CMPT 334 Computer Organization

Report
CMPT 334 Computer Organization
Chapter 4
The Processor (Pipelining)
[Adapted from Computer Organization and Design 5th Edition,
Patterson & Hennessy, © 2014, MK]
Improving Performance
• Ultimate goal: improve system performance
• One idea: pipeline the CPU
• Pipelining is a technique in which multiple
instructions are overlapped in execution.
• It relies on the fact that the various parts of the
CPU aren’t all used at the same time
• Let’s look at an analogy
Sequential Laundry
• Four roommates need to do laundry
• How long to do laundry sequentially?
▫ Washer, dryer, “folder”, “storer” each take 30 minutes
▫ Total time: 8 hours for four loads
Pipelined Laundry
• How long to do if can overlap tasks?
▫ Only 3.5 hours!
Pipelining Notes
• Pipelining doesn’t
help latency of
single task, it helps
throughput of
entire workload
▫ How many
instructions can
we execute per
second?
• Potential speedup =
number of stages
MIPS Pipeline
•
Five stages, one step per stage
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
IF: Instruction fetch from memory
ID: Instruction decode & register read
EX: Execute operation or calculate address
MEM: Access memory operand
WB: Write result back to register
Stages of the Datapath
• Stage 1: Instruction Fetch
▫ No matter what the instruction, the 32-bit
instruction word must first be fetched from
memory
▫ Every time we fetch an instruction, we also
increment the PC to prepare it for the next
instruction fetch
 PC = PC + 4, to point to the next instruction
Stages of the Datapath
• Stage 2: Instruction Decode
▫ First, read the opcode to determine instruction
type and field lengths
▫ Second, read in data from all necessary registers
 For add, read two registers
 For addi, read one register
 For jal, no register read necessary
Stages of the Datapath
• Stage 3: Execution
▫ Uses the ALU
▫ The real work of most instructions is done here:
arithmetic, logic, etc.
▫ What about loads and stores – e.g., lw $t0, 40($t1)
 Address we are accessing in memory is 40 +
contents of $t1
 We can use the ALU to do this addition in this stage
Stages of the Datapath
• Stage 4: Memory Access
▫ Only the load and store instructions do anything during
this stage; the others remain idle
• Stage 5: Register Write
▫ Most instructions write the result of some computation into
a register
▫ Examples: arithmetic, logical, shifts, loads, slt
▫ What about stores, branches, jumps?
 Don’t write anything into a register at the end
 These remain idle during this fifth stage
MIPS Pipeline
•
Five stages, one step per stage
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
IF: Instruction fetch from memory
ID: Instruction decode & register read
EX: Execute operation or calculate address
MEM: Access memory operand
WB: Write result back to register
Datapath Walkthrough: LW, SW
• lw $s3, 17($s1)
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫
Stage 1: fetch this instruction, increment PC
Stage 2: decode to find it’s a lw, then read register $s1
Stage 3: add 17 to value in register $s1 (retrieved in Stage 2)
Stage 4: read value from memory address compute in Stage 3
Stage 5: write value read in Stage 4 into register $s3
• sw $s3, 17($s1)
▫
▫
▫
▫
Stage 1: fetch this instruction, increment PC
Stage 2: decode to find it’s a sw, then read registers $s1 and $s3
Stage 3: add 17 to value in register $1 (retrieved in Stage 2)
Stage 4: write value in register $3 (retrieved in Stage 2) into
memory address computed in Stage 3
▫ Stage 5: go idle (nothing to write into a register)
Datapath Walkthrough: SLTI, ADD
• slti $s3,$s1,17
▫ Stage 1: fetch this instruction, increment PC
▫ Stage 2: decode to find it’s an slti, then read register $s1
▫ Stage 3: compare value retrieved in Stage 2 with the
integer 17
▫ Stage 4: go idle
▫ Stage 5: write the result of Stage s3 in register $s3
• add $s3,$s1,$s2
▫ Stage 1: fetch this instruction, increment PC
▫ Stage 2: decode to find it’s an add, then read registers
$s1 and $s2
▫ Stage 3: add the two values retrieved in Stage 2
▫ Stage 4: idle (nothing to write to memory)
▫ Stage 5: write result of Stage 3 into register $s3
Pipeline Performance
• Assume time for stages is
▫ 100ps for register read or write
▫ 200ps for other stages
• Compare pipelined datapath with single-cycle
datapath
Instr
Instr fetch Register
read
ALU op
Memory
access
Register
write
Total time
lw
200ps
100 ps
200ps
200ps
100 ps
800ps
sw
200ps
100 ps
200ps
200ps
R-format
200ps
100 ps
200ps
beq
200ps
100 ps
200ps
700ps
100 ps
600ps
500ps
Pipeline Performance
Single-cycle (Tc= 800ps)
Pipelined (Tc= 200ps)
Pipeline Speedup
• If all stages are balanced
▫ i.e., all take the same time
▫ Time between instructionspipelined
= Time between instructionsnonpipelined
Number of stages
• If not balanced, speedup is less
Limits to Pipelining: Hazards
• Situations that prevent starting the next
instruction in the next cycle
• Structure hazards
▫ A required resource is busy
• Data hazard
▫ Need to wait for previous instruction to complete
its data read/write
• Control hazard
▫ Deciding on control action depends on previous
instruction
Data Hazards
• An instruction depends on completion of data
access by a previous instruction
▫ add
sub
$s0, $t0, $t1
$t2, $s0, $t3
stall the pipeline
Exercise 4.8
IF
ID
EX
MEM
WB
250ps
350ps
150ps
300ps
200ps
R-type
beq
lw
sw
45%
20%
20%
15%
• What is the clock cycle time in a pipelined and
non-pipelined processor?
Pipelined
350 ps
Single-cycle
1250 ps
Exercise 4.8
IF
ID
EX
MEM
WB
250ps
350ps
150ps
300ps
200ps
R-type
beq
lw
sw
45%
20%
20%
15%
• What is the total latency of an lw instruction in a
pipelined and non-pipelined processor?
Pipelined
1250 ps
Single-cycle
1250 ps
Exercise 4.8
IF
ID
EX
MEM
WB
250ps
350ps
150ps
300ps
200ps
R-type
beq
lw
sw
45%
20%
20%
15%
• What is the total latency of an lw instruction in a
pipelined and non-pipelined processor?
Pipelined
1250 ps
Single-cycle
1250 ps
Exercise 4.8
IF
ID
EX
MEM
WB
250ps
350ps
150ps
300ps
200ps
R-type
beq
lw
sw
45%
20%
20%
15%
• What is the utilization of the data memory?
35%
Exercise 4.8
IF
ID
EX
MEM
WB
250ps
350ps
150ps
300ps
200ps
R-type
beq
lw
sw
45%
20%
20%
15%
• What is the utilization of the write-register port
of the “Registers” unit?
65%

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