BRUSHLESS D.C MOTORS Prepared by… FAKHRI KHALIFEH Contents… • • • • • • • • • • • • Abstract. Introduction. Basics of a motor. Classification. Brushed motors. BLDCM. Working procedure. Applications. Advantages. Disadvantages. Conclusion. Reference. Abstract… • Permanent magnet (PM) brushless DC motors (BLDCM) are generated by virtually inverting the stator and rotor of PM DC motors. • These motors are actually fed by rectangular AC waveform. • The advantage is the removal of brushes, leading to eliminate many problems associated with brushes. • Another advantage is the ability to produce a larger torque because of the rectangular interaction between current and flux. Introduction… • Classical DC motors are no doubt good and simple but inefficient in some ways. • Although dc motors possess good control characteristics and ruggedness, their performance and applications are inhibited due to sparking and commutation problems. • The Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor is able to overcome the limitations mentioned above and satisfy the requirements of a variable speed drive. MOTOR… MOTOR… >> Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. ORIGIN... >> Nicola Tesla introduces electric motor in December 1889. >> He identifies the principle of rotating magnetic field. Main parts of brushed motor... Commutator : >> Facilitate collection of current from the armature conductors. Brush : >> Collects current from the commutator. Advantages • Increased Reliability & Efficiency • Longer Life • Elimination of Sparks from Commutator • Reduced Friction • Faster Rate of Voltage & Current Disadvantages • Requires Complex Drive Circuitry • Requires additional Sensors • Higher Cost • Some designs require manual labor (Hand wound Stator Coils) Classification… BLDCM… • Has no brushes and commutators. • Rotation of the rotor depends on the accurate position with stator. • Detected by Hall Sensor, mounted on rotor, shifted at 60º or 120º phase shift. • Electronic commutation used to vary the PWM duty-cycle for speed control, using software. Working of BLDCM… As there is no commutator ,the current direction of the conductor on the stator controlled electronically. Rotor consists the permanent magnet where as stator consist a no. of windings. Current through these winding produces magnetic field and force. Hall sensor used to determine the position during commutation. Commutation of BLDCM… Brushless DC motor requires external commutation circuit to rotate the rotor. Rotor position is very important. HALL SENSOR senses the position of the coil accurately. Working Procedure… • When electric current passes through a coil in a magnetic field, the magnetic force produces a torque which turns the motor. • • • • • • Force in Motor: • • • • • Torque in Motor: F=ILB F = Force B = Magnetic Field L = Length of Conductor I = Current in Conductor T = IBA sin θ A = LW L = Length of Winding W = Width of Winding Working Procedure… Halls Sensors sense the position of the coils. The Decoder Circuit turns appropriate switches on and off. The voltage through the specific coils turns the motor. Pros… In BLDC motor PM are on the rotor & electromagnets are on the stator controlled by software. Thus the advantages are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Because of computer control it is more precise & more efficient. There is no sparking & less electrical noise. Voltage and current rating is high. High speed can be achieved. As there is no brushes it requires no servicing. It has longer life. Low Radio Frequency Interference and electromagnetic Interference. Cons… • Requires Complex Drive Circuitry. • Requires additional Sensors. • Expensive. • Some designs require manual labor. (Hand wound Stator Coils) Applications… • PMBLDC motors are increasingly being used in a wide spectrum of applications: • • • • • • • domestic equipments, automobiles information technology equipment industries public life appliances transportation aerospace, defence equipments, power tools, toys, vision and sound equipments • medical and health care equipment ranging from microwatts to megawatts. Reference… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor http://www.basler.com Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery, A Manual for Students of Electro techniques, Part 1, Collier and Sons, New York, 1902 White, Thomas H.,"Alternator-Transmitter Development (1891-1920)". EarlyRadioHistory.us. S.M.L.Kabir, R.Shuttle worth, “Brushless Exciter Model”.