Power and influence

Report
Chapter 7
Power and Influence
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-1
Learning Objectives
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Understand how position and personal attributes
can be a source of power for leaders
Understand the process by which power is
acquired or lost in organizations
Understand the consequences of power for
leadership effectiveness
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Leadership in Organizations
7-2
Learning Objectives (Cont.)
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Understand some of the psychological processes
that explain how leaders influence people
Understand the different types of influence tactics
used in organizations
Understand how proactive tactics are typically
used in influence attempts with subordinates,
peers, or superiors
Understand the relative effectiveness of different
proactive tactics
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Leadership in Organizations
7-3
Conceptions of Power and Influence
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Power – Capacity of one party to influence another
party
Authority – The rights, prerogatives, obligations,
and duties associated with particular positions in
an organization or social system
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Leadership in Organizations
7-4
Outcomes of Influence Attempts
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Commitment – The target person internally agrees
with a decision or request and makes a great effort
to carry out the request
Compliance – The target person is willing to do
what the agent asks but is apathetic rather than
enthusiastic about it and will make only a minimal
effort
Resistance – The target person is opposed to the
proposal or request and actively tries to avoid
carrying it out
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Leadership in Organizations
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Types of Resistance
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Refuse to carry out the request
Make excuses about why the request cannot be
carried out
Try to persuade the agent to withdraw or change
the request
Ask higher authorities to overrule the agent’s
request
Delay acting in the hope that the agent will forget
about the request
Make a pretense of complying but try to sabotage
the task.
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Leadership in Organizations
7-6
Influence Processes
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Instrumental Compliance – The target person
carries out a requested action for the purpose of
obtaining a reward or avoiding punishment
Internalization – The target person becomes
committed to supporting and implementing the
agent’s proposals because they appear to be
intrinsically desirable and correct
Personal Identification – The target person
imitates the agent’s behavior or adopts the same
attitudes to please the agent and to be like the
agent
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Leadership in Organizations
7-7
Power Types and Sources
Table: French and Raven Power Taxonomy
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Leadership in Organizations
7-8
Different Types of Power
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Leadership in Organizations
7-9
Guidelines for Using Legitimate Authority
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Make polite, clear requests
Explain the reasons for a request
Do not exceed your scope of authority
Verify authority if necessary
Follow proper channels
Follow up to verify compliance
Insist on compliance if appropriate
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-10
Guidelines for Using Reward Power
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Offer the type of rewards that people desire
Offer rewards that are fair and ethical
Do not promise more than you can deliver
Explain the criteria for giving rewards and keep it
simple
Provide rewards as promised if requirements are
met
Use rewards symbolically (not in a manipulative
way)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-11
Guidelines for Using Coercive Power
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Explain rules and requirements, and ensure that people
understand the serious consequences of violations
Respond to infractions promptly and consistently without
showing favoritism to particular individuals
Investigate to get the facts before using reprimands or
punishment, and avoid jumping to conclusions or making
hasty accusations
Except for the most serious infractions, provide sufficient
oral and written warnings before resorting to punishment
Administer warnings and reprimands in private, and avoid
making rash threats
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-12
Guidelines for Using Coercive Power (Cont.)
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Stay calm and avoid the appearance of hostility or
personal rejection
Express a sincere desire to help the person comply with
role expectations and thereby avoid punishment
Invite the person to suggest ways to correct the problem,
and seek agreement on a concrete plan
Maintain credibility by administering punishment if
noncompliance continues after threats and warnings have
been made
Use punishments that are legitimate, fair, and
commensurate with the seriousness of the infraction
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-13
Ways to Acquire and Maintain Referent
Power
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Show acceptance and positive regard
Act supportive and helpful
Use sincere forms of ingratiation
Defend and back up people when appropriate
Do unsolicited favors
Make self-sacrifices to show concern
Keep promises
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Leadership in Organizations
7-14
Ways to Use and Maintain Expert Power
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Explain the reasons for a request or proposal and
why it is important
Provide evidence that a proposal will be
successful
Do not make rash, careless, or inconsistent
statements
Do not lie, exaggerate, or misrepresent the facts
Listen seriously to the person’s concerns and
suggestions
Act confident and decisive in a crisis
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Leadership in Organizations
7-15
How Power is Acquired or Lost
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Social Exchange Theory – Power based on
exchange of benefits or favors
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Acquired
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Control over scarce resources
Access to vital information
Skill in dealing with critical problems
Accumulated idiosyncratic credits
Innovative proposals
Lost
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Pursuing selfish motives
Innovation (if leads to failure)
How serious the failure is
Amount of status
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Leadership in Organizations
7-16
How Power is Gained or Lost
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Strategic Contingencies Theory
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Expertise in coping with important problems
Centrality of the subunit within the workforce
Extent to which the subunit’s expertise is unique rather
than substitutable
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-17
Power
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Consequences of Position and Personal Power
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Personal power positively correlated to satisfaction and
performance
Position power non-significant or negative relationship
with satisfaction and performance
All types of power can be effective in gaining limitations
of power studies
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-18
Power (Cont.)
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How Much Power Should Leaders Have?
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Depends on the what needs to be accomplished and
the leader’s skill in using the power
Depends on the situation
Too much power may be as dangerous as not enough
power
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Leadership in Organizations
7-19
Influence Tactics
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General Types of Influence Tactics
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Impression Management Tactics: Intended to
influence people to like the agent or to have a
favorable evaluation of the agent
Political Tactics: Used to influence organizational
decisions or otherwise gain benefits for an individual or
group
Proactive Influence Tactics: Have an immediate task
objective
Reactive Influence Tactics: Used to resist an
unwanted influence attempt or to modify the agent’s
request to be more acceptable
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-20
Research to Identify Proactive Tactics
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Kipnis, Schmidt, and Wilkinson: Preliminary
taxonomy
Schriesheim & Hinkin: Profiles of Organizational
Influence Strategies (POIS)
Yukl & Colleagues: Influence Behavior
Questionnaire
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7-21
Comparison Between POIS & IBQ
Table: Comparison of Influence Tactics Found in Two Research Programs
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7-22
Influence Tactics (Cont.)
Table: Definition of the 11 Proactive Influence Tactics
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7-23
Power and Influence Behavior
Figure: Effects of Agent Power and Influence Behavior on Influence Outcomes.
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Leadership in Organizations
7-24
Use and Effectiveness of Influence Tactics
Table: Summary of Findings for Proactive Influence Tactics
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Leadership in Organizations
7-25
Guidelines for Using Core Tactics
Table: Ways to Use the Core Tactics
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7-26
Guidelines for Using Supplementary
Tactics
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Guidelines for Using Supplementary
Tactics (Cont.)
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7-28
Proactive Influence Tactics
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Effectiveness of Tactic Combinations
Reactive Combinations
Ethical Use of Influence Tactics
Limitations of Research on Proactive Influence
Tactics
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-29
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recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
7-30

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