SPACE! - School Of Communication

If you can’t take a little bloody nose, maybe you had better go back home
and crawl under your bed. It’s not safe out here! It’s wondrous, with
treasures to satiate desires both subtle and gross, but it’s not for the timid. –
Star Trek
Resolved: The United States federal government
should substantially increase its exploration
and/or development of space beyond the
Earth’s mesosphere.
Mesosphere? Tell me what that is!
- Layer of atmosphere surrounding earth.
- 50 Km to 85 Km above the earths atmosphere.
- No aircrafts (planes) go higher than 50 km but
no spacecrafts/satellites orbit below 85 Km
Huh? What is the difference?
Space Exploration
• Exploration refers to deep space --- activities must take place
outside of orbit of the Earth’s
• Schmitt 3 (Harrison, Chair – Interlune-Intermars Initiative, Inc. and Astronaut – Apollo 17, Testimony Before the Senate Commerce,
Science, and Transportation Committee, 11-6, ml)
Appendix A: Space Exploration And Development - Why Humans?
The term "space exploration" implies the exploration of the Moon,
planets and asteroids, that is, "deep space," in contrast to continuing
human activities in Earth orbit. Human activities in Earth orbit
have less to do with exploration and more to do with international
commitments, as in the case of the Space Station, and prestige and
technological development, as in the case of China and Russia.
There are also research opportunities, not fully recognized even
after 40 years, that exploit the opportunities presented by being in
Earth orbit.
Space Colonization
• Exploration is only human space travel --- robotic missions aren’t topical
• Wright 8 (Edward, Project Manager – Teachers in Space, Former President – X-Rocket, LLC, and Programming Writer – Microsoft
Corporation, Comment on “A Move Against ‘Mars Mission Funding’”, Space Politics, 6-28,
> No it doesn’t, the article showed democratic support for further
unmanned mars missions?
Unmanned missions are not exploration, they are merely
reconnaissance. The dictionary defines exploration as “travel for
purposes of discovery.” Sitting in a control room looking at pictures of
Mars on a TV set is not exploration because it does not involve travel.
Calling unmanned space “exploration” and unmanned probes
“spaceships” is just an attempt to co-opt the language.
Mark further confuses the issue by defined “space exploration” to mean
only missions conducted by NASA, ignoring the fact that the private sector
is also working on space exploration.
Space Development
Space development must utilize resources and must
engage the private sector.
Thomas 11 (J. Thomas. – aerospace physicist and space development researcher. “Obama’s 2011 State of the Union
– A response from Space”.
However, the Sputnik Moment metaphor is a suitable reference for his broader point. The launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union heralded to the world that
circumstances had suddenly, and very seriously, changed. Little did we know just what was really in store for us! While I agree that we are again facing just
such circumstances, I also think we are making a huge mistake by not including space development as a major part of the solution.
space development I mean the development of
significant infrastructure that can be leveraged by
private industry for the expansion of the human
sphere and the accessing of the effectively infinite
resources of the solar system and beyond for the
purpose of improving the human condition.
History of utilizing space
History of Space Development
• Always been a part of historical societies.
• 1915 – United States created National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) – to keep
up with competitors.
• 1958 – Space Act – (National Aeronautics and
Space Act). Eisenhower was responsible for this
Space Race
1957 – Sputnik. Soviet Satellite
1958 – Explorer 1 U.S. Satellite
Apollo Program – Get to the Moon!
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
Strategic Defense Initiative – Reagan
Indirect Effects
• Increases in STEM movement
• Environmental Movement
• Exploratory missions
International Players
• ESA – European space agency
• Japan – Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
• Russia – Russian Federal Space Agency
• Canadian Space Agency
• China - China National Sapace Administration
International Space Station
• 1998 started being composed. In the 2020s it
will be out of operation.
• Research and Exploration facility
• Total Cost $160 Billion
• Space Cooperation and Multilateralism
• Possible Aff ?
“What do ceramic teeth braces, artificial hearts, airbags, insulin pumps and Olympicscaliber swimsuits have in common? Answer: they originated in space. All these gadgets
and hundreds more are spinoffs from technologies developed for the multi-billiondollar space programs that kicked into high gear 50 years ago when Yuri Gagarin
became the first human catapulted into orbit.
Many of these offshoots began with a quest by American, Soviet and European
engineers for materials that could perform new tasks or withstand extreme
temperatures, cosmic rays and the stresses of high or zero gravity. So-called memory
metals, for example, that flex and recover their shape in response to heat are used for
shower valves to prevent scalding, surgical staples and tubing for reinforcing arteries
called stents. Sharper-than-steel scalpels, medical implants and even performanceenhancing golf clubs -- stronger than titanium as elastic as plastic -- are today derived
from a related class of space-age alloys called liquid metals.
Likewise the flexible wire rims of your sunglasses... which may also feature a glass
coating, developed to protect astronauts' eyes from glint and glare.” – Discovery News
U.S. Military in Space
Protecting space assets.
Dual Use capabilities
Deterring other competitors
“Defensive” capabilities – Space Based Missile
- Intelligence, Spying
Space-Based Missile Defense
Space Colonization
Obama and NASA
• Cancellation of the Bush Constellation Program.
• What is the constellation program you ask?
- Returning to the moon
- Building new shuttles to carry astronauts in
space. Now reliant on the Soyuz Russian
New plan? What is the new vision?
Mars, and an Asteriod.
• Commercial launches. Private companies like
SpaceX now appear like they will be building the
next shuttles that get into space.
• Too quick? Too Much?
• \
Possible Aff Areas
• Mapping
• Mining
- Resources – hydrogen, helium, nickel, iron,
and magnesium.
• The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence
Space Debris
• “Space Situational Awareness”
• Multilateralism
Multilateral initiatives
- Allowing our space technology to export to
other countries
- Signing on to joint initiatives (ISS) is one
Space Military Dominance
Dolman 05 (Everett C. Dolman – Associate Professor of Comparative Military Studies. U.S. Air Force
School of Advanced Air and Space Studies. “U.S. Military Transformation and Weapons in Space”.
September 14, 2005.
Seizing the initiative and securing low-Earth orbit now, while the US is unchallenged in space, would do
much to stabilize the international system and prevent an arms race is space. From low-Earth orbit
(LEO), the enhanced ability to deny any attempt by another nation to place military assets in space, or to
readily engage and destroy terrestrial ASAT capacity, makes the possibility of large scale space war
and or military space races less likely, not more. Why would a state expend the effort to compete in
space with a superpower that has the extraordinary advantage of holding securely the highest ground at
the top of the gravity well? So long as the controlling state demonstrates a capacity and a will to use
force to defend its position, in effect expending a small amount of violence as needed to prevent a
greater conflagration in the future, the likelihood of a future war in space is remote. Moreover, if the US
were willing to deploy and use a military space force that maintained effective control of space, and did
so in a way that was perceived as tough, non-arbitrary, and efficient, such an action would serve
to discourage competing states from fielding opposing systems. Should the US use its advantage
to police the heavens (assuming the entire cost on its own), and allow unhindered peaceful use of space
by any and all nations for economic and scientific development, over time its control of LEO could be
viewed as a global asset and a public good. Much in the manner that the British maintained control of
the high seas, enforcing international norms of innocent passage and property rights , the US could
prepare outer space for a long-overdue burst of economic expansion.
Nuclear Power in Space

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