Reflectance

Report
Geology, Exploration and WorldView-3 New Satellite
Capabilities
Travis Schindler – Spatial Energy
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela | Mar 12, 2011 | WorldView-2
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Today’s Clearest View of the Earth
… from the world’s most advanced constellation:
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Late
2014
Extending Technology Leadership
Introducing the 1st multi-payload, super-spectral, high-resolution commercial satellite.
WorldView bus:
High-agility platform
Instrument:
Panchromatic + 8 Multispectral
8 SWIR + atmospheric correction bands
Resolution:
.31 meter, < 3.5 m CE90
DigitalGlobe » Overview
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Sensor Introduction
ASTER
• Multispectral: 10 bands VNIR - SWIR.
• Pixels: 15, 30 m.
• SWIR failed.
CASI/SASI
• Airborne Hyperspectral: 186 bands VNIR SWIR.
• Pixels vary depending on altitude.
WorldView-3
• Multispectral: 16 bands VNIR-SWIR.
• Pixels: 1.2, 3.7 m.
• CAVIS instrument for atmospheric retrievals.
Launched: Aug.2014
Commercially
Available
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WV-3 Industry Leading Advantages
•SWIR
•Atmospheric Compensation
•Resolution
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WorldView-3 Bands: VNIR, SWIR and CAVIS
Red
Blue Yellow Edge
Coastal Green Red
NIR 2
SWIR 2
NIR 1
SWIR 1
Aerosol 2
SWIR 6
SWIR 3
VNIR 1.2 meter
Aerosol 1
SWIR 4
SWIR 5
SWIR 8
SWIR 7
SWIR 3.7 meter
Water 2
NDVI - SWIR
Snow
Aerosol 3
Cloud
Height
Parallax
Desert Green
Cloud
Water 1 Water 3
Cirrus
Aerosol 3
CAVIS 30 meter
300
500
700
DigitalGlobe » Overview
900
1100
1300
1500
Wavelength (nm)
1700
1900
2100
2300
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2500
6
WV-3 and SWIR
(Short Wave Infrared)
Visible (V)
Picture
Near Infrared (NIR)
Veg
Iron
Short Wave Infrared (SWIR)
Man made
Rocks
Landsat 8
(30 m)
ASTER
(15/30 m)
WV 3 only
WV 2 - 3
(1.2 / 3.7)
300
500
700
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500
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Mineral Identification
• Band position
• Absorption shape
Concentration
• Band depth
Fe3+
400
OH-
SO4/OH-
Alunite
Reflectance (offset)
What can we do with it?
Jarosite
900
1400
Wavelength (nm)
1900
2400
* Offset for Clarity
Alunite and Jarosite differ only by Al / Fe:
Alunite (KAl3(OH)6(SO4)2)
Jarosite (KFe3(OH)6(SO4)2)
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Limitations and Consequences of Current Methods
over come by WV3
Key negative outcomes enabled with current data
- ASTER: Low resolution pixels. Archive only - SWIR failed in 2008.
- Airborne: Weather delays, remote sites, complex permitting.
Misinformed decisions with economic consequences
Delayed
Exploration
Costly
Programs
Missed
Opportunity
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Does resolution make a difference?
WV-3 vs ASTER
WV-3 simulation 3.5 m
SWIR Composite
DigitalGlobe » Overview
ASTER actual 30 m
SWIR Composite
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WV-3 Science and Theory
•Radiance and Reflectance
- Data normalization
•Material Identification
- Spectroscopy
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What’s Radiance?
radiance vs reflectance
Radiance is what a satellite measures.
It is ‘how much energy’; light or heat as reflected by
something
- Things look different when they are brightly or dimly lit.
- This is radiance.
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Why Reflectance?
radiance vs reflectance
Reflectance is a constant, predictable property of the material.
“Percent of
light that is
reflected!”
- Reflectance is a ratio. OUT/IN = reflectance
- This is reflectance.
50%
Out
In
50%
Out
In
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Light-Matter Interaction
The Options
1. Reflect
2. Absorbed as heat
“Spectral scientist
wants both”
Water Molecule | Light-Matter interaction
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WV-3 Enables Seismic and Geology Mapping
•Cuprite Surface Mineralogy
•Uluru Structure and Stratigraphy
•Seismic near-surface velocity
•Exotic minerals / alteration
•Value of resolution
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“Lisbon Valley Model”
Hydrocarbon (HC) Spectral/Geochem Model
A - Trapped HC in subsurface (can be either structural or stratigraphic trap)
B - HCs migrate upward along micro fractures, fracture systems, and fault zones. The
presence of HC molecules tend to generate a reducing environment, thereby liberating
metal ions. This is particularly applicable in clastic rocks containing detrital Fe and Mg
C - Metal ions near the surface are washed away by groundwater. The resulting outcrops
and residual soils appear anomalously altered or “bleached”
Exploration
True Color “GE-1, WV-2”
Cuprite, Nevada USA | AVIRIS| 3.7 m | WorldView 2 Color Simulation
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Exploration - Spectral Advantage
WV-1 Panchromatic
WV2 Color
WV3 Mineral Mapping
Clay
Mica
Carbonate
Cuprite, Nevada USA| 0.5 m, 2.0 m, 7.5 m | WorldView 1, 2, and 3
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Satellite Stereo Collection
• Stereo derived from:
- Single pass fore and aft collections.
- Adjacent passes
• Coincident multispectral
~ 35 degree forward
imagery.
~ 35 degree aft
DEM Availability
• Advanced Elevation Series
• SAAB Vricon
+/- 10 degrees off nadir
Stereo Satellite Imaging Geometry
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Uluru, Australia
Uluru, AU | Digital Elevation Model | 2 m | WorldView 1 and 2 | 6 perspectives
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Uluru Rock, Australia
Uluru Rock, AU | Digital Elevation Model | 2 m | WorldView 2 False Color IR Drape
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Uluru Rock, Australia
85
Uluru Rock, AU | Digital Elevation Model | 2 m | WorldView 2 False Color IR Drape
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Uluru, Australia
Legend
Conglomerate
Arkose
Folded Proterzoic sedimentary rocks
Igneous and metamorphic rocks
Palaeozoic rocks
Alluvial sediments
Uluru, AU | Geologic Map and Cross Section
Graphic Source:
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Surface geology for Seismic Noise
More effective seismic deployment
Example Ortho and DEM
1 km
1 km
ple Ortho and DEM
2
1 km
WorldView-2
Precision Ortho
WorldView-2
DEM Image
www.photosat.ca
WorldView-2
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Surface geology for Seismic Noise
Improved-Detailed: Near surface velocity
ANDREAS LAAKE and AYMAN ZAGHLOUL, WesternGeco: TLE Feb 2009
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Geologic Mapping
Colorado Plateau, Utah USA
AVIRIS Flight
20 km
To Update Footer, Find Header & Footer in Insert Tab and Apply to All
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Sedimentary Rock Components
Colorado Plateau, Utah USA
False Color IR
WV-3 Simulation
Canyon Lands, Utah USA | AVIRIS| 3.3 m | False Color IR
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Sedimentary Rock Components
Canyon Lands, Utah USA
Calcite
Mixture:
Calcite + Kaolinite
Kaolinite
Spectral Matching
WV-3 Simulation
Canyon Lands, Utah USA | AVIRIS| 3.3 m | Spectral Angle Map for Calcite & Kaolinite
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Baba Dome
Northern Iraq
Overturned anticlines
Altered SW thrust flanks
Reducing fluid alteration
“Bleached’
Resolution is Crucial!
Landsat Decorrelated
Bands - altered
exposures in white
Landsat Enhanced
True Color Composite
image width ~35 km
ASTER: mineral alteration near oil seeps
30 meter, 10-band
“orange” class reflects
smectite, altered w/Fe loss
“blue” class reflects illite,
chlorite/epidote, and Mg silicate
WV-2: mineral alteration near oil seeps
2.0 meter, 8-band
image width ~4 km
Ready for Field Checking using GPS
WV-3 Extended Environmental Applications
•Smoke Penetration
•Oil Seeps and Spills
•Vegetation Health and Mapping
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Smoke Penetration in SWIR
• Station Fire, Los Angeles National Forest, CA
• Advanced Land Imager (ALI) 03 SEP 2009
“Seeing a better world”
True color
SWIR-6 (2215 nm)
Cloud
Smoke
Station Fire, Los Angeles, CA | ALI Image | WV3 Simulation | 30 m
Cloud
Active
Fire
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Louisiana Oil Spill 2010:
Mapping marsh oil using
simulated WV-3 SWIR data.
Marsh oil mapped by spectral
matching of simulated WV3 data.
Barataria Bay, Louisiana USA| AVIRIS| 3.5 m | WorldView 3 Simulation
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Spectral basis for vegetation indices
Unique absorption due to plant components
Chlorophyll
Dryness
CP = carotenoid pigments
CHL = chlorophyll
LW = leaf water
LB = leaf bio-chemicals
(e.g. lignin, cellulose).
Graphic Source:
Rockwell, 2009
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Environmental
Vegetation Status: 4 band
0.7
Juniper
0.6
Pinon Pine
Reflectance
0.5
Dry Grass
0.4
0.3
0.2
NDVI Bands
0.1
0
400
Vegetation Spectra | 4 Band | GeoEye 1
600
800
1000
Wavelength (nm)
1200
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Environmental
Vegetation Status: 8 band + SWIR
Reflectance
0.7
Juniper
0.6
Pinon Pine
0.5
Dry Grass
0.4
0.3
0.2
Finer Tuning
SWIR leaf
moisture
0.1
0
400
Vegetation Spectra | 16 Band | WorldView 3
600
800
1000
Wavelength (nm)
1200
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Summary
Reclamation &
Environmental
Operations
General Geologic
Mapping
Identify damaged
areas
Plan pads and
pipelines
Identify Rock
Types improved
accuracy. Improve
Seismic operations
Identify damaged
areas as well as
impending
damage
Plan pads and
pipelines including
some surface
geology
Exploration
Good
(4 band)
Better
(8 band)
Best
(16 band)
Identify damaged
Identify multiple
minerals. Improve areas and impending
seismic signal
damages by species
Plan operations
with better
geology
approaching
strength of
materials
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Final Words
WV3 will bring unprecedented capabilities in:
Pixel resolution
Accuracy
Multispectral Band Width and Resolution
To the Information Challenges faced in Worldwide Oil and Gas Exploration
and Production
For technical papers and Worldview 3 simulation data go to:
www.digitalglobe.com/wv3-resources
[email protected]
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Thank You!
ww.w.spatialenergy.com
DEM Definitions
• Digital Terrain Model (DTM) =
Earth surface without vertical
objects.
• Digital Surface Model (DSM) =
Earth surface with vertical
objects (e.g. trees, buildings).
• Digital Height Model (DHM) =
[DSM – DTM] leaving ONLY
vertical features.
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DEM Specifications
Product Accuracy
Mapping
Precision
Resolution
Relative Vertical
(LE90)
Absolute Vertical
(LE90)
Relative Horizontal
(CE90)
Absolute
Horizontal (CE90)
8m
4m
Very High
Precision
2m
5m
2m
1m
8m
4m
2m
8m
4m
2m
10 m
5m
3m
The vertical accuracies are based on low to medium relief areas that generally have a slope less than
30%. For rugged areas that have a consistent slope >30%, the values above can be scaled by 1.5.
Source: DigitalGlobe web site “Advanced Elevation Series”
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