Standards Preview 10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought. Chapter Focus Question What are the main historical sources of the democratic tradition? Focus Question What ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world? The Rise of Greek City-States Geography & Power City-state – political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands Importance of city-states Geographical features Governing the City-States, 750-500 B.C. Monarchy – king or queen exercise central power Aristocracy – small ruling noble landowners Changes in warfare The Rise of Greek City-States Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers Sparta – military state Monarchy 2 kings, council of elders, assembly of citizens, five ephors Citizenship – native born Spartan men over age 30 State-owned slaves System of strict control over people’s lives Emphasis on military virtues and discipline, fitness and health Beginning of military training for boys at age 8 Prohibition against trade, travel, or mixing with other city-states Scornful of wealth Women expected to obey men; allowed to own property The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: A Limited Democracy Athens – development of democracy Glorification of individual Movement toward Democracy (government by the people); limited citizenship; rise of tyrants Wealth and power of aristocracy Participation in government by male citizens Slaves with no political rights or personal freedom Military training and broad education for boys Trade with other city-states Limited rights for women The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: Rulers & Philosophers Solon – reformed Athens to ensure greater fairness & justice, 594 B.C. Opened offices to more citizens Gave Athenian assembly more say in decisions Tyrants – leaders who gain power by force Pisistratus, 546 B.C. Seized power by force Gave farmers and poor citizens a greater voice Weakened the aristocracy The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: Rulers & Philosophers Tyrants (cont) Cleisthenes & Legislature (lawmaking body) Broadened the role of ordinary citizens in government Set up the Council of 500 Made the assembly a genuine legislature The Rise of Greek City-States What process took city-states from monarch to aristocracy and, in Athens, to democracy? Defenders of the king (noble landowners) gradually took power for themselves (aristocracy) Military changes increased the power of the middle class (Iron weapons replaced bronze) Athens – leaders gave ordinary citizens control over government The Persian Wars 500 B.C. – Athens is “Top Dog” Persians, Asia Minor 490 B.C. – Battle of Marathon Use of geography 480 B.C. – Battle of Thermopylae How did the Greeks meet the threat of invasion by the Persians? Athens in the Age of Pericles Pericles, Athenian Statesman Led a thriving economy and more democratic government Believed all male citizens – regardless of wealth or social class – should take part in government Stressed the rights and duties of individuals as citizens of a democracy Expressed the earliest and greatest democratic ideals in his Funeral Oration Athens in the Age of Pericles Political Life Direct Democracy Jury – a panel of citizens who have the authority to make the final judgment in a trial The Funeral Oration Power rested in the hands “not of a minority but of the whole people” Rights & duties of the individual Athens in the Age of Pericles Economic & Cultural Life Rebuild what the Persians had destroyed Create jobs Honor gods with temples & festivals The Peloponnesian War Sparta vs. Athens (27 years) What progress did the Greeks under Pericles make toward democratic government? Greek Philosophers Philosophers = lovers of wisdom Moral & Ethical Principles Idea of goodness Standards of human behavior Sophists – questioned accepted ideas (Athens) Greek Philosophers Socrates & Citizenship Socrates – critic of the Sophists, Athenian stonemason & philosopher “What is the greatest good” Socratic method – seek truth & self-knowledge Questioned his fellow citizens about their beliefs Believed the unexamined life was not worth living Plato – student of Socrates Greek Philosophers Plato & Reason Distrust of democracy Reason led to knowledge Republic – describes an ideal state Workers – produce the necessities of life Soldiers – defend the state Philosophers - rule Greek Philosophers Aristotle and the Rule of Law Aristotle – Plato’s most famous student Politics – rulers must be subject to the law What did Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle think of democracy? Greek Philosophers Plato Student of Socrates Set up his own school in Athens Believed reason led to genuine knowledge Described his vision of an ideal state in The Republic Rejected Athenian democracy Believed the state should regulate citizens’ lives Aristotle Was Plato’s most famous student Tutor to Alexander the Great Favored a constitutional government ruled by the middle class Believed the city-state re presented the best form of human community Believed good conduct meant pursuing the “golden mean” Promoted reason as the guiding force for learning Set up a school for the study of all branches of knowledge Alexander and the Hellenistic Age Conquest of Persia The Legacy of Alexander Hellenistic civilization – combination of eastern and western cultures Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian Stoicism – Zeno, calmly accept whatever life brought How did the ideas of the ancient Greeks spread beyond Greece during the Hellenistic age? The Greek Roots of Democracy Focus Question What ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world? Direct democracy A legislative assembly of citizens Juries staffed by citizens Moral & ethical principles Equality Rule of Law Chapter Focus Question How did the government of Rome develop into an empire? Establishing a Republic Republic – “thing of the people” How does a republic differ from a monarchy or an aristocracy of nobles? Is everyone in a republic considered equal? How did the Laws of the Twelve Tables help the plebeians? How did the tribunes serve as a check on the power of government? Establishing a Republic Geography & Unification Etruscan Rule 800 B.C. – Tiber River Herders & Farmers Rome = city on the seven hills Etruscan king Establishing a Republic A New Government 509 BC – Etruscan monarchy ends Republic – “thing of the people” Senate – most powerful body Consuls – supervised the business of government and commanded Rome’s armies Dictator – ruler who has complete control over a government Cincinnatus Roman Senate Establishing a Republic Common People Demand Equality Patrician – landholding upper class Plebian – common people Law of the Twelve Tables, 450 BC Course Syllabus Tribunes – plebeians rights to elect their own officials Veto – block How did the Roman Republic differ from government under the Etruscans? From Republic to Empire Roman Expansion How did continual warfare affect the plebeians? How did the rise of professional armies affect Rome? Some historians have said that the Roman empire really began with Julius Caesar. Do you agree? How did the Roman republic become an empire? From Republic to Empire Continuing Conquest Carthage – city state on the northern coast of Africa Punic Wars Spain – Egypt Mediterranean “Our Sea” or mare nostrum Economic & Social Effects Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus Distribute land to poor farmers Public funds to feed the poor From Republic to Empire Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power Julius Caesar – military commander Dictator – absolute ruler of Rome Reforms Public works to employ the jobless Public land given to the poor Citizenship SAVE THE REPUPLIC From Republic to Empire From Republic to Empire Emperor Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar – Caesar’s grand-nephew Roman Empire Civil service enforced the law Jobs were awarded according to talent Self-government of cities & provinces Pax Romana Roman Peace How did the Roman republic become an empire? From Republic to Empire Roman Law Justice through the law Describe a situation in which a person receives justice How does the law relate to justice? Roman law developed & grew along with the republic and empire Two Systems Civil Law – applied only to Roman citizens Law of Nations – laws of nature by using the human ability to reason, applied to all people What was the difference between civil law and the law of nations? Roman Law Key Principles Accused person presume innocent until proven guilty Accused had the right to face the accuser and offer a defense against the charge Guilt “clearer than daylight” through evidence Judges – interpret the laws & make fair decisions Roman Law Justinian’s Code Byzantine empire Justinian – Byzantine emperor best remembered for his reform of the Roman law code Body of Civil Law AKA: Justinian’s Code How did Justinian’s Code improve the state of Roman law? What lasting principles of law did Romans develop? Greco-Roman Civilization What is Greco-Roman civilization? Why didn’t Greco-Roman civilization disappear when the western Roman empire collapsed? Do you think Greco-Roman ideas survive today in our culture? What cultures contributed to Greco-Roman civilization? Greco-Roman Civilization Roman Culture Greek art, literature, philosophy, and scientific genius = height of cultural achievement Greco-Roman civilization – blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditions Philosophy Importance of duty Well-being of all people Preserving Greco-Roman Ideas Muslim scholars Chapter Focus Question How did the government of Rome develop into an empire? Rome started as a city-state controlled by an aristocracy and led by a king Romans overthrew this monarch and established a republic that expanded into neighboring lands Roman expansion created strains in Roman society that eventually led to civil wars and a powerful dictatorship The republic waned as powerful rulers continue to expand their realm, creating an empire Principles of Judaism Focus Question: What moral and ethical principles lie at the core of the Jewish religion? 63 B.C. Pompey & Jerusalem Capital of the independent Jewish state of Judea Polytheistic vs. Monotheistic The Ancient Israelites Hebrews or Israelites (people of Israel) Torah – sacred religious text Abraham – founder of the Israelite nation 2000 B.C. – Mesopotamia Canaan Famine forced migration to Egypt Moses – Israelite led the escape from Egypt The Ancient Israelites 1000 B.C. – Israelites est. kingdom – Israel David – unites a single nation Solomon – Jerusalem, capital Price of ambition High Taxes & Forced Labor Split in the kingdom The Ancient Israelites Rulers of the Israelites Egyptians – enslaved the Israelites Assyrians (722 B.C.) Babylonians & exile 586 B.C. – Nebuchadnezzar destroys the great temple Persians – Cyrus frees Israelites from captivity Judea = Jews Rebuild Solomon’s temple The Ancient Israelites What role did migration play in the history of the Israelites? Series of migrations Abraham’s journey to Canaan Famine & migration to Egypt Exodus (Moses) from Egypt Babylonian captivity God’s Covenant With the Israelites One God – Monotheistic Belief in one God as supreme God’s Promise (Covenant) Protect the Israelites and provide them a homeland People of Israel would remain faithful and obedient to God God’s Covenant With the Israelites The Torah “instruction” Five Books – early account of the Israelites God’s teachings – moral standard Oral Torah – unwritten laws How did the Jews’ beliefs differ from those of other nearby peoples? Monotheistic Covenant with God to obey God’s laws Teachings on Law and Morality The Ten Commandments Mount Sinai & Moses 1-4 religious duties (Sabbath) Holy day for rest and worship 5-10 rules for individual conduct toward other people “Honor your father and mother” Teachings on Law and Morality The Seven Universal Laws Set of rules that applied to all people Basic human rights in international law Teachings on Law and Morality An Ethical Worldview Responsibility to obey God’s laws vs. freedom to make individual moral choices Prophets – spiritual leaders who interpreted God’s will and emerged to remind the Jews of their duties Ethics – moral standards of behavior Political Equality – equality before the law Democratic Concept – The Rule of Law Teachings on Law and Morality What is the source of basic moral laws that Jews must obey? Ten Commandments Found in the Torah’s Book of Exodus The Scattering of the Jews Diaspora – scattering of the Jews 586 B.C. – Babylonian Captivity Land of Israel Center of their culture and religion How did the scattering of the Jewish people begin? Babylonian Captivity Not all Jews chose to return to Judea Principles of Judaism Focus Question: What moral and ethical principles lie at the core of the Jewish religion? Ten Commandments Responsibility to obey God’s laws Equality before the law The Rise of Christianity Focus Question How did Christianity develop from Judaism into a powerful, independent religion? Jesus – founder of Christianity Pax Romana & Rome Jesus of Nazareth Gospel – “good news” Information about the life of Jesus Early Life 4 B.C. Bethlehem (Nazareth) Mary & Joseph King David of Israel “the Son of the Most High God” Messiah – the savior sent by God to lead the Jews to freedom If some Jews believed that Jesus was the messiah but the Jewish leaders did not, what might happen? Jesus of Nazareth Ministry Apostles – close followers of Jesus “a person sent forth” Message of Jesus God’s love and the need for justice, morality, and helping others Emphasized the importance of forgiveness Jesus of Nazareth Death & Resurrection Jesus was a threat to Roman authorities Jesus arrested and crucified Disciples confused – dead or alive? Carry teachings to “all nations” and then ascended into heave Jesus of Nazareth What roles did love, justice, and service play in the teachings of Jesus Central role Emphasized God’s love and told people to love God and to “love your neighbor as yourself ” Encouraged people to love their enemies Christianity Spreads Break from Judaism Christians – followers of Jesus Christ Christ – Greek for “the anointed one” another word for messiah Peter & Rome Paul – key figure in the spread of Christianity Helped separate Christianity from Judaism by attempting to convert non-Jews Set up many Christian churches throughout the Mediterranean Christianity Spreads A New Covenant New covenant helps distinguish Christianity from Judaism Writings of the New Testament went beyond observance of God’s law to focus on faith in Jesus Christ Persecution Tolerance – acceptance Rome & varied religious traditions Scapegoats for social/economic ills Martyrs Christianity Spreads Jesus welcomed all people Comfort found in message of love Belief in equality & dignity of all Better life beyond the grave Christianity spread throughout the Roman empire Greek philosophy appeals to educated Romans Missionaries & extensive system of Roman roads Writings in Greek & Latin (understood by many people) Christianity Spreads Triumph, 313 A.D. Emperor Constantine and the Edict of Milan Freedom of worship What factors contributed to the spread of Christianity? Jewish roots of Christianity attracted Jews Ethical principles attracted common people Missionaries like Paul spread Jesus’ message to Jews and Gentiles Paul and others incorporated Greek ideas into the religion, which appealed to educated Romans The Christian Church Middle Ages Christian Church most powerful force in Europe Leaders of early Christian Church Role of Women Clergy – people authorized to perform religious ceremonies Priests & Bishops Patriarchs (leading bishops) of the most important cities in the Roman empire Pope The Christian Church Split between Eastern and Western Churches (1054) Patriarch of Rome (pope) claimed authority over the other patriarchs, who rejected his claim Eastern – Orthodox Church Western – Roman Catholic Church Only way to avoid eternal suffering was sacraments Roman Catholic Church gains secular power in Europe Officials owned large tracts of land Held high government positions The Christian Church Spread of Learning Conflict between faith and reason Aristotle taught the use of reason to discover basic truths Christians accept many ideas on faith Thomas Aquinas – Christian scholar Faith and reason exist in harmony The Christian Church How did the Christian church exert control over Europeans in the Middle Ages? Church officials owned large tracts of land Served in high government positions Church controlled people’s spiritual lives = absolute power over religious matters, its laws, and its system of courts The Judeo-Christian Tradition Shared elements of Judaism, Christianity & Muslims Honor Abraham, Moses, and the prophets Teach the ethical world-view developed by the Israelites Judeo-Christian tradition becomes influential in the west Christianity incorporated much of Judaism Christian missionaries spread Christianity throughout Europe Christian Church became a powerful spiritual and secular force Europeans carried their religion with them when they settled in the Americas Judeo-Christian & Democratic Tradition Jewish and Christian Bible’s moral and ethical principles form the basis for many democratic ideals such as equality and human rights The Judeo-Christian Tradition Where did the principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition come from? The Bible The Rise of Christianity Focus Question How did Christianity develop from Judaism into a powerful, independent religion? Christianity was spread by missionaries and had widespread appeal Christian communities organized a structured hierarchy, which helped make the Church a powerful force Democratic Developments in England Focus Question: How did Parliament emerge victorious in the struggle for political power in medieval England? Growth of Royal Power Feudalism – loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords Vassals pledged service & loyalty Knights – mounted warriors Peasants/Serfs – lowest Means of protection & control King – greatest lord Growth of Royal Power King Vassal Knights Peasant Serf Growth of Royal Power Monarchs – equal power of Nobles & Church Nobles & Church – courts, taxes, & armies Guarded their rights & privileges Resisted effort by monarchs to increase royal authority Growth of Royal Power Battle of Hastings, 1066 William vs. Harold William the Conqueror Required every vassal to swear first allegiance to him Built an efficient tax-collecting system Complete census, 1086 Increased royal wealth & authority Growth of Royal Power Henry II, 1154 Broadened the system of royal justice Expand customs into law Common Law – a legal system based on custom and court rulings Applied to all of England Jury – “sworn to oath” Grand jury vs. Trial jury Growth of Royal Power What new practices did strong monarchs introduce in England? William the Conqueror required vassals to be loyal to him & he introduced a census for tax purposes Henry II set up a justice system that came to rely on common law & juries Evolving Traditions of Government King John Oppressive taxes and abuses of power The Magna Carta Document that affirms the nobles’ feudal rights and some rights of townspeople and the Church Evolving Traditions of Government The Magna Carta, cont. Limit on King’s power Listed rights that the king had to respect Declared that the king had to consult with Great Council of lords and clergy before raising taxes Cornerstone of democratic tradition Asserted that people had rights Monarch must obey the law Evolving Traditions of Government Magna Carta makes rule of law a key principle of government Great Council evolves into Parliament Parliament wins the right to approve new taxes, which limits the power of the monarch Evolving Traditions of Government Development of Parliament Great Council = Parliament House of Lords – Nobles & Clergy House of Commons – Middle-class Parliament Gains Strength “Power of the Purse” How did the English Parliament limit the power of the monarch? Triumph of Parliament Parliament revolts against Charles I James I = absolute monarch Charles I, son of James Petition of Right Long Parliament, 1640-1653 The Royal Challenge Absolute Monarch – a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people he or she governs Triumph of Parliament The English Civil War, 1642-1649 Oliver Cromwell – leader of the army that fought against Charles I Cromwell’s army defeats the king’s troops in the English Civil War Triumph of Parliament The Commonwealth The House of Commons abolishes the monarchy, and Parliament declares England a republic, known as the Commonwealth From Restoration to Glorious Revolution Created a limited monarchy Triumph of Parliament English Bill of Rights Did not create a democracy, established a limited monarchy Constitution or legislative body limits the monarch’s powers Parliament and the monarch governed in a partnership Triumph of Parliament Contribution to the development of democratic tradition Restated traditional rights of English citizens Habeas Corpus – no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime Principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime Triumph of Parliament What principles did the English Bill of Rights establish? Ensured superiority of Parliament Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly House of Commons “power of the purse” Prohibited the monarch from interfering in parliamentary debates or suspending laws Barred Roman Catholic monarchs Abolished excessive fines and cruel or unjust punishment Affirmed the principle of habeas corpus Democratic Developments in England How did Parliament emerge victorious in the struggle for political power in medieval England? Magna Carta Power of the Purse Petition of Rights English Bill of Rights Chapter 1 Focus Question What are the main historical sources of the democratic tradition?