Choosing and Introducing Words for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Objectives • Review Quiz • Discuss Methods for Integrating Explicit Vocabulary Instruction into Your Text-Talk Discussions – Reviewing Effective Practices – Applying examples with target words from Running Out of Time Choosing and Introducing Words for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction What does it mean to KNOW a word? What does it mean to know a word? Four Levels of Word Knowledge • Unknown • Initial word knowledge: seen or heard it • Partial Word Knowledge: know one meaning and can use in a sentence • Full Word Knowledge: more than one meaning and can use in several ways portend tyranny So how long does it take to KNOW a word?? • Students need to be exposed to a word at least six times in context before they have enough experience with the word to determine its meaning and use it as part of their daily language. • Explicit instruction in new words enhances the probability that students will understand the words when they encounter them. Typical Word Learning Strategies • Analyze word parts • Checking a dictionary • Using context clues These ideas DIFFER dramatically from Beck & McKeown’s ideas about how to teach vocabulary… Definitions are little help… • Weak differentiation: Definition does not differentiate how the word is different from other words (e.g. conspicuous = “easily seen.” How does that differentiate from visible?) • Vague language (typical = “being a type”) • More likely interpretation: Definition uses familiar words in unfamiliar ways (e.g. devious = “straying from the right course, not straightforward.” Students could interpret as walking. • Multiple pieces of information: definition gives no help in how to integrate pieces (e.g. exotic = “foreign, strange, not native”) Context cues CAN help, but not always • “Rebecca, come back and eat your Cheerios, they’re getting soggy.” • Rebecca (4 years old) inferred soggy meant sad and lonely. And then, she later used it in her own language… • I don’t want to go to bed – I feel soggy!” – When context clues do work, for every 100 words, only learn 3-15 of them. Conditions (and problems) for learning words from context • READ WIDELY TO encounter lots of NEW WORDS – Many students who in need of vocabulary development don’t read widely, or they don’t read books that include words with which they are unfamiliar • STUDENTS MUST HAVE SKILLS to infer meanings of words from context – Many students who in need of vocabulary development are less able to derive information from context How helpful are context clues? It depends… • Directive contexts: likely to lead to correct inference about meaning (86%) – Nora grew smaller and smaller and finally vanished. (disappeared) • General contexts: enough clues to infer general category of meaning (49%) – Brian said morosely, “This miserable town will be the death of us!” (bad, negatively – but specifics are undefined) How helpful are context clues? It depends… • Non-Directive contexts: (27%) little assistance in helping to define meaning – Freddy look at the team members. Each looked more hapless than the next. (Happy? Untrained? But descriptive…) • Misdirective contexts: direct to incorrect meaning of word (3%) – John was exhilarated after his first experience mountain climbing. The biggest challenge… • There are too many words to teach! – Students encounter so many new words in reading, how could we teach them all? • Not all words need attention • Not all words should be treated equally • According to Beck & McKeown, what types of words need attention and which can we “ignore”? Choosing words to teach • Tier One words: Most basic words, rarely require instruction (cake, street, walk, jump) • Tier Three words: Words that are low frequency, or are domain specific (isotope, woof, peninsula), probably learned best when needed in content Tier Two words • High frequency words for mature language users • Words that would be found across a variety of domains • Words that can be worked with in a variety of ways so that students can build rich representations of them and their connections to other words and concepts • Words for which students understand the general concept, but their use would provide more precision • e.g. astonished, coincidence, absurd, scrumptious – Mad: frustrated, angry, disturbed … Words from Running Out of Time • Tier 1: • Tier 2: • Tier 3: Beck & McKeown Teaching Vocabulary • Start with instructional materials/books – choose words that are important for comprehension – Multiple exposures (at least FIVE) – Breadth of information – Actively engage with word by thinking and processing deeply – HOW DO WE DO THAT?? Student-Friendly Explanations Alternatives to the dictionary Student-Friendly Explanations Two Key Strategies • Characterize the word and how it is typically used • Explain the meaning in everyday language Student-Friendly Definitions Characterize the Word • Explanation should be as particular as possible (When do I use this word particularly? Why do we have such a word?) – Tamper: Defined as, “to interfere in a secret or incorrect way.” Could be construed as meddling. Does not get at the idea of messing something up in a sinister way. – Student friendly explanation: “to change something secretly so that it doesn’t work properly or becomes harmful.” Student-Friendly Explanations Explain Meaning in an Everyday Way • Ally: Defined as, “one associated with another” – What is association? • Student friendly explanation: “somebody who does things with you” • Does that characterize “ally”? – Doesn’t get at main characteristic of helping in a common cause • Better student friendly explanation: “Someone who helps you in what you are trying to do, especially when there are other people who are against you.” Student friendly definitions in Running Out of Time? • scandalous (p.10) – to be disgraceful in a way that offends or shocks people • undistorted (p.49) – looking normal and not stretched or twisted out of shape • admiration (p. 14)? Solemn? (p. 20) Activities for Building Vocabulary Students interact with the words Example - Nonexample Shades of Meaning How would you rank these? Confidant Ally Friend Acquaintance Thinking Deeply About Words Relating Words • See whether there is anything about the words that is related. • Create an activity to relate the words. – Reluctant, insisted, drowsy might be demonstrated by facial expressions – Create a sentence using all words: Would you prefer to budge a sleeping lamb or a ferocious lion? Why? – Ask students to choose between two words: If you get your clothes ready to wear to school before you go to sleep, would that be sensible or raucous? What other techniques can you use to teach word meaning? • • • • • • Making Choices Idea Completion Have You Ever? Word Associations Using words in one context Classifying words “Interacting with Words”: Making Choices • If any of the things I say might be examples of people clutching something, say “clutching.” If not, don’t say anything. – Holding tight to a purse – Holding a fisful of money – Softly petting a cat’s fur • If any of the things I say would make some one radiant, say, “You’d be radiant.” If not, don’t say anything. – Winning a million dollars – Getting a hug from a favorite movie star – Walking to the post office Thinking Deeply About Words Idea Completions • Provide students with stem that requires them to integrate a word’s meaning into a context in order to explain a situation – The audience asked the virtuoso to play another piece of music because… – The skiing teacher said Maria was a novice on the ski slopes because … Interacting with Words: Questions, Reasons, Examples • If you are walking around a dark room, would you do it cautiously? Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously? • What is something you could do to impress your teacher? Why? What is something that might impress your mother? • Which of these things would be extraordinary? Why or why not? – A shirt that was comfortable or a shirt that washed itself? – A person who has a library card, or a person who has read all the books in the library? Thinking Deeply About Words Have You Ever …? • Helps students associate new words with contexts and activities from their own experiences – Describe a time when you might urge someone? – Describe a time when you might banter with someone? – What would make you gleeful? Thinking Deeply About Words Word associations • Associate a new word when presented with a word or phrase: – Words = accomplice, virtuoso, philanthropist, novice – Which word goes with crook? – Which word goes with “gift to build a new hospital”? – ROT (p. 12-13) dawdled, converged, implore Thinking Deeply About Words Using the Words in One Context • What would an immense plate of spaghetti look like? • Would you feel miserable after you ate all that spaghetti? Why or why not? • What would it look like to eat the spaghetti in a leisurely way? Thinking Deeply About Words Use the Same Format for Words • If you satisfy your curiosity, do you need to find out more or have you found out all you need? Why? • If a dog was menacing, would you want to pet it or move away? Why? • If you wanted to see something exquisite, would you go to a museum or a grocery store? Why? Thinking Deeply About Words Classifying • Mammals – – – – – – People Cats Dogs Lions Mice Whales • Reptiles – – – – Snakes Alligators Dinosaurs Lizards Thinking Deeply About Words Classifying • What makes something a mammal? – Hair – Warm-blooded – Milk to young • What makes something a reptile? – Skin? – Cold-blooded – Shape of head Teaching words in semantic groups Bad People – – – – – – – – Villain Malefactor Burglar Embezzler Miscreant Cad Rogue Scoundrel – – – – – – – Red Crimson Scarlet Pink Blush Ruby Sanguine Carmine Semantic Feature Analysis Try It Out With Your Lesson Template: The Scarecrow’s Hat Tier 2 words in Running Out of Time Work in groups of three. Choose a chapter 1-8. Locate three Tier 2 words. Develop questions and activities for word building focused on each of those three words. Homework • Check the Wiki!! • Read Hancock article on Literature Response Journals (learn about four types of responses) • Read Running Out of Time Ch. 9-16 • Complete Book Activity 7: Literature Response Journal Bring to class on Tuesday!