Disease Prevention Glencoe Teen Health – Chapter 13, Lesson 4 Preventing the Spread of Disease (pp. 418421) – Chapter 13, Lesson 5 Sexually Transmitted Diseases (pp. 422-426) – Chapter 13, Lesson 6 HIV/AIDS (pp. 427-431) Disease Prevention Description – In this unit students will learn about the symptoms, spread, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Discussions will include HIV/AIDS and how it attacks the immune system. Disease Prevention Essential Questions 1. How do I protect myself against disease? Disease Prevention Enduring Understanding 1. Sexually transmitted diseases are infections spread through sexual contact. 2. Abstinence from sexual activity is the only way to avoid STDs. 3. HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a deadly disease that interferes with the body's immune system. Disease Prevention Vocabulary Hygiene Pathogens Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) T Cell Syphilis Chlamydia Genital Herpes Genital Warts Gonorrhea Disease Prevention • Day 16 • Handout “Disease Notes” packet and fill in the answers as we go disease Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper functioning of the body or mind communicable disease A disease that can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object germs Organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscope pathogens Germs that cause disease infection A condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm viruses The smallest and simplest pathogens bacteria Simple one-celled organisms fungi Organisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own food protozoa One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteria In this lesson, you will learn to identify types of germs that can cause disease. describe what an infection is. explain how germs are spread. access information on communicable diseases. Germs and Disease A disease such as the common cold is a communicable disease. disease Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper functioning of the body or mind communicable disease A disease that can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object Germs and Disease Communicable diseases are spread by germs. germs Organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscope Germs and Disease Pathogens are harmful germs. pathogens Germs that cause disease Germs and Disease When the body cannot fight of an infection, a disease develops. infection A condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm Kinds of Pathogens Viruses are not alive. viruses The smallest and simplest pathogens Viruses are usually made of genetic material and protein. Kinds of Pathogens Bacteria exist in every environment on earth. bacteria Simple one-celled organisms Most kinds of bacteria are not only harmless, but actually helpful. Kinds of Pathogens Examples of fungi include molds, yeast, and mushrooms. fungi Organisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own food Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments. Kinds of Pathogens Many protozoa are harmless, but some can cause disease. protozoa One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteria Kinds of Pathogens Direct contact with others Contact with animals or insects Indirect contact with others How Pathogens Spread Contact with contaminated food or water Contact with someone else’s blood Sexual contact Mosquitoes can infect humans with West Nile Virus. Controlling mosquito populations is one way to help control the spread of West Nile Virus. Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Vocabulary Define communicable disease and pathogen. Write a sentence using both terms. Keeping Pathogens Out The Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block Pathogens Tears Saliva Mucous Membranes Skin Stomach Acid Keeping Pathogens from Spreading Good personal hygiene helps limit the number of pathogens you encounter. hygiene Cleanliness Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease. Never share eating utensils. Wash yourself thoroughly and often, especially before preparing foods. Keep your fingers and hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes. Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Handle and prepare food safely. Wipe counters thoroughly. Empty the trash can often. Keeps pets clean and healthy. Protecting Others from Pathogens If you feel sick, tell a parent or guardian. If you are ill, stay home from school and other public places. Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough. If a medical professional has told you to take medicine, follow the directions on the label exactly. A Healthful Lifestyle Eat a balanced diet. Bathe or shower regularly using soap and shampoo. Avoid all tobacco products, alcohol, and other drugs. Get 8–9 hours of sleep every day. A Healthful Lifestyle Rest when you are sick. Ask a parent or guardian to make sure your immunizations are up to date. Learn to manage stress. Visit the doctor for regular checkups and follow the advice of your doctor. Lesson 4 Review What I Learned Describe How can staying home when you are sick help keep others healthy? Lesson 4 Review What I Learned Identify What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens? Lesson 4 Review Thinking Critically Explain Why do you think you should keep your trash can clean? Lesson 4 Review Thinking Critically Apply Turtles and other reptiles carry salmonella. This bacteria often makes people sick if they ingest it. What would be a good way to make sure you don’t get sick from your friend’s pet turtle? sexually transmitted diseases Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact chlamydia A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anus genital warts Growths or bumps in the genital area cased by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) genital herpes A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area trichomoniasis An STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis gonorrhea A bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly the genital area syphilis A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body hepatitis B A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liver Finding the Main Idea Create a three-column table like the one shown below. As you go through the lesson, complete the table. STD Symptoms and Effects Prevention What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also called sexually transmitted infections (STIs) hygiene Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File Someone who has an STD may not have visible symptoms, or may have symptoms that come and go. However, such a person may be contagious even when there are no symptoms. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File STDs can be prevented by saying no to high-risk behaviors, such as sexual activity. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File STDs can make a person sterile or infertile. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File Not all STDs are curable, and some are even fatal. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File A person who suspects that he or she is infected with an STD must see a doctor. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File Vaccines are not available for most STDs. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Chlamydia is often referred to as a “silent” disease because in many cases there are no symptoms. chlamydia A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anus Left untreated, chlamydia can cause infections in the body and infertility. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections like genital warts are the most common type of STD. genital warts Growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of human papillomavirus Like chlamydia, HPV is often a silent disease, causing no symptoms until many years after the initial infection. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Even when the symptoms of genital herpes go away, the virus and the disease remain in the body. genital herpes A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area There is no known cure for genital herpes. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Trichomoniasis can be treated and cured with medications. trichomoniasis An STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis Symptoms include vaginal discharge, discomfort during urination, and irritation or itching in the genital area. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics. gonorrhea A bacterial STD that affect the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital area Symptoms include a thick yellowish discharge from the genitals and burning sensation when urinating. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? If diagnosed and treated in the first or second stage, syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. syphilis A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body If left untreated, syphilis can eventually cause mental disorders, heart problems, and death. What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Hepatitis B can be transmitted by sexual contact or through contaminated needles. hepatitis B A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liver There is a vaccine available for hepatitis B. Abstinence from Sexual Activity There is a 100 percent effective way to avoid STDs: Abstinence Abstinence from Sexual Activity The media often sends messages that sexual activity is exciting. There is no mention of the risks of STDs or unplanned pregnancies. Use refusal skills to avoid being pressured to take part in sexual activity. Abstinence from Sexual Activity You do not have to hide your feelings of affection. Appropriate ways for teens to show affection include holding hands and complimenting someone. Lesson 5 Review What I Learned Vocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease. Lesson 5 Review What I Learned Explain Why are some STDs referred to as “silent” diseases? Lesson 5 Review What I Learned List What are two consequences of untreated chlamydia? Lesson 5 Review What I Learned Apply What is the best way to avoid STDs? Lesson 5 Review What I Learned Explain What are some appropriate ways for teens to show affection? Lesson 5 Review Thinking Critically Analyze How do values influence a person’s decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDS AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus) A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection In this lesson, you will learn to explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS. explain what is being done to fight AIDS. analyze how media messages about sexual activity might influence teens. describe how to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS. Identifying Problems and Solutions After reading this lesson, identify how HIV is transmitted and what can be done to prevent the spread of HIV. What Are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and kills T cells. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDS AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection What Are HIV and AIDS? HIV does not kill T cells immediately. An infected person can have the virus for years without showing any signs or symptoms. The Spread of HIV How HIV Is Spread Sexual Intercourse • This is most common way that HIV spreads • HIV circulates in the bloodstream and in other bodily fluids • The virus circulates in the body even before it destroys the immune system • Abstinence is the only protection against transmission Contaminated Needles • A single drop of blood left on a needle can contain enough HIV to infect someone • Contaminated tattoo needles can transmit HIV • People with diabetes and other who need to use needles should do so under supervision of a medical professional Other • A pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child during delivery • A pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child through breast milk • Before blood screening, people sometimes became infected during blood transfusions The Spread of HIV How HIV Is NOT Spread Swimming in a pool with an infected person. Sharing utensils with an infected person. Breathing the air near an infected person. Donating blood. Being bitten by a mosquito that has bitten an infected person. Hugging or shaking hands with an infected person. Using the same shower, bathtub, or toilet as an infected person. Sharing sports equipment with an infected person. Fighting AIDS In the United States, more that 14,000 people die every year from AIDS. Scientists and educators around the world work to prevent HIV infection by teaching people about the disease. Fighting AIDS New drugs work to slow the progress of the disease by preventing HIV from reproducing. Many of these drugs have serious side effects and are very expensive. Fighting AIDS Scientists are working on a vaccines to protect people from HIV, but it will likely take many years to develop. The best weapon in the fight against HIV and AIDS so far has been knowledge. Abstinence and HIV People who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of getting diseases. People who engage in sexual activity are exposing themselves to STDs. The only 100 percent sure way to avoid getting HIV is to avoid contact with sources of this virus. Abstinence and HIV If you are pressured to use injectable drugs or have sexual activity, talk to your parents or guardians right away. Stay away from people who encourage you to make dangerous choices. Abstinence and HIV Abstinence can save your life. Lesson 6 Review What I Learned Vocabulary Define HIV and AIDS. Lesson 6 Review What I Learned Identify How is AIDS related to HIV? Lesson 6 Review What I Learned Give Examples People are often mistaken about how HIV is transmitted. Name four ways HIV is not transmitted. Lesson 6 Review What I Learned Describe What happens to T cells that are infected with HIV? Lesson 6 Review Thinking Critically Analyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus? Lesson 6 Review Thinking Critically Apply Many people who have HIV do not know that they are infected with the virus. How can this be? Disease Prevention • Day 17 • STD and STI Fact Hunt around the Room • Activities below with Option 1 or 2 Disease Prevention Activities Create a pamphlet that warns teens of the dangers of STDs. On your brochure, explain different STDs and their symptoms, and how many STDs cause harm without showing symptoms for a long time. Also point out how sexual abstinence keeps teens safe and healthy. You are a reporter for a news station in St. Louis and your job is to inform the public on HIV/AIDS. After researching HIV/AIDS, you have found that in the early days of the AIDS epidemic, some people proposed that anyone infected with the HIV should be quarantined. Your goal is to explain why such quarantining of people infected with HIV is unnecessary. Also, be sure to explain to the reader how HIV is spread and how it is not spread. In order to complete this report, you can either make a small commercial using a Flip Camera or create a PowerPoint. Constructed Response: What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens? How do values influence a person's decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage? Disease Prevention Rubric 1: Brochure Performance Task: Create a brochure to summarize chapter 13 Directions: Create a brochure that warns teens of the dangers of STDs. On your brochure, explain how many STDs cause harm without showing symptoms for a long time. Also point out how sexual abstinence keeps teens safe and healthy. Rubric Create a brochure • Explain symptoms of STDs (all 7 STDs we went over in class) ____14 points • List the STDs that do not have visible symptoms ____3 points • Name three strategies to protect yourself from pathogens ____3 points • Explain the importance of abstinence (How do values influence a person's decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage?) ____5 points Total Points ___/25points Disease Prevention Rubric 2: Reporter Disease Prevention /Performance Task (60 Points) *Not completing a project will result in zero points Category Completed the research on HIV/AIDS using technology Explain why quarantining is NOT necessary Explain how HIV is spread Explain how HIV is NOT spread Needs Improvement (5pts) Student completed one category with little or no technology. Student provides one examples of why quarantining is NOT necessary. Good (10pts) Outstanding (15pts) Student completed two categories with technology. Student completed all three categories with technology. Student provides two examples of why quarantining is NOT necessary. Student provides all three examples of why quarantining is NOT necessary. Student will Student will Student will provide one provide two provide three example of how examples of how examples of how HIV is spread. HIV is spread. HIV is spread. Student provides Student provides Student provides one example of two examples of three examples explain how HIV explain how HIV of how HIV is is NOT spread. is NOT spread. NOT spread. Disease Prevention • Day 18 • “Understanding HIV and AIDS” handout, fill in answers as you watch the video Disease Prevention Students will know: Positive health practices that help them stay well. Common types of STDs. The spread of HIV. Abstinence and prevention of STDs. vocabulary The students will be able to: describe how to protect themselves against pathogens. practice a positive health behavior to prevent the spread of disease. explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS. develop a logical argument for choosing abstinence.