Imperialism in Southeast Asia & Africa

Chapter 14 sections 1 & 2
World History
Section 1
 Old:
European nations wanted to set up
trading posts where they could conduct
business and missionary activities
 New: European nations wanted total control
over huge amounts of foreign territory
 Argument
Europeans had the moral
responsibility to civilize “primitive people”
and bring Christianity to the “heathen
 Founded
Singapore (City of the Lion) in 1819
which became a major port for ships coming
to and from China
 Next the British took over Burma
To protect its possessions in India
Wanted an overland route into China
 Forced
Vietnam to accept French protection
from the British in 1857
 Protectorate: a political unit that depends on
another government for its protection
 Vietnamese Empire becomes a French
protectorate in 1884
 Extend protection to neighboring Cambodia,
Laos, Annam, & Tonkin
 Becomes known as Union of French Indochina
 The
only independent country in Southeast
 Kings promoted Western learning &
maintained good relationships with European
 Britain & France agreed to keep Thailand as
an independent buffer b/t their possessions
See how Thailand is right between British
controlled Burma and the countries that
make up French Indochina? That is what
a buffer is – something, anything that
creates space b/t two things.
 Indirect
Rule: local rulers kept their positions
of authority and status in the new colonial
Easier access to natural resources
Less effect on local culture
Lowered the cost of colonial government
 Direct
Rule: local rulers are removed from
power and replaced with officials from the
mother country
 Many
Westerners feared native people
gaining political rights – even teaching them
about representative government &
 Colonial powers did NOT want colonists to
develop their own industries, only continue
to supply the raw materials that fuel industry
in the mother country and buy those
 Materials
Exported: teak wood, rubber,
spices, tea, coffee, palm oil, tin, sugar
 Plantation agriculture – native peasants
worked as laborers on plantations owned by
colonial elites
 Wages were kept low to maximize profits
 Conditions were poor and led to many deaths
 Beginnings
of modern economic systems
 Built roads, railroads, communication
networks, and other pieces of infrastructure
that were good for everyone
 Development of an entrepreneurial class
because of the potential for exporting
desirable goods and raw materials
 Many
were most unhappy about being ruled
by Western powers
 Most frequent revolts came from peasants,
who were furious they were pushed off of
their land to create plantations
 Eventually an intellectual middle class
develops educated in Western ideas that
pushes for native rights, then independence
Section 2
West Africa
 B/t
1880-1900 European rivals had nearly all
of Africa under their control
 By 1890 the slave trade that affected W.
Africa for so long was nearly gone
 Now Euros were interested in trading
manufactured goods for natural resources
 European govt’s began to push for permanent
settlements along the coast
Europeans in Africa 1885-1914
North Africa
 Muhammad
Ali created a separate Egyptian
state in 1805 and implemented reforms to
bring Egypt into the modern world
 Europeans became interested in Egypt b/c
they wanted to build a canal connecting the
Red and Mediterranean Seas
 The Suez Canal was completed in 1867
 1875 Britain bought Egypt’s share of the
canal – saw it as their lifeline to India
 Italy was defeated by Ethiopia in its attempt
to take over the country
Central Africa
 Explorers
from the West went into the dense
tropical jungles
 They encouraged European governments to
send settlers to the Congo River Basin
 Belgium was the one country to seize the
moment and claim vast stretches of Central
 Belgium = area south of the Congo River
 France = area north of the Congo River
The Congo River
East Africa
 Intense
competition b/t Germany and Great
Britain for colonies here
 Most of East Africa had not yet been claimed
by European powers
 Berlin Conference, 1884
Settle claims in East Africa b/t Portugal, Belgium,
Germany, Great Britain
NO AFRICAN delegates were present!!
South Africa
 Boers
(Afrikaners) descendents of the original
Dutch settlers in South Africa
 Believed white supremacy was ordained by
God & forced natives onto reservations
 Britain took control of all of S. Africa after
defeating the Boers in the Boer War
 Formed the Union of South Africa in 1910
where only whites could vote
 System of government sponsored segregation
in South Africa becomes known as Apartheid
Colonial Powers
 The
only independent land left in Africa in
1914 was Liberia
 Mostly tried to employ indirect rule, but in
reality it was still foreign officials making the
decisions w/local leaders enforcing them
 Others (France) used direct rule
 Countries with African Possessions
Netherlands, Britain, France, Germany, Belgium,
Italy, Portugal, Spain
 Annex:
to incorporate new nearby territory
into an existing political unit
 Indigenous: native to a region – can be used
to describe many things (people, plants,
animals, etc.)

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