The Norway is more than 300 m long, has a mass of 6.9x107 kg, and can reach a top cruising speed of 33 km/hr. Calculate the magnitude of the ship’s momentum while cruising. 4. A bronze statue of Buddha was completed in Tokyo in 1993. The statue is 35m tall and has a mass of 1.00x106 kg. Suppose this statue were to be moved to a different location . What is the magnitude of the impulse that must act on the statue in order for the speed to increase from 0m/s to 0.20 m/s? If the magnitude of the net force acting on the statue is 12.5 kN, how long will it take for the final speed to be reached? 5. In 1992, Dan Bozich of the United States drove a gasoline-powered gocart at a speed of 125.5 km/h. Suppose Bozich applies the brakes upon reaching this speed. If the combined mass of the go-cart and driver 2.00x102kg, the decelerating force is 3.60x102N opposite the cart’s motion, and the time during which deceleration takes place is 10.0s. What is the final speed of Bozich and the go-cart? 6. FORCE & IMPULSE MAP#2 1. (#4) The first human-made satellite, Sputnik I, has a mass of 83.6 kg and a momentum with a magnitude of 6.63x105 kgm/s. What was the satellite’s speed? 2. (#6) In 1994, a tower 22.13 m tall was built of Lego blocks. Suppose a block with a mass of 2.00 g is dropped from the top of this tower. Neglecting air resistance, calculate the block’s momentum at the instant the block hits the ground. 3. (6) The “human cannonball” has long been a popular—and extremely dangerous—circus stunt. in order for a 45 kg person to leave the cannon with the fastest speed yet achieved by a human cannonball, a 1.6x103N force must be exerted on that person for 0.68s. What is the record speed at which a person has been shot from a circus cannon? 4. (2) In 1920, a 6.5x104kg meteorite was found in Africa. Suppose a meteorite with this mass enters Earth’s atmosphere with a speed of 1.0 km/s. What is the change in the meteorite’s momentum if the average constant force of -1.7x106N acts on the meteorite for 30.0s? How far does the meteorite travel during this time. 5. (4) The record for the smallest dog in the world belongs to a terrier who had a mass of only 113 g. Suppose this dog runs to the right with a speed of 2.00 m/s when it suddenly sees a mouse. The dog becomes scared and uses its paws to bring itself to rest in 0.80s. What is the force required to stop the dog? What is the dog’s stopping distance? CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM GUIDED PRACTICE 1. Kangaroos are good runners that can sustain a speed of 56 km/h (15.5 m/s). Suppose a kangaroo is sitting on a log that is floating in a lake. When the kangaroo gets scared, she jumps off the log with a velocity of 15 m/s toward the bank. The log moves with a velocity of 3.8 m/s away from the bank. If the mass of the log is 250 kg, what is the mass of the kangaroo? CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM MAP#3 1. The largest grand piano in the world is really grand. Built in London, it has a mass of 1.25x103 kg. Suppose a pianist finishes playing this piano and pushes herself from the piano so that she rolls backwards with a speed of 1.4 m/s. Meanwhile, the piano rolls forward so that in 4.0 s it travels 24 cm at constant velocity. Assuming the stool that the pianist is sitting on has a negligible mass, what is the pianist’s mass? 2. With a mass of 114 kg, Baby Bird is the smallest monoplane ever flown. Suppose the Baby Bird and pilot are coasting along the runway when the pilot jumps horizontally to the runway behind the plane. The pilot’s velocity upon leaving he plane is 5.32 m/s backward. After the pilot jumps from the plane, the plane coasts forward with a speed of 3.40 m/s. If the pilot’s mass equals 60.0 kg, what is the velocity of the plane and pilot before the pilot jumps. 3. The largest frog ever found was discovered in Cameroon in 1989. The frog’s mass was nearly 3.6 kg. Suppose this frog is placed on a skateboard with a mass of 3.0 kg. The frog jumps horizontally off the skateboard to the right, and the skateboard rolls freely in the opposite direction with a speed of 2.0 m/s relative to the ground. If the frog and skateboard are initially at rest, what is the initial horizontal velocity of the frog? 4. In 1994, ,a pumpkin with a mass of 449 kg was grown in Canada. Suppose you want to push a pumpkin with this mass along a smooth, horizontal ramp. You give the pumpkin a good push, only to find yourself sliding backwards at a speed of 4.0 m/s. How far will the pumpkin slide 3.0 s after the push? Assume your mass to be 60.0 kg. PERFECTLY INELASTIC COLLISIONS vb vr `` `` `` Before `` vbr `` ` `` ` `` After Elastic is like a rubber band. It stretches, it pushes back on you or bounces back, like a spring. So an inelastic collision is a collision where there is no bounce. In this case, there is a crunch. -Momentum is conserved during inelastic collisions, even though mechanical energy is not Why do you think mechanical energy is not conserved in inelastic collisions? Where does the energy go? conserved in this situation. ELASTIC COLLISIONS vb vr `` `` `` `` vb vr `` Before `` `` `` After In elastic collisions the two objects bounce off each other with no mechanical energy lost to heat, sound, or deformation of the object. When no external force is present momentum is conserved so: mrvri+mbvbi=mrvrf+mvbf PERFECTLY INELASTIC COLLISION MAP#5 1. (1) Zorba, an English mastiff with a mass of 155 kg, jumps forward horizontally at a speed of 6.0 m/s into a boat that is floating at rest. After the jump, the boat and Zorba move with a velocity of 2.2 m/s forward. Calculate the boat’s mass. 2. (3)The world’s largest guitar was built by a group of high school students in Indiana. Suppose that this guitar is placed on a light car. The cart and guitar are then pushed with a velocity of 4.48 m/s to the right. One of the students tries to slow the cart by stepping on it as it passes by her. The new velocity of the cart, guitar, and student is 4.00 m/s to the right. If the student’s mass is 54 kg, what is the mass of the guitar? Assume the mass of the cart is negligible. 3. (7) In 1990, Roger Hickey of California attained a speed of 89 km/h while standing on a skateboard. Suppose Hickey is riding horizontally at his stand-up speed when he catches up to another skateboarder, who is moving at 69 km/h in the same direction. If the second skateboarder steps sideways onto Hickey’s skateboard, the two riders move forward with a new speed. Calculate this speed, assuming that both skateboarders have equal, but unknown, masses and that the mass of the skateboard is negligible. 4. (8) The white shark is the largest carnivorous fish in the world. The mass of a white shark can be as great as 3.0x103 kg. In spite of (or perhaps because of) the mass and ferocity of the shark, it is prized by commercial and sports fishers alike. Suppose Joe, who is one of these fishers, goes to a cliff that overlooks the ocean. To see if the sharks are biting, Joe drops a 2.5x102 kg fish as bait into the ocean below. As it so happens, a 3.0x10 3 kg white shark is prowling the ocean floor just below the cliff. The shark sees the bait, which is sinking straight down at a speed of 3.0m/s. The shark swims upward with a speed of 1.0 m/s to swallowed the bait? MAP#6 KINETIC ENERGY IN INELASTIC COLLISIONS 1. (1)The hog-nosed bat is the smallest mammal on Earth: it is about the same size as a bumblebee and has an average mass of 2.0 g. Suppose a hog-nosed bat with this mass flies at 2.0 m/s when it detects a bug with a mass of 0.20 g flying directly toward it at 8.0 m/s. What fraction of the total kinetic energy is dissipated when it swallows the bug? 2. (2)The heaviest wild lion ever measured had a mass of 313 kg. Suppose this lion is walking by a lake when it sees an empty boat floating at rest near the shore. The curious lion jumps into the boat with a speed of 6.00 m/s, causing the boat with the lion in it to move away from the shore with a speed of 2.50 m/s. How much kinetic energy is dissipated in this inelastic collision. 3. (3)The cheapest car ever commercially produced was the Red Bug backboard, which sold in 1922 in the United States for about $250. The car’s mass was only 111 kg. Suppose two of these cars are used in a stunt crash for an action film. If one car’s initial velocity is 9.00 m/s to the right and the other car’s velocity is 5.00 m/s to the left, how much kinetic energy is dissipated in the car crash? 4. (6)There was a domestic cat in Australia with a mass of 21.3 kg. Suppose this cat is sitting on a skateboard that is not moving. A 1.80x10 -1 kg treat is thrown to the car. When the cat catches the treat, the cat and the skateboard move with a speed of 6.00x10-2 m/s. How much kinetic energy is dissipated in the process? Assume onedimensional motion. MAP#7 ELASTIC COLLISIONS 1. (1) The moon’s orbital speed around the Earth is 3.680x10 3km/h. Suppose the moon suffers a perfectly elastic collision with a comet whose mass is 50.0 percent that of the moon. (A partically inelastic collision would be a much more realistic event.) After the collision, the moon moves with a speed of -4.40x102km/h, while the comet moves away from the moon at 5.740x103km/hr. What is the comet’s speed before the collision? (Solve using conservation of momentum & check your answer using conservation of energy.) 2. (3) The first astronaut to walk in outer space without being tethered to a spaceship was Capt. Bruce McCandless. In 1984, he used a jet backpack which cost about $15 million to design, to move freely about the exterior of the space shuttle Challenger. Imagine two astronauts working in outer space. Suppose they have equal masses and accidentally run into each other. The first astronaut moves 5.0 m/s to the right before the collision and 2.0 m/s to the left afterwards. If the second astronaut moves 5.0 m/s to the right after the perfectly elastic collision, what was the second astronaut’s initial velocity? 3. (4) Speeds as high as 273 km/h have been recorded for golf balls. Suppose a golf ball whose mass is 45.0 g is moving to the right at 273 km/h and strikes another ball that is at rest. If after the perfectly elastic collision the golf ball moves 91 km/h to the left and the other ball moves 182 km/h to the right, what is the mass of the second ball. 4. ** Extra Credit: 1 HW Assignment: Two objects with the same mass, m=1 kg collide elastically. Object 1 is traveling east at 2 m/s and Object 2 is traveling west at 1 m/s. Use conservation of energy and conservation of momentum to find the final velocity of each object. (Hint: This is a quadratic.)