Day 22 Text Talk Vocab

Choosing and
Introducing Words for
Explicit Vocabulary
• Review Quiz
• Discuss Methods for Integrating
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction into
Your Text-Talk Discussions
– Reviewing Effective Practices
– Applying examples with target words
from Running Out of Time
Choosing and
Introducing Words for
Explicit Vocabulary
What does it mean to
KNOW a word?
What does it mean to
know a word?
Four Levels of Word Knowledge
• Unknown
• Initial word knowledge: seen or heard it
• Partial Word Knowledge: know one meaning
and can use in a sentence
• Full Word Knowledge: more than one
meaning and can use in several ways
So how long does it take to KNOW a word??
• Students need to be exposed to a word at
least six times in context before they
have enough experience with the word to
determine its meaning and use it as part of
their daily language.
• Explicit instruction in new words enhances the
probability that students will understand the
words when they encounter them.
Typical Word Learning
• Analyze word parts
• Checking a dictionary
• Using context clues
These ideas DIFFER dramatically
from Beck & McKeown’s ideas
about how to teach vocabulary…
Definitions are little help…
• Weak differentiation: Definition does not
differentiate how the word is different from
other words (e.g. conspicuous = “easily seen.” How
does that differentiate from visible?)
• Vague language (typical = “being a type”)
• More likely interpretation: Definition uses
familiar words in unfamiliar ways (e.g. devious =
“straying from the right course, not
straightforward.” Students could interpret as
• Multiple pieces of information: definition gives no
help in how to integrate pieces (e.g. exotic =
“foreign, strange, not native”)
Context cues CAN help,
but not always
• “Rebecca, come back and eat your
Cheerios, they’re getting soggy.”
• Rebecca (4 years old) inferred soggy
meant sad and lonely. And then, she
later used it in her own language…
• I don’t want to go to bed – I feel
When context clues do work, for every
100 words, only learn 3-15 of them.
Conditions (and problems) for
learning words from context
• READ WIDELY TO encounter lots of NEW
– Many students who in need of
vocabulary development don’t read
widely, or they don’t read books that
include words with which they are
meanings of words from context
– Many students who in need of
vocabulary development are less able
to derive information from context
How helpful are
context clues? It depends…
• Directive contexts: likely to lead to
correct inference about meaning (86%)
– Nora grew smaller and smaller and finally
vanished. (disappeared)
• General contexts: enough clues to infer
general category of meaning (49%)
– Brian said morosely, “This miserable town
will be the death of us!” (bad, negatively –
but specifics are undefined)
How helpful are
context clues? It depends…
• Non-Directive contexts: (27%) little
assistance in helping to define meaning
– Freddy look at the team members. Each
looked more hapless than the next.
(Happy? Untrained? But descriptive…)
• Misdirective contexts: direct to
incorrect meaning of word (3%)
John was exhilarated after his first
experience mountain climbing.
The biggest challenge…
• There are too many words to teach!
– Students encounter so many new words
in reading, how could we teach them all?
• Not all words need attention
• Not all words should be treated equally
• According to Beck & McKeown, what
types of words need attention and
which can we “ignore”?
Choosing words to teach
• Tier One words: Most basic words,
rarely require instruction (cake,
street, walk, jump)
• Tier Three words: Words that are
low frequency, or are domain specific
(isotope, woof, peninsula), probably
learned best when needed in content
Tier Two words
• High frequency words for mature language users
• Words that would be found across a variety of
• Words that can be worked with in a variety of
ways so that students can build rich
representations of them and their connections to
other words and concepts
• Words for which students understand the general
concept, but their use would provide more precision
• e.g. astonished, coincidence, absurd, scrumptious
Mad: frustrated, angry, disturbed …
Words from
Running Out of Time
• Tier 1:
• Tier 2:
• Tier 3:
Beck & McKeown
Teaching Vocabulary
• Start with instructional
materials/books – choose words that
are important for comprehension
– Multiple exposures (at least FIVE)
– Breadth of information
– Actively engage with word by thinking
and processing deeply
Alternatives to the dictionary
Student-Friendly Explanations
Two Key Strategies
• Characterize the word and how it is
typically used
• Explain the meaning in everyday
Student-Friendly Definitions
Characterize the Word
• Explanation should be as particular as
possible (When do I use this word
particularly? Why do we have such a
– Tamper: Defined as, “to interfere in a secret
or incorrect way.” Could be construed as
meddling. Does not get at the idea of messing
something up in a sinister way.
– Student friendly explanation: “to change
something secretly so that it doesn’t work
properly or becomes harmful.”
Student-Friendly Explanations
Explain Meaning in an
Everyday Way
• Ally: Defined as, “one associated with
– What is association?
• Student friendly explanation: “somebody who does
things with you”
• Does that characterize “ally”?
– Doesn’t get at main characteristic of helping in
a common cause
• Better student friendly explanation: “Someone who
helps you in what you are trying to do, especially
when there are other people who are against you.”
Student friendly definitions
in Running Out of Time?
• scandalous (p.10) – to be disgraceful in
a way that offends or shocks people
• undistorted (p.49) – looking normal and
not stretched or twisted out of shape
• admiration (p. 14)? Solemn? (p. 20)
Activities for Building
Students interact with the words
Example - Nonexample
Shades of Meaning
How would you rank these?
Thinking Deeply About Words
Relating Words
• See whether there is anything about the
words that is related.
• Create an activity to relate the words.
– Reluctant, insisted, drowsy might be
demonstrated by facial expressions
– Create a sentence using all words: Would you
prefer to budge a sleeping lamb or a ferocious
lion? Why?
– Ask students to choose between two words: If
you get your clothes ready to wear to school
before you go to sleep, would that be sensible
or raucous?
What other techniques
can you use to teach
word meaning?
Making Choices
Idea Completion
Have You Ever?
Word Associations
Using words in one context
Classifying words
“Interacting with Words”:
Making Choices
• If any of the things I say might be examples of
people clutching something, say “clutching.” If
not, don’t say anything.
– Holding tight to a purse
– Holding a fisful of money
– Softly petting a cat’s fur
• If any of the things I say would make some one
radiant, say, “You’d be radiant.” If not, don’t say
– Winning a million dollars
– Getting a hug from a favorite movie star
– Walking to the post office
Thinking Deeply About Words
Idea Completions
• Provide students with stem that
requires them to integrate a word’s
meaning into a context in order to
explain a situation
– The audience asked the virtuoso to play
another piece of music because…
– The skiing teacher said Maria was a
novice on the ski slopes because …
Interacting with Words:
Questions, Reasons, Examples
• If you are walking around a dark room, would you
do it cautiously? Why? What are some other
things that need to be done cautiously?
• What is something you could do to impress your
teacher? Why? What is something that might
impress your mother?
• Which of these things would be extraordinary?
Why or why not?
– A shirt that was comfortable or a shirt that washed
– A person who has a library card, or a person who has
read all the books in the library?
Thinking Deeply About Words
Have You Ever …?
• Helps students associate new words
with contexts and activities from
their own experiences
– Describe a time when you might urge
– Describe a time when you might banter
with someone?
– What would make you gleeful?
Thinking Deeply About Words
Word associations
• Associate a new word when presented
with a word or phrase:
– Words = accomplice, virtuoso,
philanthropist, novice
– Which word goes with crook?
– Which word goes with “gift to build a new
– ROT (p. 12-13) dawdled, converged, implore
Thinking Deeply About Words
Using the Words in One Context
• What would an immense plate of
spaghetti look like?
• Would you feel miserable after you
ate all that spaghetti? Why or why
• What would it look like to eat the
spaghetti in a leisurely way?
Thinking Deeply About Words
Use the Same Format for
• If you satisfy your curiosity, do you need
to find out more or have you found out all
you need? Why?
• If a dog was menacing, would you want to
pet it or move away? Why?
• If you wanted to see something exquisite,
would you go to a museum or a grocery
store? Why?
Thinking Deeply About Words
• Mammals
• Reptiles
Thinking Deeply About Words
• What makes
something a
– Hair
– Warm-blooded
– Milk to young
• What makes
something a
– Skin?
– Cold-blooded
– Shape of head
Teaching words in
semantic groups
Bad People
Semantic Feature
Try It Out With
Your Lesson Template:
The Scarecrow’s Hat
Tier 2 words in
Running Out of Time
Work in groups of three.
Choose a chapter 1-8.
Locate three Tier 2 words.
Develop questions and activities for
word building focused on each of
those three words.
• Check the Wiki!!
• Read Hancock article on Literature
Response Journals (learn about four
types of responses)
• Read Running Out of Time Ch. 9-16
• Complete Book Activity 7: Literature
Response Journal
Bring to class on Tuesday!

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