The Immune System

Report
The Immune
System
By: Keely Corscadden, Sarah Goss, and Lindsey Renner
http://www.livescience.com/26579-immunesystem.html
Pathogens and Antigens
-Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease, including bacteria, fungi,
viruses, and protozoa.
-An antigen is a macro molecule that stimulates an immune response because
they are foreign proteins and chemicals; they become the target of white blood
cells.
-Antigen receptors have different shapes that
require different antibodies to attach to it, making
particular matches, just as there are specific
active sites for specific substrates.
-Antibodies identify the antigen as a foreign
invader and defend the body against infection
The Biology Project. "Introduction to Immunology." The Biology Project. University of Arizona, 10 Nov. 2000. Web.
<http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/tutorials/immunology/01t.html>.
Dirnberger. "Physiology: Immune System." Biology 2108. Kennesaw State. University, n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. <http://science.kennesaw.edu/
~jdirnber/Bio2108/Lecture/LecPhysio/PhysioImmune.html>.
http://leavingbio.net/the%20human%20defence%20system-web-2.htm
Acquired vs. Passive Immunity
-Acquired immunity: develops with exposure to various
antigens (body builds up immunity against the specific
antigen), long lasting
-Ex: chicken pox
-Passive immunity: due to antibodies produced in body
other than one’s own (mother passes on to children), can
also be due to injections, not long lasting
-Ex: flu shots
Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2005. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://h
hill.com/sites/0072437316/ student_view0/chapter48/>.
First Line: External Defense of the
Natural Immunity (wall/moat)
withfriendship.com
1st Line:
-Nonspecific targets
-Surface barriers prevent disease-causing organisms from entering body
-ex: skin (low moisture, low pH- hard for bacteria to survive), thick layer of dead
cells, chemicals on skin- disrupt certain viruses
-Bacteria already inhabiting skin- outcompete pathogens
-Mucous membranes (such as coating respiratory and digestive tracts) trap and
eliminate possible invaders
-Lysozymes: enzymes in mucus that digests bacteria cell walls
-Flushing effect: tears, saliva, urine
-Coughing reflex
-Dirnberger. "Physiology: Immune System." Biology 2108. Kennesaw State University, n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
<http://science.kennesaw.edu/
~jdirnber/Bio2108/Lecture/LecPhysio/PhysioImmune.html>.
-Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life llus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.
http://www.biologyexams4u.com/2012/11/innate-immunity-or-non-specific-defence.html
Second Line: Internal Defense of the
Innate Immunity (soldiers+call to arms)
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2nd Line:
-Nonspecific responses (response without identifying invader)
-Fast-acting WBCs try to engulf and destroy pathogen at entry point (ex: neutrophils,
eosinophils, basophils)
-Macrophages (large phagocytic WBCs) signaled and try to engulf and destroy pathogens
-Attack anything foreign- problematic for people with transplants
-Blood-clotting proteins coagulate blood to close gap so no other pathogens can enter
-Damaged cells release chemicals (ex: histamine), which cause blood vessels to leak fluid
into tissue (swelling) and isolates foreign invader from coming into contact with more tissue
(prevents them from replicating and spreading to other cells)
-Chemicals attract white blood cells (phagocytes) that destroy invaders and dead/damaged cell
(process called phagocytosis)
-Some organs have pathogen-killing functions (ex: lymph nodes)
-Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2005. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/ student_view0/chapter48/>.
-Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.
Phagocytes:
-Group of white blood cells (phagocytic) that find and “eat” viruses, dead or injured body cells, and
bacteria
-Engulf pathogens by the process of phagocytosis:
http://leavingbio.net/the%20human%20defence%20system-web2.htm
-Three main types:
-Granulocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells
"The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
< http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html>
Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life.
Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.
http://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/courses/bio225/chap16/lecture3.htm
Second Line of Defense:
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect23.htm
Third Line: Acquired Immunity/
Immune Response (spies)
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3rd Line:
-Specific responses to specific targets
-Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
-Circulate throughout blood and respond to specific
microbes and antigens
-Only cells with specificity for a specific antigen will
interact with them (similar to active site and substrate)
-T cells= cell mediated response
-B cells= humoral response
-Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2005. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/ student_view0/chapter48/>.
-Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.
Lymphocytes: Cells of the Acquired
Immune System
-T Cells and B Cells are white blood cells that fall into this category
-Created in bone marrow then move to parts of the lymphatic system
-Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Thymus, transportation system (lymph vessels) to
move/store these cells in the body
-System feeds cells into the body as well as filters out dead cells and outside
organisms like bacteria (potentially harmful)
-Cells have receptors with specific fits to attach to antigens within the body
-Help cells differentiate the foreign invaders from regular cells/tissues
-Enough different lymphocytes to recognize nearly all antigens
"The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 30 Oct 2013. < http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html>
T Cells (Thymus Cells)
-Two types: Helper T Cells and Killer T Cells
-Produced in bone marrow then moved to the thymus
(organ below breastbone) to mature
-Target and kill any cells within body that are already
infected
-Recognize foreign cells and inactivate any harmful
molecules in the body with receptors
-Produce cell death (Killer T Cells)
The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 30 Oct 2013. <
http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html>
Helper T Cells
-Secrete interleukins
-Interleukins trigger cell divisions/differentiation creating large “armies”
against a specific antigen (B Cells)
-Primary job is to activate B Cells and Killer T Cells
-Helper T Cells are activated by phagocytes presenting antigens that the
receptors of the HTC’s bind to and recognize
-After activating, HTC’s divide and make proteins in B Cells and T Cells
Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.
"The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 30 Oct 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html>
http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html
B Cells (Bone Marrow)
-Produced, develop, and mature in bone marrow
"The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013.
Web. 30 Oct 2013. <
http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html>
Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life.
Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.
-When viruses are free in fluid of body (humoral response)
-Make and secrete antibodies
-Antibodies are proteins that have Y shaped binding spots to help them
attach to and destroy antigens. By binding to antigens, antibodies can
neutralize toxins, tag pathogens for destruction, and prevent any pathogens
from attaching to regular body cells.
-Place markers on pathogens and alert complement proteins, macrophages,
and natural killing cells to attack the marked cells
-natural killing cells are more “interested” in killing cells with more
antibodies attached to them
-When they recognize antigens, they produce plasma cells to give off lots of
antibodies to fight the antigens as well as memory cells that have a longer
life span to recognize antigens in the future so that they can be attacked for
swiftly
Third Line of Defense:
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect23.htm
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/immune.htm
Third Line of Defense Video:
http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__the_immu
ne_response.html
Lines of Defense (summary):
=
abovethecrowd.com
www2.bakersfieldcollege.edu
References:
1) "The Immune System - in More Detail". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
<http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html>
2) Raven, et al. "The Immune System." Biology. McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2005.
Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/
student_view0/chapter48/>.
3) The Biology Project. "Introduction to Immunology." The Biology Project.
University of Arizona, 10 Nov. 2000. Web.
<http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/tutorials/immunology/01t.html>.
4) Dirnberger. "Physiology: Immune System." Biology 2108. Kennesaw State
University, n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. <http://science.kennesaw.edu/
~jdirnber/Bio2108/Lecture/LecPhysio/PhysioImmune.html>.
5) Starr, Cecie, and Ralph Taggart. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life.
Illus. Lisa Starr. 9th ed. N.p.: Brooks/Cole, 2001. Print.

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