PowerPoint Lesson 14-new - ICT-IAT

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Lesson 14
Creating Formulas and Charting Data
Computer Literacy
BASICS: A
Comprehensive Guide
to IC3, 3rd Edition
1
Morrison / Wells
Objectives
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Lesson 14
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2
Understand and create formulas in a worksheet.
Understand and use relative and absolute cell
references.
Understand and use function formulas.
Connect worksheets by using formulas with cell
references to multiple worksheets.
Identify and correct formula errors.
Create a chart from worksheet data.
Objectives (continued)
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Lesson 14
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3
Edit chart data and change chart formats and
options.
Interpret data from worksheets and charts.
Vocabulary
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4
absolute cell
reference
argument
chart
complex formulas
embedded chart
formula
function formula
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mathematical functions
mixed cell reference
operand
operator
order of evaluation
relative cell references
statistical functions
Introduction
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The worksheet is often used to complete
complex and repetitious calculations
accurately, quickly, and easily.
You can create a chart to present the data in a
way that is easily understood.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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What is a primary use of a spreadsheet?
What are some examples of when a
spreadsheet would be preferable to using a
calculator?
Working with Formulas
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A formula is the equation used to calculate values in a
cell.
A formula consists of two components:
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An operand is a number or cell reference
An operator is a symbol that indicates the mathematical
operation to perform with the operands
Working with Formulas
(continued)
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Lesson 14
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All Excel formulas begin with the equal sign.
Formulas containing more than one operator are
called complex formulas.
The sequence used to calculate the value of a
formula is called the order of evaluation.
You can change the order of evaluation by using
parentheses; calculations enclosed in parentheses
are performed first.
Working with Formulas
(continued)
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Lesson 14
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Creating and Editing a
Formula:
Generally, cell references
are used in formulas
rather than the actual
value in the cell.
There are two ways to
enter a cell reference into
a formula; you can enter
the cell reference, or you
can click the cell.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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A formula consists of two components: an
operand and a(n) ____.
Lesson 14
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True or False? All formulas begin with an
asterisk (*).
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Answer: operator
Answer: False. All formulas begin with an equal
sign.
True or False? You can change the order of
evaluation by using parentheses.
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Answer: True.
Lesson 14
Class Discussion:
11
1)What happens if you do not start a formula
with an equal sign?
2)Why is it a good idea to use cell references in
formulas rather than values?
Using Relative and Absolute Cell
References
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When you create formulas, the cell references are
formatted as relative cell references, which means when
the formula is copied to another cell, the cell references
will be adjusted relative to the formula’s new location.
An absolute cell reference does not change when the
formula is copied or moved to a new location.
To create an absolute cell reference, insert a dollar sign
($) before the column letter and/or the row number of the
cell reference you want to stay the same.
Using Relative and Absolute Cell
References (continued)
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A cell reference that contains both relative and
absolute references is called a mixed cell
reference.
When formulas with mixed cell references are
copied or moved, the row or column references
that are preceded by a dollar sign will not
change. Row or column references not
preceded by a dollar sign will adjust relative to
the cell to which they are moved.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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True or False? Relative cell references
adjust when the formula is copied to another
cell.
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True or False? To create an absolute cell
reference, you insert a dollar sign before the
column letter and/or row number of the cell
reference.
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Answer: True.
Answer: True.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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True or False? The formula =$A1 is an
example of an absolute cell reference.
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Answer: False. The formula =$A1 is an
example of a mixed cell reference.
Class Discussion:
Lesson 14
1)What is the difference between absolute and
relative cell references?
16
Using Function Formulas
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Mathematical functions perform calculations that
you could perform using a scientific calculator.
Using Function Formulas
(continued)
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Statistical functions are functions that describe large
quantities of data.
Using Function Formulas
(continued)
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Using the SUM Function:
A shortcut for entering cell references is to name a
range of cells.
The AutoSum feature enables you to quickly identify
a range and enter a formula.
Using Function Formulas
(continued)
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Using the SUM Function (cont):
AutoSum creates a function formula to calculate the
sum of the range.
Using Function Formulas
(continued)
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Using the SUM Function (cont):
A function formula names a
function instead of using
operators to calculate a result.
There are three components of a function formula:
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The equal sign tells Excel that a formula follows.
The function name tells Excel what to do with the data.
The argument is a value, a cell reference, a range, or text that
acts as an operand in a function formula, and it is enclosed in
parentheses after the function name.
Using Function Formulas
(continued)
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Lesson 14
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Using the COUNT Function:
The COUNT function tallies the number of occurrences of
numerical data.
You can enter the COUNT function by clicking a button on the
Ribbon or by opening the Function Arguments dialog box.
Using Function Formulas
(continued)
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Using the AVERAGE, MIN and MAX Functions:
The AVERAGE function calculates the average of
the range identified in the argument.
The MIN (minimum) function shows the smallest
number contained in the range identified in the
argument.
The MAX (maximum) function shows the smallest
number contained in the range identified in the
argument.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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True or False? Mathematical functions
describe large quantities of data.
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True or False? COUNT is a mathematical
function.
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Answer: False. Statistical functions describe
large quantities of data.
Answer: False. COUNT is a statistical function.
True or False? The MIN function shows the
smallest number contained in the range.
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Answer: True.
Class Discussion:
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1) What are the three components for a
function formula?
2) What is the difference between the
COUNT function and SUM?
Creating Formulas that Reference
Cells in Multiple Worksheets
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The 3-D reference enables you to access data from
three different dimensions in the workbook: length,
width, and depth.
Length and width refer to worksheet columns and
rows.
Depth refers to the ability to connect worksheets by
creating formulas that reference the same cell or
range in multiple worksheets.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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The 3-D reference enables you to access
data from three different dimensions in the
workbook: length, width, and ____.
Answer: depth
Troubleshooting Common
Formula Errors
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When Excel cannot properly perform a
calculation, an error value will appear in the
cell where you entered the formula.
Troubleshooting Common
Formula Errors (continued)
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Common errors, their causes, and solutions
Troubleshooting Common
Formula Errors (continued)
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Common errors, their causes, and solutions (cont)
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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1) An exclamation point within a diamond
shape is the ____.
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Answer: Error Checking button
2) True or False? When ##### appears in
a cell, it is usually because the column is not
wide enough.
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Answer: True.
Class Discussion:
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What is the purpose of the green triangle that
sometimes appears in the upper-left corner
of the cell?
Using Charts to Show Data
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A chart is a graphic representation of your
worksheet data. Excel provides several chart types.
Using Charts to Show Data
(continued)
After you choose a chart type, the next step is to decide
which chart options you want to use.
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Chart elements
Using Charts to Show Data
(continued)
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Creating and Editing a Chart:
The Labels group on the Chart Tools Layout tab
provides several buttons for customizing the table
elements such as changing the position of the chart
title and the legend.
Using Charts to Show Data
(continued)
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Lesson 14
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Creating and Editing a Chart (cont):
When you edit data in the worksheet, the chart is
updated automatically to reflect the changes. You can
also choose a new chart type without starting over.
Change Chart Type dialog box
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Using Charts to Show Data
(continued)
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Lesson 14
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Changing Chart Formats:
Many of the parts of a chart are positioned
on the chart in text boxes that you can click
to change the format.
An embedded chart is created on the same
sheet as the data used in the chart.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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1) True or False? When you edit the data in
a worksheet, the chart is automatically
updated to reflect the changes.
Lesson 14
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2) True or False? An embedded chart is
created on a different sheet than the data
used in the chart.
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Answer: True.
Answer: False. An embedded chart is a chart
created on the same sheet as the data used in
the chart.
Class Discussion:
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What is a legend?
What is an axis?
Interpreting Worksheet and Chart
Data
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Drawing Logical Conclusions from
Worksheets:
The results of a worksheet are only accurate
if correct data and formulas have been
entered.
The easiest way to summarize information is
to use the tools within Excel to obtain the
information required.
Interpreting Worksheet and Chart
Data (continued)
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Lesson 14
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Interpreting Graphical Data:
Charts are extremely useful for summarizing,
clarifying, or highlighting data.
When a chart’s values and representation
are correct, a chart can help you gain an
understanding that would perhaps not be
clear when looking at a worksheet.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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True or False? Worksheets and charts can
be confusing if they are not set up correctly.
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Answer: True.
True or False? The more you work with
worksheets, the more comfortable and adept
you will be at interpreting the data.
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Answer: True.
Lesson 14
Summary
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In this lesson, you learned:
 One of the primary uses for Excel spreadsheets
is to perform calculations. All formulas begin
with =.
 If you do not want the cell reference to change
when the formula is moved or copied to a new
location, the cell reference must be formatted as
an absolute cell reference.
Summary (continued)
Lesson 14
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Functions are special formulas that do not require
operators. Excel provides more than 300 built-in
functions to help you perform mathematical,
statistical, and other functions.
The AutoSum feature enables you to quickly
identify a range of cells and enter a formula. For a
range of cells specified in the argument, the
AVERAGE function finds the average, the SUM
function totals the values, and the COUNT function
shows the number of cells with numerical values.
Summary (continued)
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Lesson 14
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You can use the MIN and MAX functions to find
the smallest or largest number in a range.
If Excel cannot perform a calculation, an error
value and an Error Checking button will appear to
alert you to and help you fix the error. Then, you
can edit the formula directly in the cell or in the
formula bar.
A chart shows the worksheet data visually and
often helps the audience understand and interpret
the information more clearly.
Summary (continued)
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When the worksheet data is changed, the chart is
automatically updated to reflect those changes.
Chart types, formats, and options can be changed at
any time, even after the chart has been created.
Excel worksheets and charts convey information and
allow you to draw logical conclusions from the data;
but to make a correct assessment, you must ensure
that the data is accurate and that you know what the
values represent.
KEY TERMS
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Absolute cell reference: A reference that
does not change when the formula is copied
or moved to a new location.
Argument: A value, a cell reference, a
range, or text that acts as an operand in a
function formula, and it is enclosed in
parentheses after the function name.
Chart: A graphic representation of your
worksheet data.
Complex formulas: Formulas containing
KEY TERMS
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Complex formulas: Formulas containing
more than one operator.
Embedded chart: A chart created on the
same sheet as the data used in the chart.
Formula: The equation used to calculate
values in a cell.
Function formula: A special formula that
names a function instead of using operators
to calculate a result.
KEY TERMS
Lesson 14
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49
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Mathematical functions: Functions that
perform calculations that you could perform
using a scientific calculator.
Mixed cell reference: A cell reference that
contains both relative and absolute references.
Operand: A number or cell reference.
Operator: A symbol that indicates the
mathematical operation to perform with the
operands.
KEY TERMS
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Lesson 14
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50

Order of evaluation: The sequence used to
calculate the value of a formula.
Relative cell references: A reference that
adjusts relative to the formula’s new location
when it is copied to another cell
Statistical functions: Functions that describe
large quantities of data.

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