Disease Prevention - Parkway School District

Report
Disease
Prevention
Glencoe Teen Health
– Chapter 13, Lesson 4 Preventing the Spread
of Disease (pp. 418421)
– Chapter 13, Lesson 5 Sexually Transmitted
Diseases (pp. 422-426)
– Chapter 13, Lesson 6 HIV/AIDS (pp. 427-431)
Disease Prevention
Description
– In this unit students will learn about the
symptoms, spread, and prevention of sexually
transmitted diseases. Discussions will
include HIV/AIDS and how it attacks the immune
system.
Disease Prevention
Essential Questions
1. How do I protect myself against disease?
Disease Prevention
Enduring Understanding
1. Sexually transmitted diseases are infections
spread through sexual contact.
2. Abstinence from sexual activity is the only way to
avoid STDs.
3. HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS), a deadly disease that interferes
with the body's immune system.
Disease Prevention
 Vocabulary
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Hygiene
Pathogens
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
T Cell
Syphilis
Chlamydia
Genital Herpes
Genital Warts
Gonorrhea
Disease Prevention
• Day 16
• Handout “Disease Notes” packet and fill in the
answers as we go
 disease
Any condition that interferes with the normal
or proper functioning of the body or mind
 communicable
disease
A disease that can be spread to a person from
another person, an animal, or an object
 germs
Organisms that are so small they can only be
seen through a microscope
 pathogens
Germs that cause disease
 infection
A condition that happens when pathogens enter
the body, multiply, and cause harm
 viruses
The smallest and simplest pathogens
 bacteria
Simple one-celled organisms
 fungi
Organisms that are more complex than bacteria
but cannot make their own food
 protozoa
One-celled organisms that are more complex than
bacteria
In this lesson, you will learn to
 identify types of germs that can cause disease.
 describe what an infection is.
 explain how germs are spread.
 access information on communicable diseases.
Germs and Disease
A disease such as the common cold is a
communicable disease.
disease Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper
functioning of the body or mind
communicable disease A disease that can be spread to a
person from another person, an
animal, or an object
Germs and Disease
Communicable diseases are spread by germs.
germs Organisms that are so small they can only be seen
through a microscope
Germs and Disease
Pathogens are harmful germs.
pathogens Germs that cause disease
Germs and Disease
When the body cannot fight of an infection, a
disease develops.
infection A condition that happens when pathogens enter
the body, multiply, and cause harm
Kinds of Pathogens
Viruses are not alive.
viruses The smallest and simplest pathogens
Viruses are usually made of genetic material and
protein.
Kinds of Pathogens
Bacteria exist in every environment on earth.
bacteria Simple one-celled organisms
Most kinds of bacteria are not only harmless, but
actually helpful.
Kinds of Pathogens
Examples of fungi include molds, yeast, and
mushrooms.
fungi Organisms that are more complex than bacteria but
cannot make their own food
Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments.
Kinds of Pathogens
Many protozoa are harmless, but some can cause
disease.
protozoa One-celled organisms that are more
complex than bacteria
Kinds of Pathogens
Direct contact
with others
Contact with
animals or
insects
Indirect contact
with others
How
Pathogens
Spread
Contact with
contaminated
food or water
Contact with
someone
else’s blood
Sexual contact
Mosquitoes can infect
humans with West Nile
Virus. Controlling mosquito
populations is one way to
help control the spread of
West Nile Virus.
Lesson 1 Review
What I Learned
Vocabulary Define communicable disease and
pathogen. Write a sentence using both terms.
Keeping Pathogens Out
The Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block Pathogens
Tears
Saliva
Mucous
Membranes
Skin
Stomach Acid
Keeping Pathogens from Spreading
Good personal hygiene helps limit the number of
pathogens you encounter.
hygiene Cleanliness
Protecting Yourself from Pathogens
Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease.
Never share eating utensils.
Wash yourself thoroughly and often, especially before preparing foods.
Keep your fingers and hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes.
Protecting Yourself from Pathogens
Handle and prepare food safely.
Wipe counters thoroughly.
Empty the trash can often.
Keeps pets clean and healthy.
Protecting Others from Pathogens
If you feel sick, tell a parent or guardian.
If you are ill, stay home from school and other public places.
Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough.
If a medical professional has told you to take medicine, follow the directions
on the label exactly.
A Healthful Lifestyle
Eat a balanced diet.
Bathe or shower regularly
using soap and shampoo.
Avoid all tobacco products,
alcohol, and other drugs.
Get 8–9 hours of sleep
every day.
A Healthful Lifestyle
Rest when you are sick.
Ask a parent or guardian
to make sure your
immunizations are up to
date.
Learn to manage stress.
Visit the doctor for regular
checkups and follow the
advice of your doctor.
Lesson 4 Review
What I Learned
Describe How can staying home when you are sick
help keep others healthy?
Lesson 4 Review
What I Learned
Identify What are three strategies for protecting
yourself from pathogens?
Lesson 4 Review
Thinking Critically
Explain Why do you think you should keep your
trash can clean?
Lesson 4 Review
Thinking Critically
Apply Turtles and other reptiles carry salmonella.
This bacteria often makes people sick if they ingest it.
What would be a good way to make sure you don’t get
sick from your friend’s pet turtle?
 sexually
transmitted
diseases
Infections that are spread from person to person
through sexual contact
 chlamydia
A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive
organs, urethra, and anus
 genital
warts
Growths or bumps in the genital area cased by
certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)
 genital
herpes
A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the
genital area
 trichomoniasis
An STD caused by the protozoan
Trichomonas vaginalis
 gonorrhea
A bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes
of the body, particularly the genital area
 syphilis
A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of
the body
 hepatitis B
A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that
affects the liver
Finding the Main Idea
Create a three-column table like the one shown below. As you
go through the lesson, complete the table.
STD
Symptoms and Effects
Prevention
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also
called sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
hygiene Infections that are spread from person to person
through sexual contact
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
The STD Fact File
Someone who has an STD may
not have visible symptoms, or
may have symptoms that come
and go. However, such a person
may be contagious even when
there are no symptoms.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
The STD Fact File
STDs can be prevented by
saying no to high-risk behaviors,
such as sexual activity.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
The STD Fact File
STDs can make a person sterile
or infertile.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
The STD Fact File
Not all STDs are curable, and
some are even fatal.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
The STD Fact File
A person who suspects that he
or she is infected with an STD
must see a doctor.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
The STD Fact File
Vaccines are not available for
most STDs.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Chlamydia is often referred to as a “silent” disease
because in many cases there are no symptoms.
chlamydia A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive
organs, urethra, and anus
Left untreated, chlamydia can cause infections in the
body and infertility.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections like genital
warts are the most common type of STD.
genital warts Growths or bumps in the genital area caused
by certain types of human papillomavirus
Like chlamydia, HPV is often a silent disease,
causing no symptoms until many years after the
initial infection.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Even when the symptoms of genital herpes go
away, the virus and the disease remain in the body.
genital herpes A viral STD that produces painful blisters on
the genital area
There is no known cure for genital herpes.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Trichomoniasis can be treated and cured with
medications.
trichomoniasis An STD caused by the protozoan
Trichomonas vaginalis
Symptoms include vaginal discharge, discomfort
during urination, and irritation or itching in the
genital area.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics.
gonorrhea A bacterial STD that affect the mucous membranes of
the body, particularly in the genital area
Symptoms include a thick yellowish discharge from
the genitals and burning sensation when urinating.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
If diagnosed and treated in the first or second stage,
syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.
syphilis A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body
If left untreated, syphilis can eventually cause mental
disorders, heart problems, and death.
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Hepatitis B can be transmitted by sexual contact or
through contaminated needles.
hepatitis B A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that
affects the liver
There is a vaccine available for hepatitis B.
Abstinence from Sexual Activity
There is a 100 percent effective way to avoid STDs:
Abstinence
Abstinence from Sexual Activity
The media often sends messages that sexual activity
is exciting.
There is no mention of the risks of
STDs or unplanned pregnancies.
Use refusal
skills to avoid
being pressured
to take part in
sexual activity.
Abstinence from Sexual Activity
You do not have to hide your feelings of affection.
Appropriate ways for teens to show affection include
holding hands and complimenting someone.
Lesson 5 Review
What I Learned
Vocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease.
Lesson 5 Review
What I Learned
Explain Why are some STDs referred to as “silent”
diseases?
Lesson 5 Review
What I Learned
List What are two consequences of untreated
chlamydia?
Lesson 5 Review
What I Learned
Apply What is the best way to avoid STDs?
Lesson 5 Review
What I Learned
Explain What are some appropriate ways for teens
to show affection?
Lesson 5 Review
Thinking Critically
Analyze How do values influence a person’s decision
to practice sexual abstinence before marriage?
 HIV (human
immunodeficiency
virus)
The virus that causes AIDS
 AIDS (acquired
immunodeficiency
virus)
A disease that interferes with the body’s
ability to fight infection
In this lesson, you will learn to
 explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.
 explain what is being done to fight AIDS.
 analyze how media messages about sexual activity might
influence teens.
 describe how to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS.
Identifying Problems and Solutions
After reading this lesson, identify how HIV is transmitted and
what can be done to prevent the spread of HIV.
What Are HIV and AIDS?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and
kills T cells.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDS
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) A disease that
interferes with the
body’s ability to fight
infection
What Are HIV and AIDS?
HIV does not kill T cells immediately.
An infected person can have the virus for years
without showing any signs or symptoms.
The Spread of HIV
How HIV Is Spread
Sexual Intercourse
• This is most common
way that HIV spreads
• HIV circulates in the
bloodstream and in
other bodily fluids
• The virus circulates in
the body even before it
destroys the immune
system
• Abstinence is the only
protection against
transmission
Contaminated Needles
• A single drop of blood
left on a needle can
contain enough HIV to
infect someone
• Contaminated tattoo
needles can transmit
HIV
• People with diabetes
and other who need to
use needles should do
so under supervision of
a medical professional
Other
• A pregnant female can
transmit HIV to her child
during delivery
• A pregnant female can
transmit HIV to her child
through breast milk
• Before blood screening,
people sometimes
became infected during
blood transfusions
The Spread of HIV
How HIV Is NOT Spread
Swimming in a pool with an infected person.
Sharing utensils with an infected person.
Breathing the air near an infected person.
Donating blood.
Being bitten by a mosquito that has bitten an infected person.
Hugging or shaking hands with an infected person.
Using the same shower, bathtub, or toilet as an infected person.
Sharing sports equipment with an infected person.
Fighting AIDS
In the United States, more that 14,000 people die
every year from AIDS.
Scientists and educators around the world work to
prevent HIV infection by teaching people about the
disease.
Fighting AIDS
New drugs work to slow the progress of the disease
by preventing HIV from reproducing.
Many of these drugs have serious side effects and
are very expensive.
Fighting AIDS
Scientists are working on a vaccines to protect
people from HIV, but it will likely take many years to
develop.
The best weapon in the fight against HIV and AIDS
so far has been knowledge.
Abstinence and HIV
People who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of
getting diseases.
People who engage in sexual activity are exposing
themselves to STDs.
The only 100 percent sure way to avoid getting HIV
is to avoid contact with sources of this virus.
Abstinence and HIV
If you are pressured to use injectable drugs or have
sexual activity, talk to your parents or guardians right
away.
Stay away from people who encourage you to make
dangerous choices.
Abstinence and HIV
Abstinence can
save your life.
Lesson 6 Review
What I Learned
Vocabulary Define HIV and AIDS.
Lesson 6 Review
What I Learned
Identify How is AIDS related to HIV?
Lesson 6 Review
What I Learned
Give Examples People are often mistaken about
how HIV is transmitted. Name four ways HIV is not
transmitted.
Lesson 6 Review
What I Learned
Describe What happens to T cells that are infected
with HIV?
Lesson 6 Review
Thinking Critically
Analyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus?
Lesson 6 Review
Thinking Critically
Apply Many people who have HIV do not know that
they are infected with the virus. How can this be?
Disease Prevention
• Day 17
• STD and STI Fact Hunt around the Room
• Activities below with Option 1 or 2
Disease Prevention
 Activities
 Create a pamphlet that warns teens of the dangers of STDs. On your
brochure, explain different STDs and their symptoms, and how many
STDs cause harm without showing symptoms for a long time. Also point
out how sexual abstinence keeps teens safe and healthy.
 You are a reporter for a news station in St. Louis and your job is to inform
the public on HIV/AIDS. After researching HIV/AIDS, you have found that
in the early days of the AIDS epidemic, some people proposed that
anyone infected with the HIV should be quarantined. Your goal is to
explain why such quarantining of people infected with HIV is
unnecessary. Also, be sure to explain to the reader how HIV is spread
and how it is not spread. In order to complete this report, you can either
make a small commercial using a Flip Camera or create a PowerPoint.
 Constructed Response:
 What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens?
 How do values influence a person's decision to practice sexual abstinence
before marriage?
Disease Prevention Rubric 1: Brochure
Performance Task:
Create a brochure to summarize chapter 13
Directions:
Create a brochure that warns teens of the dangers of STDs. On your
brochure, explain how many STDs cause harm without showing symptoms for
a long time. Also point out how sexual abstinence keeps teens safe and
healthy.
Rubric
Create a brochure
• Explain symptoms of STDs (all 7 STDs we went over in class) ____14 points
• List the STDs that do not have visible symptoms
____3 points
• Name three strategies to protect yourself from pathogens ____3 points
• Explain the importance of abstinence (How do values
influence a person's decision to practice sexual abstinence
before marriage?)
____5 points
Total Points ___/25points
Disease Prevention Rubric 2: Reporter
Disease Prevention /Performance Task (60 Points)
*Not completing a project will result in zero points
Category
Completed the
research on
HIV/AIDS using
technology
Explain why
quarantining is
NOT necessary
Explain how HIV
is spread
Explain how HIV
is NOT spread
Needs
Improvement
(5pts)
Student
completed one
category with
little or no
technology.
Student provides
one examples of
why quarantining
is NOT necessary.
Good (10pts)
Outstanding
(15pts)
Student
completed two
categories with
technology.
Student
completed all
three categories
with technology.
Student provides
two examples of
why quarantining
is NOT necessary.
Student provides
all three
examples of why
quarantining is
NOT necessary.
Student will
Student will
Student will
provide one
provide two
provide three
example of how examples of how examples of how
HIV is spread.
HIV is spread.
HIV is spread.
Student provides Student provides Student provides
one example of
two examples of three examples
explain how HIV explain how HIV of how HIV is
is NOT spread.
is NOT spread.
NOT spread.
Disease Prevention
• Day 18
• “Understanding HIV and AIDS” handout, fill in
answers as you watch the video
Disease Prevention
 Students will know:
 Positive health practices
that help them stay well.
 Common types of STDs.
 The spread of HIV.
 Abstinence and prevention
of STDs.
 vocabulary
 The students will be able to:
 describe how to protect
themselves against pathogens.
 practice a positive health
behavior to prevent the
spread of disease.
 explain how people become
infected with HIV and develop
AIDS.
 develop a logical argument for
choosing abstinence.

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