APUSH4 - APUSHistoryHardee

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AP U.S. HISTORY
UNIT 4 NOTES
Expansion and Reform
Focus on when you read:
• Trace the history of westward expansion
• The motives for westward expansion
• Causes and major events related to the War of 1812
• The role the Monroe Doctrine played in U.S. foreign
policy
• The beginning of the reform movement in America
• How the events toward the end of the War of 1812
related to the beginning of the “Era of Good Feelings”
• How the reform movement shaped the individual’s role
in society.
Introduction
• One might argue that the impulse for westward expansion existed in
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the United States from the very inception of the American Colonies.
The desire for westward expansion and expanded foreign commerce
led to American involvement in the War of 1812, the Second War of
Independence.
The U.S. began to assert itself in the world with the proclamation of
the Monroe Doctrine in 1823.
President Andrew Jackson’s policies toward the Southeastern Native
American Tribes demonstrated how the desire for expansion
superseded the concern for human rights.
James K. Polk becomes President on the promise of completing
westward expansion and instigated a war to make it happen.
The Era of Good Feeling turned America’s attention back to domestic
issues.
Andrew Jackson goes back and forth on the issue of States’ Rights
Much was accomplished during the Age of Reform
Unit 4.1: Roots of American Expansionism
• What did our first four Presidents have
to say about westward expansion?
• How did the acquisition of Louisiana
and the successful conclusion of the
War of 1812 feed this desire to expand
further west?
• In what ways did the concept of
Manifest Destiny unite the nation and
justify the acquisition of western lands?
Unit 4.1: Roots of American Expansionism
• What did our first four Presidents have to say about
westward expansion?
• The desire for expansion was present in the American
Colonies from the very beginning, the earliest settlers were
expanding west. They saw opportunity in expansion.
• The Founding Fathers:
• George Washington called the new nation a “rising empire”.
• John Adams stated that the United States was “destined to occupy
all of the northern part of this quarter of the globe and that when
accomplished would be a significant achievement for mankind”
• Thomas Jefferson said that the west would provide space for
expansion to the thousandth and ten thousandth generation.
• James Madison believed that the United States should extend the
sphere of the republic as one great respectable and flourishing
empire.
Unit 4.1: Roots of American Expansionism
• How did the acquisition of Louisiana and the successful
conclusion of the War of 1812 feed this desire to expand further
west?
• The Louisiana Purchase
• The Louisiana Purchase opened the Mississippi River and put the dream of a
Pacific Port within reach of the United States government.
• People across the United States began to see the west as a place for a “new
start”, as an escape from cultural, economic, and political oppression in the
East.
• The War of 1812
• One of the causes for the War of 1812 was the desire for expansion.
• The War Hawks slogan was “On to Canada!” and they resented the British
presence in the Northwest Territory. For the War Hawks expansion west was the
road to greater sovereignty.
• The development of the Concept of Manifest Destiny
• One of the main problems presented by expansionist talk was the presence of
native peoples in the region.
• Manifest Destiny helped rationalize U.S. Foreign Policy
• Manifest Destiny unified the nation behind a common cause and rally th epublic
behind the government
• Manifest Destiny helped counter criticisms by foreign nations.
Unit 4.1: Roots of American Expansionism
• In what ways did the concept of Manifest Destiny
unite the nation and justify the acquisition of western
lands?
• Benefits of Manifest Destiny
• Farmers who had lost their land due to debts could become
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landowners again in the west.
Abundant raw materials became available to Eastern
Manufacturers
Mining, Agriculture, and Land Speculation offered plentiful
investment opportunities.
It, somehow, was used by some to justify the racial and cultural
superiority of American Society.
Politicians and Military Leaders saw an opportunity in westward
expansion to increase the status of the United States in the world
community.
Unit 4.1: Roots of American Expansionism
• In what ways did the concept of Manifest Destiny unite the
nation and justify the acquisition of western lands?
• Examples of failed Expansion efforts
• The Ostend Manifesto
• At first President James K. Polk offered to buy Cuba from Spain for $100 million,
Spain refused to sell
• Several Southern Adventurers led expeditions to attempt to liberate Cuba by force,
all were thwarted and participants executed by Spanish Authorities.
• In 1852 Franklin Pierce renewed the effort to purchase Cuba, he backed off when
Antislavery activists found out and began extensive protests.
• The Walker Expedition
• After a failed attempt to conquer Baja, California from Spain, William Walker led a
force that conquered Nicaragua in 1855 hoping to establish a pro-Slavery Central
American empire.
• A Coalition of Central American nations led by Honduras defeated Walker and
executed him.
• The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
• Both the United States and Great Britain had dreams of constructing a canal across
Central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific.
• To block each other the two nations signed a Treaty agreeing not to pursue a canal
project.
• The ban was later lifted in 1901 paving the way for U.S. construction of the Panama
Canal.
American Hopes for expansion in the Caribbean and
Central America rested with Cuba, Nicaragua, and
Panama
Unit 4.1: Roots of American Expansionism
• In what ways did the concept of Manifest Destiny unite the nation and
justify the acquisition of western lands?
• Successful Expansion efforts:
• The Louisiana Purchase
• Doubled the size of the nation, gave control of the Mississippi River and the Port of New
Orleans.
• Acquisition of Florida
• Acquired from Spain by the Adams-Onis Treaty for $5 million after Andrew Jackson
essentially invaded Florida chasing Seminole raiding parties and capturing St. Augustine.
• Annexation of Texas
• Acquired after years as the Independent Republic of Texas (The Lone Star Republic) after a
successful revolution against the government of Mexico.
• The Oregon Territory
• Although we did not get all of what we wanted, we were able to peacefully set the northern
boundary of the U.S. at the 49th Parallel. Oregon settlers were demanding war with Britain for
the entire Oregon Territory (“54 40 or Fight”).
• The Mexican Cession
• Acquired as the result of the Mexican War and the subsequent Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
This added California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Nevada to U.S. territory.
• The Gadsden Purchase
• The U.S. paid $10 million to purchase a narrow strip of land from Mexico to complete the
southern transcontinental railroad.
Unit 4.2: The War of 1812
• What were the causes for renewed
conflict between the British and the
young United States?
• Describe the major military
engagements and turning points of the
War of 1812.
• How did the conclusion of the War of
1812 effect American foreign policy and
domestic politics?
Unit 4.2: The War of 1812
• What were the causes for renewed conflict between the British
and the young United States?
• Both the British and the French were violating American shipping and
commercial rights on the Atlantic.
• The British came off as the villains because the French were resuming trade
with the U.S. and the British were practicing a policy of impressment.
• Matters worsened further with the Chesapeake Incident.
• Freedom of the Seas and Rights of Neutrals will be central to U.S. foreign policy
all the way through World War II.
• Americans were blaming the British and British Canadians for inciting
Native American violence in the “Old Northwest”.
• Native American Chief Tecumseh and his brother The Prophet rallied tribes
throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys hoping to restore traditional
ways and halt American expansion.
• Tecumseh was eventually defeated by William Henry Harrison in the Indiana
Territory at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
• When British-made rifles were found on Natives, the War Hawks began
screaming for a Declaration of War.
• Western and Southern Democratic-Republicans (the War Hawks), led by
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, saw war with Britain as a path to
claiming land from Native Americans in the west, vanquishing the British
from Canada, and seizing Spanish Florida.
“Show respect to all people and bow to
none” - Tecumseh
Unit 4.2: The War of 1812
• Describe the major military engagements and turning points of the War of 1812.
• The United States was ill-prepared to wage war with Great Britain when war was declared on June
18, 1812.
• The U.S. had an Army of less than 10,000 men and Naval fleet of less than 20 ships
• Fortunately the British had problems of their own.
• The British were involved in another war with the French, which kept them from fully focusing on the
War of 1812
• Three American invasions of Canada resulted in miserable failures.
• By 1813, the British Navy had successfully blockaded American ports and stifled U.S. commerce.
This obviously effected the Federalists in New England the most.
• Ironically, some of the early successes of the U.S. came against the British Navy at the Battle of Lake
Erie and a famous engagement between the U.S.S. Constitution and HMS Guerriere .
• American hard wood trees apparently made quite formidable battleships.
• American troops on the ground fared much better against the Native Americans than they did
against the British.
• William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames (Tecumseh was killed in the
battle)
• Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (after the victory a slaughter of
Native American women, children, and elderly ensued as retribution for previous Native American
attacks).
• The British invaded the U.S. in 1814 and burned Washington DC, but they failed to capture Baltimore
(held up at Fort McHenry). The British were then soundly defeated in upstate New York.
• By the end of 1814 both sides had had enough and sued for peace. The Treaty of Ghent ended the
fighting in the War of 1812 (they thought)
• The most decisive American victory came at the Battle of New Orleans after the Treaty of Ghent had
been signed. The battle made Andrew Jackson a national icon.
Battle of Lake Erie
Battle of New Orleans
Unit 4.2: The War of 1812
• How did the conclusion of the War of 1812 effect American
foreign policy and domestic politics?
• The U.S. Economy was devastated
• Large portions of Washington DC had been destroyed
• The Nation’s military did win some respect worldwide for holding
their own against the powerful British.
• The Federalist Party was discredited.
• The Federalists attempted to sign their own treaty with the British (the
Hartford Convention) and took several measures to weaken the war
effort.
• When the Hartford Convention was exposed the Federalist Party was
destroyed.
• The heroism and fame acquired by Andrew Jackson and William
Henry Harrison would launch them to Presidential careers.
• The amazing swell of American patriotism and collapse of the
Federalist Party led to the election of James Monroe in 1816 and a
period of political peace known as the “Era of Good Feelings”.
Unit 4.2: The War of 1812
• How did the conclusion of the War of 1812 effect American
foreign policy and domestic politics?
• Possibly the most important development that resulted from the
conclusion of the War of 1812 was the obvious weakening of the
Spanish Empire.
• The sale of Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onis Treaty was
followed by independence movements in all of Spain’s southern
colonies, leaving them with only Cuba and Puerto Rico.
• This left the United States poised to fill the “imperial” void left by the
Spanish.
• In 1823 President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine
proclaiming American neutrality in European Affairs and forbidding
European colonization in Latin America.
• In 1815 the European powers, after defeating Napoleon, vowed to restore
European Monarchies and their empires. This obviously alarmed the U.S.
that they may try to restore Spain’s possessions in South America and the
Caribbean. The British and Russians also had their eyes on the west coast of
North America.
• The Monroe Doctrine set the foundation for American Imperialism later in
1898.
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• What were the main goals of President
James K. Polk with concern to Manifest
Destiny?
• What role did events in Texas and
Oregon play in inspiring the concept of
Manifest Destiny?
• Describe the causes, major military
engagements, and results of the
Mexican War.
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• What were the main goals of President
James K. Polk with concern to Manifest
Destiny?
• Annexation of Texas
• Settlement of the Oregon Problem with the British
• Acquire California and the rest of what is today the
Southwest United States.
• James K. Polk’s entire Presidency was centered
around the fulfillment of Manifest Destiny. He was
so successful in carrying this out that he declined
to run for a second term in office.
Manifest Destiny at all cost……
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• What role did events in Texas and Oregon play in inspiring the concept
of Manifest Destiny?
• Manifest Destiny was a term coined by John O’Sullivan to describe the God-given
right of the United States to expand west to the Pacific Ocean, it became the
platform of James K. Polk when he ran for President in 1844.
• The annexation of Texas renewed desires for westward expansion
• In 1821 the newly independent government of Mexico encouraged American immigration
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into Texas. Before long Americans outnumbered Mexicans in Texas and Mexico began
placing strict requirements on American immigrants (which were rarely complied with).
In 1829 the government began requiring immigrants to convert to Catholicism and
abolished slavery (they hoped it would slow down American immigration, it did not).
In 1834 Santa Anna became dictator of Mexico and was determined to enforce the laws
against immigration.
In 1836 Texas declared independence, set up a government, and selected Sam Houston to
lead the Army of Texas. The Army of Texas suffered early defeats, most famous of which
came at the Alamo. Shortly after the Alamo, another Texas Army was forced to surrender
then were massacred on orders from Santa Anna.
These actions fueled Texas resistance. Santa Anna was eventually defeated at the Battle
of San Jacinto, where Santa Anna himself was captured and forced to recognize Texas
independence.
Although most Texans supported U.S. statehood they would have to wait more than 10
years as the Lone Star Republic before being annexed by the U.S.
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• What role did events in Texas and Oregon play in
inspiring the concept of Manifest Destiny?
• Developments in the relations between Mexico and the United
States led to peaceful resolution of the Oregon question.
• The 1839 Aroostook War nearly brought the U.S. and Britain to war
again. As we entered the 1840s war with Mexico was clearly on the
horizon.
• Not wanting a war with both Mexico and Britain at the same time
Polk sent a delegation to resolve the “Oregon Problem” with the
British.
• The Webster-Ashburton Treaty settled the boundary dispute between
Maine and Canada.
• Settlers in Oregon were demanding war with Britain to acquire the entire
Oregon Territory, rich in fur trade. Their rallying cry became “54 40 or
Fight”
• Neither side wanted another war, so the Oregon Treaty was drafted
extending the U.S.-Canadian border along the 49th Parallel.
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• Describe the causes, major military engagements,
and results of the Mexican War.
• Causes of the Mexican War
• U.S.-Mexican relations began unraveling when the U.S. formally
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annexed Texas in 1845.
President Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to offer to purchase the
California-New Mexico region, but Mexico refused to sell. This left
Polk to take more controversial steps toward acquiring the
territory.
Polk sent troops to the Rio Grande River, crossing through a
disputed territory (claimed by both the U.S. and Mexico) between
the Nueces River and the Rio Grande.
When hostilities ensued Congress declared war even though the
evidence of any Mexican wrong-doing was shaky at best.
James K. Polk had the war he needed to fulfill Manifest Destiny.
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• Describe the causes, major military engagements,
and results of the Mexican War.
• Major Military Engagements:
• The Mexican War went extremely well for the United States military.
• By 1847 we had conquered all of the American Southwest.
• General Zachary Taylor’s army won victories at Buena Vista and
Monterrey before being replaced by Polk for disobeying orders.
• Zachary Taylor returned home a hero and later became President
of the United States.
• Taylor’s replacement, General Winfield Scott, won major victories
at Vera Cruz, the mountain fortress of Chapultepec, and then
sieged Mexico City itself forcing Santa Anna to flee and the
Mexican Army to surrender.
• The Mexican War also featured Stephen Kearney capturing New
Mexico and Southern California; and John Freemont’s conquest of
Northern California, which he proclaimed as the independent Bear
Flag Republic.
From the Halls of Montezuma…….
Unit 4.3: James K. Polk and Manifest
Destiny
• Describe the causes, major military
engagements, and results of the
Mexican War.
• The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo.
• Mexico recognized American claims to the disputed territory
in Texas North of the Rio Grande to the Nueces River.
• Mexico ceded to the U.S. the territories of California (which
had to be a hard pill to swallow once gold was discovered
less than two years later) and New Mexico in return for $15
million (what Polk originally offered to pay in the first place).
• The United States agreed to assume approximately $3
million in debts Mexico owed to American settlers.
Practice Question #1
1. Which of the following was not in favor of U.S. territorial
expansion in the first half of the nineteenth century?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Farmers
Manufacturers
Investors
Abolitionists
Religious leaders
Practice Question #2
2. The term Manifest Destiny implies which of the
following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A desire to limit territorial expansion of the United States
That the cost of expansion is greater than its benefits
That it was America’s God-given right to expand
That nations should share newly discovered resources rather
than fight over them
That taking land from others was a violation of God’s will
Practice Question #3
3. The United States purchased the Louisiana Territory
from:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Mexico
Britain
Spain
Russia
France
Practice Question #4
4. The Gadsden Purchase:
A. Allowed the United States to build a southern transcontinental
Railroad.
B. Was territory in the west where the Cherokee were relocated
C. Allowed the United States to extend its northern border with
Canada to the Pacific Ocean
D. Was vetoed by President Polk
E. Gave the United States access to the Oregon Territory
Practice Question #5
5. The War Hawks:
A. Were led by John Adams
B. Were opponents of Territorial expansions
C. Were U.S. Congressmen who represented the New England
States
D. Supported going to war against Britain in the early nineteenth
century
E. Was a Native American tribe who fought against U.S. territorial
expansion
Practice Question #6
6. The Hartford Convention:
A. Ended the War of 1812
B. Was organized by the Federalist opposition to the war with
Britain
C. Included some of the most important leaders of the DemocraticRepublican Party
D. Was organized to oppose territorial expansion
E. Made way for Texas’s admission into the Union
Practice Question #7
7. The Battle of New Orleans:
A. Was a major U.S. victory over Mexico
B. Convinced the British to agree to peace terms that ended the
War of 1812
C. Was fought after the peace treaty ending the War of 1812 was
signed
D. Was a major Mexican victory over Texans
E. Was a major U.S. naval victory in the War of 1812
Practice Question #8
8. “Fifty Four Forty or Fight” refers to:
A. The Federalists’ opposition to the War with Britain
B. The amount of money Mexico demanded from the United States
in return for allowing it to annex Texas
C. The boundary dispute between the United States and Mexico
D. The War Hawks’ demand for concessions from the British for
violating American neutrality rights
E. The dispute between Britain and the United States over the
Oregon Territory
Practice Question #9
9. Which of the following decisions by the Mexican
government angered Americans who settled in Texas?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Americans were required to pay enormous taxes to the
Mexican Government
The Mexicans forbade the Americans from farming on the most
fertile land
The Mexicans forbade the American settlers from trading with
the United States
The American settlers were prohibited from becoming citizens of
Mexico
The Mexican Government abolished slavery.
Practice Question #10
10. The Supreme Court ruled in Worcester v. Georgia that:
A. Native American tribal land could not be purchased by the state
of Georgia
B. Georgia must grant citizenship rights to the Cherokee living withn
its borders
C. The Cherokee could not sue the State of Georgia in Federal
Court
D. Georgia’s state laws had no authority with Cherokee territory
E. Georgia had a responsibility for the care of the Cherokee living
within its borders
Answers
1. D
2. C
3. E
4. A
5. D
6. B
7. C
8. E
9. E
10. D
Unit 4.4: The Need for Reform
• Describe the origins of the “Era of
Reform”.
• What problems existed (economically,
politically, and socially) in United States
society that drove the desire for reform?
• Do President Jackson’s positions key
issues in American politics reflect those
of a “reformer”?
Unit 4.4: The Need for Reform
• Describe the origins of the “Era of Reform”.
• General Motivations for reform:
• Democratic impulses were the basis of the American Revolution,
which sought to address inequalities that existed in colonial society.
• The Antifederalists of the 1780s and 1790s were determined not to
sacrifice civil liberties in the construction of the new Constitution.
• The Jeffersonian Democrats professed to defend the values and rights
of the common man.
• The Market Revolution had a profound impact on the United States
economy.
• Transportation improvements and a new wave of immigration led to new
emphasis on cash-crop agrarian society in the South and on Capitalist
manufacturing in the north.
• The Government
• The government can draw up legislation and policies that further
democratize society.
• “Grass Roots” Movements
• Individual citizens and private groups can take it upon themselves to
address the maladies that plague their society.
Unit 4.4: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• What problems existed (economically, politically, and socially) in
United States society that drove the desire for reform?
• Political Problems that needed to be addressed:
• Many Americans were excluded (usually by the requirement to
own property in order to vote) from the political process and
decision-making in the United States.
• Women, African Americans, Native Americans, and Poor White
Males were disenfranchised.
• In many cases the process for choosing political candidates was
exclusive and closed to most (what was known as the King
Caucus).
• Disproportionate representation between urban and rural areas
still existed in many areas, which led to the rampant abuse of the
farmer in American economic and political policy making.
Unit 4.4: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• What problems existed (economically, politically, and
socially) in United States society that drove the desire
for reform?
• Economic problems that needed to be addressed:
• There were no “Stay Laws” to prevent imprisonment for
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indebtedness.
Urban workers were beginning to form labor unions to protect their
interests, no such bodies being formed to protect farmers.
Land was not readily available for many Americans.
Many independent farmers were being forced to sell their farms
and become tenant farmers and sharecroppers.
The Market Economy that was developing in the United States was
susceptible to recession and depression based on the fluctuation
of market influences and the business cycle.
The growth of monopolies was stifling competition and limiting the
entrepreneurship of small business owners.
Unit 4.4: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• What problems existed (economically, politically, and
socially) in United States society that drove the desire for
reform?
• Social problems that needed to be addressed:
• Women were treated as “second-class” citizens
• Racial discrimination (not just slavery, but for free blacks in the north)
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was pervasive.
Slavery was reaching the point of becoming intolerable.
Treatment of the mentally ill was at best inhumane, as was the
treatment of the nation’s convicts.
The cities were lapsing into decay (overcrowding, crime, disease were
all becoming major problems).
Working conditions were unsafe and wages were dropping with
increased arrival of impoverished immigrants willing to work for less
money than established American citizens.
Lack of public education made learning available to the upper class,
creating a cycle of elitism.
The Native American population was being systematically decimated
by the Indian Removal Act and other Federal actions.
Unit 4.4: The Need for Reform
• What problems existed (economically, politically, and
socially) in United States society that drove the desire for
reform?
• It is from these tensions that Jacksonian Democracy is forged.
• Andrew Jackson and his supporters saw Capitalism as creating new
forms of dependence for those less fortunate and on looking out for
the interests of the wealthy elite.
• Jackson believed that a strong central government benefited the
Eastern Businessmen and Bankers.
• Henry Clay’s American System (Federally funded internal
improvements, a National Bank, and a Protective Tariff) appeared to
Andrew Jackson as a hindrance to westerners and the common man.
• Henry Clay (author of the American System) ran for President in 1824 against
John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
• The election was extremely close and went to the House of Representatives
for a decision.
• John Quincy Adams made a deal to implement Henry Clay’s American
System in exchange for Clay’s support in the House.
• John Quincy Adams became President and Andrew Jackson cried foul,
labeling the agreement the “corrupt bargain”.
Unit 4.4: The Need for Reform
• Do President Jackson’s positions on key issues in American politics
reflect those of a “reformer”?
• For many, Andrew Jackson represented a healthy contempt for the old
hierarchical, preferential system. His position on several key issues reflected
this:
• The Spoils System
• Previous to Jackson government employees kept their jobs even if the President was
changed. Jackson came in and fired the government employees of the previous
administration and replaced them with people loyal to him (This became known as the Spoils
System, Patronage, or Rotation in Office). These men often despised experts and believed the
common man was most capable of filling any government job.
• The Indian Removal Act
• Sharing the common man’s prejudice against Native Americans, Jackson supported a policy
of forced removal of Southeastern Native American Tribes to Reservations west of the
Mississippi River.
• When the Cherokee sued in Federal Court and won the right to remain on their land in
Worchester v. Georgia Andrew Jackson turned a blind eye as they were moved to Oklahoma
(via the Trail of Tears) anyway.
• Veto Power
• Jackson vetoed more bills than any of his predecessors, he saw this as fulfilling his claim to
being the protector of the common man.
• Unofficial Advisers
• Jackson leaned heavily on a group of Newspaper Editors that served as an unofficial Cabinet
(advisors) known as the “Kitchen Cabinet”. His actual Cabinet was filled with mediocre men
appointed only to appease various sectional issues in the Democratic Party.
Unit 4.4: The Need for Reform
• Do President Jackson’s positions on key issues in
American politics reflect those of a “reformer”?
• For many, Andrew Jackson represented a healthy contempt for
the old hierarchical, preferential system. His position on several
key issues reflected this:
• The Bank War
• Despite the success of the National Bank Jackson was strongly opposed to
the it, believing it represented preference and monopoly.
• Between his belief that the National Bank was unconstitutional and his dislike
for the President of the Bank, Nicholas Biddle, Jackson vowed to kill the
Bank.
• After a landslide reelection in 1832 Jackson felt he had a mandate to take
action against the Bank,
• He pulled money out of the National Bank and put it in various State Banks, which
became known as his “Pet Banks”
• All this new capital in the hands of the State Banks led to rampant inflation and land
speculation (too many people getting loans to buy land that could not afford them).
• To control the situation without reestablishing the National Bank, Jackson issued the
Specie Circular requiring the State Banks to call in their loans and specie (gold and
silver)
• This backfired, leading to panicked selling of land holdings, which ultimately led to
loan defaults, bank closings, and DEPRESSION during the Presidency of Martin Van
Buren.
Unit 4.5: Andrew Jackson on the issue of
Federal Authority vs. States’ Rights
• What events demonstrated President
Andrew Jackson’s commitment to
States’ Rights?
• What events demonstrated President
Andrew Jackson’s commitment to the
authority of the Federal Government?
• Why was it difficult for the newly arising
reform movements to take hold in the
South during the antebellum period?
Unit 4.5: Andrew Jackson on the issue of
Federal Authority vs. States’ Rights
• What events demonstrated President Andrew
Jackson’s commitment to States’ Rights?
• After the case of Worchester v. Georgia was decided, Jackson
defended (despite the Court’s ruling) the State of Georgia’s
right to relocate the Cherokee to reservations west of the
Mississippi.
• In Worchester v. Georgia the Supreme Court ruled that the
Cherokee were a “domestic dependent nation” and had the
right to stay on their land.
• As Chief Executive it was Jackson’s responsibility to enforce
and uphold Federal Law. Jackson made the famous statement
“Mr. Marshall has made his decision, let him enforce it”.
• One could argue that if not for a general prejudice against
Native Americans, Jackson could have been impeached for
such an offense.
Unit 4.5: Andrew Jackson on the issue of
Federal Authority vs. States’ Rights
• What events demonstrated President Andrew Jackson’s commitment to
the authority of the Federal Government?
• Jackson used his veto to block construction of the Maysville Road in Kentucky.
• Jackson argued that since the road began and ended in Kentucky (although it was
supposed to be a segment of the national road) that the Federal Government should not
pay for its construction.
• It certainly did not hurt that the road would be completed in Jackson’s arch enemy Henry
Clay’s hometown.
• This veto set a precedent that road construction would be state funded into the twentieth
century.
• Jackson threatened the use of Federal troops to enforce the tariff (he was
opposed to) in South Carolina.
• John C. Calhoun, former Senator from South Carolina and Vice President to Andrew
Jackson, strongly opposed the Tariff of 1828 which he labeled the “Tariff of
Abominations”.
• Calhoun contended that South Carolina could rule the Tariff unconstitutional and nullify
the Federal Law in their state.
• Andrew Jackson pushed Congress to pass the Force Bill, which authorized the use of
Federal troops to enforce the tariff if necessary.
• Fortunately Henry Clay was able to work out a compromise tariff in 1833 that calmed the
situation, but Jackson demonstrated the lengths to which he was willing to go to uphold
Federal authority and Calhoun insinuated that the States had the right to secede if they
saw fit.
Unit 4.5: Andrew Jackson on the issue of
Federal Authority vs. States’ Rights
• Why was it difficult for the newly arising reform
movements to take hold in the South during the
antebellum period?
• Because of the rigid nature of Southern Society reform
movements had great difficulty taking up root in the South.
• Southern society was very class based and placed tremendous
power in the hands of the wealthy plantation owners, who
obviously were opposed to change and reform.
• Also, the South was a perpetrator of, arguably, the worst of the
social evils that was “under the gun” of the social reformers of
the period: Slavery.
• The invention of the Cotton Gin led to the revitalization of the
institution of slavery (which many believed was dying a slow death
while dependent on tobacco and rice).
• Efforts to reform slavery would lead to great tension between the
north and the south during the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• What role did the Second Great
Awakening play in the initiating of
reform movements during this period?
• What role did the Transcendentalist
Movement play in the initiating of reform
movements during this period?
• Describe the major reform movements
of the period and their
accomplishments.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• What role did the Second Great Awakening play in the
initiating of reform movements during this period?
• Charles Grandison Finney, an abolitionist, began
preaching a message that through good works and
deeds one could find salvation, and that people
working together to perform good works and deeds
could achieve salvation for the nation.
• These ideas, wrapped up in fiery sermons and
emotional outpouring of repentance, led to what
became known as the Second Great Awakening.
• The idea of achieving “national salvation” led many
believers to become active in social reform
movements.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• What role did the Transcendentalist Movement play in the
initiating of reform movements during this period?
• Secular inspiration for reform was inspired by the ideas of Immanuel
Kant (Critique of Pure Reason – 1781) who raised doubt about the power
of reason.
• Kant’s work led to the rise of romanticists like the Transcendentalist
Movement in New England.
• Transcendentalists believed that one could rise above the limits of the
intellect and strive for emotional understanding without the assistance of
organized religion. Transcendentalism provided those alienated by the
church with a secular inspiration for social reform.
• The artists of the Hudson River School, writers such as Henry David
Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, and poets like Edgar Allen Poe
strove to produce emotional responses to a uniquely “American” identity.
• Emerson said “what is man born for but to be a reformer, a re-maker of what
man has made”.
• Henry David Thoreau was imprisoned for refusing to pay his taxes (believing
they were used to fund the pro-slavery Mexican War). Thoreau’s works included
Walden (in which he preached self-reliance) and Civil Disobedience (in which he
stressed the importance of disobeying unjust laws and taking the consequences
peacefully to bring attention to your cause)
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• Describe the major reform movements of the period and their
accomplishments.
• The Abolition Movement
• William Lloyd Garrison, writing in his newspaper The Liberator, advocated for the
immediate cessation of all slavery in the United States.
• Other important Abolitionists included Frederick Douglas, David Walker, Sojourner Truth,
and Theodore Weld.
• Harriet Tubman organized a network of former slaves and abolitionists to help runaway
(fugitive) slaves escape to freedom. The network became known as the Underground
Railroad.
• Nat Turner led a slave revolt in Virginia believing that a lunar eclipse was a sign from God
to lead the slaves to freedom, he viewed himself as a modern-day Moses.
• John Brown was a radical abolitionist who first appeared at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas
murdering slave owners (believing he was on a mission from God to free the slaves). He
later resurfaced in a raid on a Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia where he was
ultimately captured and executed by the State of Virginia.
• Harriet Beecher Stowe’s publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin portrayed the institution of
slavery as evil and immoral.
• The Abolition Movement drove a wedge between the North and the South that would
ultimately lead to the Civil War.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• Describe the major reform movements of the period and their
accomplishments.
• How did Congress deal with the issue of Slavery and its growth in the
west.
• The Northwest Ordinance banned slavery in the Ohio River Valley, setting a
•
•
•
•
•
precedent that slavery could be restricted by the Federal Government.
The Three-Fifths Compromise and Slave Trade (Commerce) Compromise
banned the importation of African Slaves and set a precedent for counting (at
least partially) the slaves as human beings.
The Missouri Compromise set a dividing line for slavery in the Louisiana
Territory (however the Southern States were unhappy that more land was north
of the line and thus would be free states).
The Compromise of 1850 created a stronger fugitive slave law, allowed popular
sovereignty (a vote) on slavery in the territories, banned the slave trade in
Washington DC, and admitted California as a free state.
All of these efforts did little to actually deal with the “slavery question”, they
merely put off the inevitable until emotions were so high that any solution
would involve extreme violence.
Thomas Jefferson described slavery as “having a wolf by the ears, you dare not
hold on but you cannot let it go”.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• Describe the major reform movements of the period
and their accomplishments.
• Women’s Rights
• Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the first
major women’s rights conference was held at the Seneca Falls
Convention in New York.
• The women expressed their desire to be enfranchised in the
“Declaration of Sentiments” drafted at the Seneca Falls
Convention.
• Unfortunately women would have to wait until 1919 to acquire the
right to vote, even the Fourteenth Amendment (which provided
rights of citizenship to freed slaves) provided for Universal Male
Suffrage.
• Susan B. Anthony worked for Women’s Suffrage during the late
1800s (Colorado would be the first state to allow women to vote
during this period) and Carrie Chapman Catt helped push forward
the 19th Amendment to the Constitution.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• Describe the major reform movements of the period and their
accomplishments.
• Tier 2 Social Reforms included:
• Education Reform – Horace Mann pushed for greater emphasis on teacher
•
•
•
•
training and the his “Massachusetts Model” became the blueprint for tax-based
public education programs.
Mental Health – Dorothea Dix opened the first Mental Health Hospital in the
United States to reform the barbaric treatment of the mentally ill in American
society.
Prison Reform – William Channing sought to shift the emphasis in prisons from
humiliation/abuse/neglect to a focus on discipline and moral improvement. He
wanted to emphasize rehabilitation, not retribution.
Temperance Movement – Pushed primarily by women’s groups, this was the
attempt to ban alcohol in American society. They believed alcohol abuse was
hampering the political and social development of the United States.
Utopian Communities – Experimental communities that believed they could
enhance their moral and spiritual development by separating from society in
these cooperative communes. Examples included Brook Farm, Rober Owen’s
New Harmony, and the Shaker Communities.
Unit 4.6: Major Reform Movements and
Their Accomplishments
• Describe the major reform movements of the period and their
accomplishments.
• Political
• Property qualifications were removed from voter registration making the nation more
democratic.
• The “King Caucus” was eliminated and the people were given a greater voice in the
choosing of political (especially Presidential) candidates.
• More government offices became elected positions rather than appointive.
• Economic
• The nation took steps to eliminate the connection between entrenched capitalists (longstanding businesses) and members of the political hierarchy. This would make progress
toward ending privilege and monopoly.
• An outsider looking in
• During this period Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville visited America and wrote Democracy
in America.
• In this work he:
• Expressed the emergence of American individualism
• Contrasted the reform-based society of the North with the traditional, unindustrialized society
of the South.
• de Tocqueville celebrated the American spirit and the greatness of American democracy.
Practice Question #11
11. The Spoils System:
A. Was condemned by Jackson and his supporters for being
undemocratic
B. Prevented women, Native Americans, and African Americans
from voting
C. Was a derisive term used by opponents of the Tariff of 1828
D. Is a term that is synonymous with rotation in office
E. Was a corrupt bargain made by the opponents of Jackson that
prevented him from winning the Presidency in 1824
Practice Question #12
12. The origins of the Age of Reform can be found in all of
the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The defeat of the Confederacy in the Civil War
Democratic influences of the American Revolution
The fundamentals of Jeffersonian democracy
The Antifederalists of the 1780s and 1790s
The Second Great Awakening and Transcendental Movement
Practice Question #13
13. The “Kitchen Cabinet”:
A. Was the name given to Jackson’s political opponents
B. Was a derisive term for men who advocated for women’s rights
C. As a term used to attack critics of Jackson’s position on the bank
D. Were those who settled on land for which they no longer held a
lease
E. Was the nickname of Jackson’s unofficial advisors
Practice Question #14
14. Jackson’s Maysville Road veto was an opportunity for
him to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Challenge federal infrastructural development
Attack opponents of his policy to relocate Native Americans
Disregard John Marshall’s ruling on contracts
Advocate for the construction of a National Road
Undermine financial support for the Bank of the United States
Practice Question #15
15. The leader of South Carolina’s opposition to the “Tariff
of Abominations” was:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Martin Van Buren
Henry Clay
William Lloyd Garrison
John C. Calhoun
John Marshall
Practice Question #16
16. Jackson was embroiled in a controversy with Nicholas
Biddle over the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Construction of the Maysville Road
Construction of the Charles River Bridge
Resettlement of Native Americans
Abolition of Slavery
Bank of the United States
Practice Question #17
17. The Specie Circular:
A. Sought to address the problems associated with the Panic of
1819
B. Was a primary factor in the development of the new market
economy
C. Was nullified by the South Carolina legislature
D. Was an attempt by Jackson to remedy the problems associated
with the destruction of the bank
E. Was used by the Charles River Bridge Company to raise funds
to build a bridge over the Charles River in Massachusetts
Practice Question #18
18. William Lloyd Garrison is most associated with which of
the following reform movements?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Prison Reform
Reforming treatment of the Mentally ill
Abolition
Educational reform
The plight of Native Americans
Practice Question #19
19. The Seneca Falls Convention is associated with which
of the following reform movements?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Women’s Suffrage
Abolition
Tax-based public education
Opposition to Jackson’s policy of forced removal
Urban renewal
Practice Question #20
20. Which of the following is false regarding the Second
Great Awakening?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
It promoted individualism
It was not experienced by southerners
It placed reason over faith
It challenged the Enlightenment’s reliance on reason
It came about in response to the perception that piety was
declining
Answers
11. D
12. A
13. E
14. A
15. D
16. E
17. D
18. C
19. A
20. C

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