The French Revolution (1789 * 1815)

Report
The French Revolution
(1789 – 1815)
“A world wide revolution”
The Bourbon Monarchy
(1589 – 1830)
Henry IV (1589 – 1610)
Louis XIII (1610 – 1643)
Louis XIV (1643 – 1715)
Louis XV (1715 – 1774)
Louis XVI (1774 – 1792)
Louis XVIII (1814 – 1815) & (1815 – 1824)
Charles X (1824 – 1830)
King Louis XVI
(1774 – 1792)
Who was his wife?
Queen Marie Antoinette
What county was she from?
What was her eventual nickname?
Why did they marry?
How many children did they have?
How many of their children died before the French Revolution began?
Feudalism
U.S. Constitution: Article 1, Section 9:
“No title of nobility shall be granted by the U.S.: and no person holding any office of
profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of Congress, accept any present,
emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign
state.”
Feudalism’s Problem
Taxation Process
French Feudalism
French Social Class System
Official Name: The Estate System
Social Class = Estate
1st Estate:
Members = clergy / church officials
Population = 0.5% of French Population (100,000)
Land Owned = 10% of French Land
2nd Estate:
Members = nobility / nobles
Population = 1.5% of French Population (300,000)
Land Owned = 20% of French Land
3rd Estate:
Members = bourgeoisie / middle class
Population = 98% of French Population (27,000,000)
Land Owned = 70% of French Land
What is the problem?
1st and 2nd Estate Advantages: (2% of French Population)
• Only 2nd Estate members could eventually become 1st Estate Members
• Exempt from military service
• Paid no taxes
3rd Estate Disadvantages: (98% of French Population)
• Required to serve in the military
• Had to pay taxes
The Obvious Problem: 98% of the population is being forced to support 2% of the
population.
Viewing the source of this problem, how is this
situation similar to the American Revolution?
The Estates General
“French Congress”
What – French Legislative (law making) assembly (group)
Who – Representatives from all three estates based on the population.
Which estate had the most representatives? – 3rd Estate
How It Works – An issue is brought up to vote upon and a vote is taken.
Voting Process – Each estate gets 1 vote despite the number of people
that are representing the estate.
What is the problem with this system?
Prior to 1789, the Estates General had not met for 175 years.
Estates General Meeting
Date: May – June, 1789
Where – Palace of Versailles
Last Meeting – 1614 (Louis XIII)
Why are they meeting?
Process of the Estates General:
1. Each estate brings a cahier (list of complaints).
2. Each complaint is discussed and voted on by all 3 estates.
Estates General Meeting
3rd Estate’s Position
Main Problem (# 1 Complaint) – Unfair tax system
Other Problem (# 2 Complaint) – Voting Process
Proposal To Be Voted On – Wanted to base the voting power in the Estates General on
the vote of all the representatives in the Estates General, not just on the 3 estates
themselves.
How did the Estates General vote when both problems were brought up? – No
Why?
What did the 3rd Estate do?
National Assembly
“The Old 3rd Estate”
Members of this group (majority) – Members of the 3rd Estate
who walked out of the Estates General in disagreement.
Other members of this group (minority) – Members of the 1st
and 2nd Estate who also walked out of the Estates General in
agreement with the 3rd Estate.
This group’s claim – This group represents the people of France.
This group’s goal – Write a constitution.
Original meeting place – Separate room in the Palace of
Versailles.
How did King Louis XVI feel about this group?
Louis XVI and The National Assembly
Louis XVI’s actions towards the National Assembly:
Locked them out of their meeting room in the Palace of Versailles.
The Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789
The Oath – “Never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might
require until we have established a sound and just constitution.”
Who took this oath? The National Assembly (old 3rd Estate)
How did King Louis XVI Respond? Called back French army from other
countries in preparation to fight them.
Whose idea was it to have a meeting at the nearby tennis court?
Dr. Joseph Guillotine
Raid of the Invalides
July 14, 1789
What – French military stockpile
Where – Paris
Raiders – National Assembly
Why– Get weapons in preparation to fight Louis XVI’s army
Guards Resistance – NONE (They were outnumbered)
What Did The Raiders Get?
10 cannons
28,000 guns
NO GUN POWDER!
Storming The Bastille
July 14, 1789
Storming The Bastille
What – French fort and prison
July 14, 1789
Where – Paris
Raiders – 800 members and supporters of the National Assembly (old 3rd Estate)
History’s reason why – It is a sign of French Power
• Political prisoners in the Bastille at the start of the raid – 7
• Most famous prisoners the Bastille has held – Voltaire and the “Man in the Iron Mask”
Real reason why – To get gunpowder
• Total amount of gunpowder in the Bastille – 250 barrels (25,000 lbs.)
Guard Resistance – High but unsuccessful. They held off the mob for 7 hours, but were
eventually over ran.
Importance – National Assembly now has weapons and ammunition to fight Louis XVI.
Main Importance – This event is the official start of the French Revolution
Storming The Bastille
July 14, 1789
Bastille Day – July 14th
French version of Independence Day
Phases of the
French Revolution
Phase 1:
National Assembly (1789 – 1791) – Moderate
Phase 2:
Radical Phase (1792 – 1794) – Radical / Reign of Terror
Phase 3:
The Directory (1795 – 1799) – Moderate
Phase 4:
Age of Napoleon (1800 – 1815) – Militant
French Flag
“The Tri-Color”
Paris
(French People)
King
Paris
(French People)
Flag’s Meaning – The unity of king and the people.
This was a symbol of the French Revolution
Louis XVI’s Meeting with the
National Assembly
July 16, 1789
Why – To work out the problems between each other.
Good meeting? – Very good meeting.
Result – France is on the path to getting better.
The Great Fear (1789)
What – Widespread violence towards nobles by members of
the 3rd Estate.
What started it? Poor farm harvests in 1788 lead to a famine
in 1789.
Sources of Anger:
1 – Members of the 3rd Estate were starving and the French
government was doing nothing.
2 – 3rd estate members taxes still remained high.
Great Fear Incident
French store owner refused to lower the prices of bread in his store . He
was chased to the top of a church steeple where he was corned by the
mob, stabbed to death, then decapitated.
Great Fear (1789)
Another Incident
One grain (hay) trader, who was possibly planning a counter
revolutionary movement, said “the people should just eat hay if
they are hungry”. When he was captured, a necklace of thorns
was tightly placed around his neck, a handful of thorns was
forced into his hands, hay was stuffed in his mouth, and he was
hanged on a Paris lamp post.
This man’s son-in-law had his heart torn out of his body and
was placed in a window of the Hotel de Ville (meeting place of
the National Assembly). His head along with his father-in-law’s
were placed on pikestaff’s and paraded through the streets of
Paris with the carriers frequently putting the heads together
making it look as if they were gay lovers.
Great Fear (1789)
“The Rumors”
1. Queen Marie Antoinette was plotting to blow up the National Assembly.
2. Foreign countries were working with King Louis XVI to help restore his lost
power.
3. The English navy was spotted in the English Channel in preparation for
invasion while France is weak.
4. Nobles had left and joined armies of other countries (Spain, Austria, and the
Netherlands) in preparation for an attack on weakened France.
Importance – The rumors increased the violence and made
the Great Fear much worse.
National Assembly Reforms (1789)
Goal – End the chaos caused by the Great Fear
Main Change – Feudalism is abolished
French nobles publicly gave up their land rights and tax
rights in an open sessions to the French people.
Problem – These had to be approved by King Louis
XVI, which he refused to do.
Why did he refuse to approve this change?
Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 27, 1789
Authors / Creators – National Assembly
All-Seeing Eye of Providence
“The eye of god watching over humankind”
Divine Providence - The sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over
events in people's lives and throughout history .
All Seeing Eye of Providence
George Washington
The Eye of Providence
“The Model”
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776
Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness
What movement did the author get these ideas from?
Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 27, 1789
Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality
What had to happen before this document could be accepted as French law?
King Louis XVI had to approve this, which he refused to do.
The Man Behind The Movement
Ben Franklin
1st U.S. Ambassador to France (1776 – 1785)
Palace of Versailles
Where – 12 miles outside of the city limits of Paris
Who had this built?
Louis XIV
March on Versailles
October 5, 1789
March on Versailles
October 5, 1789
Marchers – 6,000 women and men dressed as women .
What Happened – Marched to the Palace of Versailles demanding to see King
Louis XVI.
Chant – “Bread”
Majority of Anger – Directed at Queen Marie Antoinette for lavish spending.
Queen Marie Antionette’s Rumored Saying –“Let them eat cake”
Marcher’s Demands – Ordered the royal family to return to Paris.
Removal – Angry mob physically escorted royal family back to Paris. There
were also loads of bread and flour on the wagons during the march.
King’s new “old” home – Tuileries Palace in Paris , which is where the royal
family lived before Louis XIV built the Palace if Versailles
Importance – King is now living in Paris and the people do not have to take a
long trip if they have some problems they want to get fixed.
The Tuileries
“The King’s New Old Home”
Where – Paris
Constitution of 1791
September 3, 1791
Creators – National Assembly
Terms:
1. Ended Absolute Monarchy that was established under Louis
XIV.
2. Established a Constitutional (Limited) Monarchy
3. A French legislature (National Assembly) oversees the
actions of the Monarch.
4. The clergy (church officials) are to be elected.
5. Catholic church is now under the control of France and not
Vatican City (Rome).
This would be the first of four constitutions written
during the French Revolution.
Louis XVI’s Failed Escape
June 20 – 21, 1791
The Plan – Louis XVI would disguised himself and his family as servants
who leaves the Tuileries every day.
Bribery Cost – Louis XVI used $600,000 to bride his way out of the
Tuileries and past the guards.
Where was he planning to go? – Austria
Why Austria? – His brother-in-law, Leopold II (Marie Antionette’s brother),
was the King of Austria. Louis XVI was hoping Leopold II would help him
gain back control of France.
Why was Louis XVI wanting to leave France?
Louis XVI’s Failed Escape
June 20 – 21, 1791
Louis XVI gets lost? – He is recognized by a person holding a piece of French
currency with Louis XIV’s face on it.
The Escort – The people of the village held Louis XVI there and sent word back to
Paris that he had been found. Soldiers were sent to the town where they then
escorted Louis XVI back to Paris where he would be placed on house arrest in the
Tuileries until his execution.
How did the people of France view Louis XVI after this?
Louis XVI’s Failed Escape
June 20 – 21, 1791
“The Escort Back”
The French Promise
The Promise –“France will help any people or country wanting
to overthrow its government if they are unhappy.”
Goal – Spread French Revolution ideas worldwide. (“Worldwide
War on Tyranny”)
Europe’s Reaction – Began to hate France.
The Future – Led to future wars between France and many
European countries.
France at War
(1792 – 1815)
Why – Result of the “French Promise”
French Revolutionary Wars: 1792 – 1802 (Coalition # 1 and Coalition # 2)
Napoleonic Wars: 1804 – 1815
• How did Napoleon finance his wars? Louisiana Purchase and privateers (Acheron)
French Foreign Opponents:
• Austria
• Prussia
• England (U.K.)
• Russia
• Spain
• Italy
• Netherlands / Dutch
• Holland
French Civil War – France was also in the middle civil war of its own.
Bottom Line – France was a mess!
French Revolutionary War
The 1st Coalition
(1792– 1798)
French Revolutionary War
The 2nd Coalition
(1799– 1802)
Declaration of Pillnitz
August 27, 1791
“All European countries should come to the aid of Louis XVI and restore his power as the
king of France. Let this declaration be a promise of harm towards France if Louis XVI and his
family’s rights are further infringed upon or they are harmed in any way.”
The “Declarers”
Leopold II
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Hungary
Archduke of Austria
King Frederick William II of Prussia
Phase # 2
“The Reign of Terror” – Radical / Crazy Phase
1792 – 1794
Sans Culottes
“Those who wear pants”
Who – The poorest members of the former
3rd estate who traditionally wear pants
compared to richer members of the former 3rd
estate and former members of the 1st and 2nd
estate that traditionally wore culottes.
San Culottes Tendencies = Radical
Goal – Make France a republic.
Republic – A government elected by the
people and ran by the people. NO KING OR
QUEEN.
Division within the Sans Culottes:
• Girondins – Wanted to fix the constitutional
monarchy.
• Jacobins – Wanted no monarchy at all.
How did they come to power? They rose
through elections in the National Convention.
Storming of the Tuileries
August 10, 1792
Raiders / Stormers – Sans-Culottes
Whose Home? – Royal family ever
since they were forced to leave he
Palace of Versailles.
Goal – Capture the French Royal family.
Result:
• 300 Sans-Culottes members died.
• 900 Royal guards were slaughtered.
• Royal family was captured.
Queen Marie Antionette and her children
“Bye bye Louis”
September Massacres
September 2 – 7, 1792
September Massacres
September 2 – 7, 1792
“An event with circumstances of barbarity too shocking to describe.”
What started it? – Successful Prussian invasion of a French fortress in Verdun, France.
Why was Prussia invading France? – To free Louis XVI from the control of the radical
Sans-Culottes who were now running the French government.
Uncertainty – In fearful panic and anger, the French people killed more that 1,200
prisoners in the French prisons located in Paris.
No discrimination – Priests and many people under the age of 18 were killed during
this.
September Massacres
September 2 – 7, 1792
British political cartoon in reference to the September Massacres.
Battle of Valmy
September 19-20, 1792
France v. Prussia
Where – Between Verdun and Paris (French capitol)
Main reason for this battle – The “French Promise”
Prussia’s Motivation – Prussia was invading France in an effort to end the French
Revolution and restore Louis XVI’s power as the King of France.
French Revolutionary Army – “Vive La Nation”, was the French battle cry as they
hoped to spread the ideas of the French Revolution to other European countries.
The Armies – Prussian Army (80,000) v. the French Revolutionary Army (36,000)
Result or Winner – French Revolutionary Army
Importance:
1. Shows how people behind a united cause can be victorious despite the numbers.
2. Convinced France to keep upholding the French Promise, which led to more wars
between France and other European countries.
3. Showed the importance of artillery (cannons) in battle.
4. The French monarchy was abolished the next day and the First French Republic
was born.
Napoleon Bonaparte
“The Valmy Affair”
“The artillery proved its worth in this battle. In the initial campaigns of the
French revolution France always excelled in the artillery division.”
- Napoleon Bonaparte
The End of the French Royal Family
Criminal charge against the entire family– Treason (a crime against your country)
Public Executions:
1. King Louis XVI – January 21, 1793
2. Queen Marie Antoinette – October 16, 1793
Interesting Point – Both bodies were placed in unmarked graves and were not
exhumed until 1815 when the French Revolution was over.
What happened to their children?
1. Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte – She was exiled to Austria where her cousin Francis II
was the emperor. She died in 1851.
2. Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François – He died of "consumption" (tuberculosis) in 1789
at the age of 8 before the French Revolution began .
3. Louis-Charles – He was imprisoned. As a part of his republican re-education, his
jailers forced him to drink large amounts of alcohol between severe beatings and
torture. He was officially reported to have died in the prison from “consumption” in
1795 at age 10. There are some today that believe he was secretly set free and
known as the "Lost Dauphin."
4. Sophie-Hélène-Béatrix – She died at the age of 1 in 1787 before the French
Revolution began.
louis XVi’s eXecution
January 21, 1793
"I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I pardon those who have
occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may
never be visited on France."
marie antoinette’s eXecution
October 16, 1793
“Pardon me sir, I mean not to do it”
Constitution of 1793
June 24, 1793
Creators – National Convention (controlled by the Jacobins)
Terms:
1. Limited Monarchy established by Constitution of 1791 is
abolished.
2. France is a republic – A government of elected
representatives by the people.
3. National Assembly is now the National Convention, which is
now the official French Legislature (Congress).
4. All members of the National Convention are to be elected by
the people of France.
5. French universal male suffrage (all French men are able to
vote).
This would be the second of four constitutions
written during the French Revolution.
National Convention (1793)
Majority Party = Jacobins
Maximilien Robespierre
The Head Jacobin
The Jacobin Language
Committee of Public Safety (C.O.P.S)
1792 – 1795
Created by – National Convention
What – 12 man group responsible for running France.
Leader – Maximilien Robespierre (Jacobins)
Purpose: “Make France safe”
• End French Civil War.
• Spread French Revolution ideas throughout Europe.
• Created mass tax (everybody) to create funds for wars.
• Establish a court to try and execute opponents the French Revolution.
C.O.P.S. controlled France during what is known as the “Reign
of Terror” period within the French Revolution.
the height oF the “reign oF terror”
July, 1793 – July, 1794
“The Reign of the Jacobins”
The Process – Anyone saying or doing anything offensive to the ideals of the
French Revolution was placed on trial by order of the C.O.P.S.
The Statistics – 40,000 French people either died or were executed by order of the
C.O.P.S.
The Girondins – All people of this political party were executed.
How did the Reign of Terror end?
• Jacobins lost majority power in the National Convention through elections thus
losing control of the French Government.
Reign of Terror
Robespierre’s Capture and Execution
July 26, 1794
His Capture – When being arrested he and his
closest followers attempted to commit suicide.
Robespierre’s attempt to shoot himself in the
head only managed to shatter his jaw.
His Wound – He was moved to a table in the
room of the C.O.P.S. to await execution. A
doctor was brought in to fix up his jaw.
Last Words – “Merci, monsieur,” to a man that
had kindly given him a handkerchief to sop up
some of the blood from his face and his clothing.
The Execution – He was guillotined without trial
face-up. When clearing Robespierre's neck the
executioner tore off the bandage that was
holding his shattered jaw in place, producing an
agonizing scream until the fall of the mouton
(blade) silenced him.
France At War During Phase # 2
(1792 – 1794)
1792:
• France defeated Prussia at the Battle of Valmy.
• France captured land in the neighboring countries Italy, Holy Roman Empire
(Germany), and Belgium.
1793:
• England, Spain, Portugal, and Netherlands declare war on France after Louis
XVI’s execution
• Battle of Toulon (Southern France) – Napoleon’s has his first impressive victory
over England as he drives them out of the French town with his artillery skills.
1794:
• France gained land in Spain.
• France occupied all of Belgium and the Rhineland, which was part of the Holy
Roman Empire.
• English Navy and the French Navy fought over U.S. grain shipment coming to
France. French lost half of ships but the shipment arrived safely in France.
Phase # 3
“The Directory” – Moderate Phase
1795 – 1799
“A leader is born”
Constitution of 1795
August 22, 1795
Creators / Authors – National Convention
Terms:
1. Created the Directory.
2. Power is shared equally
amongst the “Directors”.
This would be the third of four constitutions written
during the French Revolution.
The Directory
Nov., 1795 – Nov., 1799
What – A 5 man committee responsible for running France.
Power – All 5 men have equal power.
Paul Barras
The Directors
Lazare Carnot
(Jacobin)
Charles Letourneur
(Jacobin)
Paul Barras
Jean-Francois Reubell
(Jacobin)
Louis-Marie de La Revelliere-Lepaux
(Jacobin)
13 Vendemiaire Uprising
October 5, 1795
Vendemiaire Uprising
October 5, 1795
Reason – French people were angry about the power giving to the Directory through
laws that were just recently passed in the National Convention.
What Happened – An angry French mob moved in to attack the Tulieries, which had
just become the new headquarters of the Directory.
The “Savior” – Director Paul Barras appointed Napoleon Bonaparte, who was an
unknown French General at the time, to organize an army and deal with the angry
mob.
Artillery – Skillfully using his artillery, Napoleon repelled the mob. At one point he
put nails in cannons in place of cannon balls allowing “shrapnel” to spread with each
shot.
Defense of the Directory – This was the first challenge to the Directory, which was
swiftly put down. This was beginning of a good relationship between the Directory
and Napoleon the eventually went bad.
Napoleon’s Fame – Napoleon was beginning to make a name for himself. He
eventually capitalize on this fame when all of France turned on the Directory. Using
his reputation through his military successes in the Mediterranean Sea would
eventually help him seize power of France when the Directory crumbles.
Battle of the Pyramids
July 21, 1798
Where – Cairo, Egypt
Who Owned Egypt at this time – England
What was so important about Egypt the Napoleon wanted control of? – Nile River
(It starts in Mediterranean Sea and goes through out much of Africa.
What region or area was Napoleon hoping to control as a result of this battle and
future battles? – Middle East Asia
Where would control of the Middle East help limit English control? – India
The Armies – French Revolutionary Army (20,000) v. Egyptian Army (80,000)
Result / Winner – French Revolutionary Army wins easily.
Battle of the Nile
August 1 – 3, 1798
Where – Egypt (mouth of the Nile River)
V.
Admiral Horatio Nelson
England
General Napoleon Bonaparte
France
Battle of the Nile
August 1 – 3, 1798
Where – Egypt (mouth of the Nile River)
Mediterranean Sea Dominance – France, under the control of Napoleon, was trying
to establish dominance in the areas in and around the Mediterranean Sea. Control of
the Nile River would be the final step.
France’s Nemesis – England’s Royal Navy .
The Navies – 15 English ships v. 17 French ships
Winner – English
The Losses:
• English – 900 casualties
• French – 4 ships destroyed, 9 captured, 5,000 casualties
Importance:
1. Ended Napoleon’s dominance in the Mediterranean Sea.
2. Napoleon’s army was now trapped in Egypt with no way home.
3. English colonies in the Middle East and India are now safe for the moment.
The “Quasi” War
The “Undeclared” War With France
1798 – 1800
France v. U.S.
The Background
U.S. Refusal to pay back war debts to France (1792) – U.S. refused to pay war
debts to France when Louis XVI was killed claiming that the war debt was to the now
dead king.
Jay’s Treaty (1793) – A treaty that ended remaining hostilities between the U.S. and
England and also established a 10 year trade agreement between the two countries.
U.S. Neutrality (1793) – Declared itself neutral in the disputes between England and
Revolutionary France.
French Position – U.S. are traitors who have turned their back on the country that
helped them earn their independence.
French Piracy (1793 – 1798) – France began seizing U.S. ships in the Atlantic Ocean
for fear the they might be supplying their enemy England.
“XYZ” Affair (1798) – Three un-named French agents demanded a large bribe from
the U.S. for France to stop seizing U.S. ships.
The “Quasi” War
The “Undeclared” War With France
1798 – 1800
France v. U.S.
French Piracy (1796 – 1797) – French pirates has seized over 300 U.S. ships
during this time period.
U.S. Merchant Ships Protection – NONE! U.S. sold all of their war ships in 1785.
U.S. Re-Builds Their Navy (1797) – U.S. government bought 12 ships and turned
them into war ships. They would continue to add to this amount throughout this
war.
Congressional Approval (1798) – Congress approved U.S. war ships to attack
French war ships.
Convention of 1800 – The now Napoleon led France signed an agreement to end
the war. This lead to the beginning of a relationship between Napoleon’s France
and the U.S.
Result / Winner – Draw
War Statistics: U.S. lost 1 ship and the French lost 93 ships
French Navy = Garbage
Louisiana Purchase
(1803)
Siege of Acre
March 20 – 21, 1799
Where – Syria (Ottoman Empire)
Napoleon’s Move – Being trapped in Egypt he
moved his army north hoping to take control of
Ottoman controlled Syria.
Ottoman Empire’s Help – England
Result – Napoleon’s army was defeated and
driven from Syria.
Napoleon’s Return – Hearing that the Directory
was in danger of collapsing, Napoleon left his
army in Syria and returned to Paris, France in
order to seize power from the Directory.
the directory’s downFall
November, 1799
Main Reason – Corruption amongst the five Directors.
Jacobin Influence – 4 of the 5 Directors were Jacobins, who
were not very popular after the “Reign of Terror”.
Unpopularity – French people demanded that the Directory be
ended because they were using French tax dollars for their
own personal gain.
Napoleon’s coup d'état – Napoleon returned to Paris, raised
an army, and overthrew the Jacobin led Directory very easily.
Napoleon’s “Helpers” – Paul Barras and Abbe Sieyes. These
two men and Napoleon would put together the three man
government known as the Consulate that would eventually
control France.
Phase # 4
“The Reign of Napoleon” – Militant Phase
1799 – 1815
“Napoleon The Emperor”
Constitution of 1799
Creators / Authors – National Convention
Terms:
1.Established the Consulate.
This would be the fourth and final
constitution written during the French
Revolution.
naPoleon’s bio
The Basics and His Military Beginnings
Birth – August 15, 1769
Birth Place – Corsica
• Corsican Ownership – Formerly owned
by Genoa (Italian city state), but it was sold
to France in 1768 after a civil war. His
Knowledge of Italy would contribute to his
military success here later.
Father – Carlo Mario de Bonaparte
(Tuscany Noble)
Mother – Letizia (Tusacany Noble)
Siblings – 7, he would the 2nd oldest of 8.
Military Training – He was admitted to a
royal military training school in France at
age 9 through a program which created a
fund that awarded 600 placement to a high
class French schools if the French parents
could prove their nobility connections
through their ancestry.
naPoleon’s bio
His Military Lessons Copied Throughout History
Rank – rank and promotion in the army was achieved by your ability to complete a
task and not your ancestry.
Military Calculations – Distance, troop quantities, supply quantities, speed, weather,
reinforcements = geostrategist.
Discipline and Bearing – Always maintain a serious nature. No one can ever say
that they saw Napoleon drunk.
Cause Chaos – Constantly fire guns and cannons to cause nervousness and
sleeplessness in your enemy. Napoleon’s specialty in the military was the artillery
division.
Power Concentration or “The Weakest Link” – Find the weakest part of the enemy
and hit it with everything you have. Once this link folds the whole things eventually
will.
Divide and Conquer – A concentrated army of one is much stronger than two
separated armies where communication between the two is lost.
Corsican Exile – Napoleon supported the side that was against the ruling body of
Corsica (General Paoli) during the Corsican Civil War (1793) and his whole family was
exiled. They soon came to France where Napoleon planned to make his new home.
naPoleon’s bio
His Military Success and Rise
Rank – He achieved the rank of 1st Lieutenant in the French Army at age 22 in 1791.
Battle of Toulon (1793) – French rebels, the English, and Spanish prepared for an
invasion of France in an effort to remove the C.O.P.S.
• Napoleon’s Part – He led the charge of the French Army division that would
eventually help France be victorious in this battle. As a result, everyone knew him.
Battle of Dego (1794) – Commanded the French artillery division in this battle and
helped defeated the combined Austrian and Savoy (Italian State) army.
• New Concept = Divide and Conquer – He split the line between the Savoy army
and the Austrian army and concentrated the bulk of armies energy on the larger
Austrians army caused both enemy armies to crumble.
• General Pierre Dumerbion – He was the commander of the entire French army in
this battle. When he retired after the battle he praised Napoleon saying that France
would not have won without Napoleon.
Connection to Committee of Public Safety – He was Robespierre’s protégé.
Connection to The Directory – He became Director Barras’s protégé once
Robespierre was executed.
• Military Victories under Directory – Against Austria (1797) and England (1799).
Political and Government Beliefs – Enlightenment
The Consulate
1799 – 1804
What – Three man committee responsible for running France.
Consul’s Term – Each is elected by the French people for a 10 year term.
Government Type – Republic (in theory)
The Consuls
Jean Jacques Regis
de Cambaceres
Charles-Francois
Lebrun
Napoleon
Bonaparte
French 1st Consul
1802
1st Consul – This title gave a person control
of the Consulate putting them in control of
France.
Napoleon’s Goal – Napoleon had been
pushing to be the 1st Consul since the
Consulate formed 1799.
1st Consul Napoleon – In 1802 Napoleon
arrogantly claimed the title 1st Consul.
Popular Vote – There was some
disagreement between the three consuls
over this decision and Napoleon decided to
have a popular vote by the French people to
settle this disagreement.
Referendum (People’s Approval Vote):
• For Napoleon – 3,000,000
• Against Napoleon – 8,000
Napoleon’s Road to Emperor
1804
Duke of Enghien Affair – English funded coup
de tat that was designed to remove Napoleon
from power was uncovered before it could be
put in motion.
French Fear – There was an intense fear that
the Consulate Republic would collapse with the
death of Napoleon.
King? – There was a push for Napoleon to be
crowned king in order to establish a hereditary
line of future French kings coming from the
blood line of Napoleon in the event of his death.
Napoleon did not like this idea.
Emperor! – Napoleon thought that a king went
against the ideals of the French Revolution,
therefore he agreed to be crowned emperor
instead.
The French Empire
1804 – 1814
Government Type – Republic (in theory)
Napoleon’s Coronation Ceremony
December 2, 1804
This is the beginning of the French Empire.
The French Empire
Government Type – Republic (in theory)
What series of wars created this map?
Napoleonic Wars (1804 – 1814)
The Napoleonic Code
“Napoleon’s Domestic Greatness”
What – A set of laws for the French government and people.
Main Points:
1. Forbid privileges based on
birth (feudalism)
2. Religious freedom
3. Government jobs are for the
most qualified people
What movements ideas were expressed throughout this document?
How did the French people respond to this change?
Other changes by Napoleon – Restructured the economy, built new roads, built new
canals, and built new public schools for all French people.
“Napoleonic Nepotism”
Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office.
Bonaparte Dynasty
Relation to Napoleon – older brother
Reign: 1808 – 1813
Appointment – Napoleon appointed him
king of Spain after Napoleon successfully
invaded and captured Spain in 1808.
Russian Effect – After Napoleon’s defeat
in Russia the French army was weak.
Napoleon’s powerful army was the
“muscle” of Joseph as king of Spain.
King Joseph Bonaparte
King of Spain
End or Abdication – Seeing the weakness
of Napoleon and Joseph, the English and
Portuguese armies teamed up with
Spanish rebels. This army attacked and
defeated Joseph causing him to abdicate
(step down) in 1813.
“Napoleonic Nepotism”
Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office.
Bonaparte Dynasty
Relation to Napoleon – younger brother
Reign: 1806 – 1810
Appointment – Napoleon appointed him to be
the governor of the French controlled area in
1806. Louis eventually named himself king.
Russian Effect – As Napoleon prepared for his
invasion of Russian he needed to build-up the
French army by drafting soldiers from the areas
controlled by him and his siblings.
King Louis Bonaparte
King of Holland and the Netherlands
End or Abdication – Napoleon, using his
military, forced Louis to abdicate (step down) in
1810 when Louis refused to give Napoleon the
soldiers under his control to support Napoleon’s
invasions of Eastern Europe and Russia.
“Napoleonic Nepotism”
Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office.
Bonaparte Dynasty
Relation to Napoleon – youngest brother
Reign: 1807 – 1813
Appointment – Napoleon created this country from
land he won from Prussia in the Battle of Friedland in
1807. Shortly after Westphalia’s creation he appointed
Jerome King of Westphalia.
Russian Effect – He and Napoleon has a
disagreement over the manner in which Jerome would
help support this invasion. Angered by the
disagreement Jerome withdrew from the invasion and
returned to Westphalia. When Napoleon was defeated,
this hurt the protection that Napoleon gave him.
King Jerome Bonaparte
King of Westphalia
End or Abdication – After the Russian defeat
Napoleon’s retreated to France. On its was to France
to attack Napoleon, the allied Prussian and Russian
armies invaded Westphalia and forced to Jerome to
abdicate in 1813.
“Napoleonic Nepotism”
Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office.
Bonaparte Dynasty
Relation to Napoleon – youngest sister
Reign: 1806 – 1815
Appointment – Napoleon appointed her and her
husband (Joachim Murat) King and Queen of
Naples in 1806.
Russian Effect– She and Napoleon did not get
along. She did not like his wife Josephine because
she felt Napoleon cared more for her than his own
siblings. These differences allowed her to stay in
power longer than the other Bonapartes after the
Russian defeat because she allied with many antiNapoleon countries.
Queen Caroline Bonaparte
Queen of Naples (S Italy)
End or Abdication – When Napoleon returned
from his 1st exile in 1815, her husband supported
Napoleon. He was eventually captured and
executed. Fearing for her life she fled to Austria
claiming that she did not support her husband.
“Napoleonic Nepotism”
Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office.
Bonaparte Dynasty
Relation to Napoleon – oldest legitimate son
Reign: 1811 – 1815
Appointment – Napoleon appointed him King of
Rome, which was controlled by France, shortly after
he was born. He never ruled the area since he was
only a baby during the time that France controlled it.
He was also appointed as Napoleon’s successor in
the event of Napoleon’s death.
Russian Effect – Napoleon’s defeat in Russia never
allowed him to truly rule Rome as a king.
King Napoleon II
King of Rome
End of Abdication – He was briefly (15 days)
appointed Emperor of France after Napoleon
abdicated for the 2nd time. The Congress of Vienna
eventually appointed Louis XVIII (Bourbon and brother
of Louis XVI) King of France in 1815 once the
Napoleon’s reign and the French Revolution were
ended and Europe was put back together.
Louisiana Purchase
(1803)
Financing for?
The Napoleonic Wars
1804 – 1814
Key Players
Michel Ney
Napoleon I
French General French Emperor
Horatio Nelson
England Admiral
Duke of Wellington
English General
Nemesis – A formidable and usually victorious opponent.
Battle of Assaye
September 23, 1803
Where – India
Indian Maratha Rebels v. England
The Marathas – Indian rebels resisting the
English presence and takeover of their
homeland.
Maratha Suppliers – Hoping to see the English
lose, the French supplied these rebels.
The Armies:
• English – 4,500 (2,500 were Sepoys)
• Marathas – 40,000
Result – English victory
Importance – England remained in control of
Indian and its natural resources.
Arthur Wellesley
Duke of Wellington
Commander of British military
during the Battle of Assaye.
Napoleon’s Ultimate Nemesis – He would
continually beat Napoleon in the Napoleonic
wars. He would lead the army that defeated
Napoleon for the final time at Waterloo.
Robert Fulton
The Nautilus
Who – American Inventor living in France.
Inventions – Steam Engine and the Nautilus (1st
submarine)
Naval Weapon – It rams the wooden ship and implants a
mine in the hull. A line is attached to the mine which will
trigger the mine to explode. The Nautilus the reverses
and pulls the line causing the mine to explode. The line
length is designed for the sub to be at a safe distance
when detonation occurs.
Success – Fulton had tested this with success
numerous times.
Meeting with Napoleon – Fulton met Napoleon in order
to show and sell the submarine to him. Napoleon
thought it leaked to bad and was an underwater coffin for
the pilots. He dismissed Fulton as a “swindler” and
refused to buy his technology.
Big Mistake!
Great Fear
(1789)
What – Widespread attacks and violence on nobles.
Sparking Event – Bad Harvest of 1788 lead to widespread famine.
Reasons:
• Widespread hunger
• Crazy rumors about France’s future
• 3rd Estate’s taxes were still high
Robert Fulton
The Nautilus
“Taking his business elsewhere” – After being
turned down by Napoleon, Fulton took the Nautilus
invention to England who saw great potential in it.
Bigger and Better Ideas – Fulton was ordered to
build a bigger version of the Nautilus for the Royal
Navy. He was eventually ordered to halt
construction of it after the English defeated the
French at Trafalgar.
No Need Now – The English saw no need to
increase their naval power after the French Navy
was crushed they had established dominance of
the sea.
Fulton’s Imprisonment – He was imprisoned by
the English for a short amount of time for fear that
he may sell this technology to a rival country.
Battle of Trafalgar
October 21, 1805
Where – coast of Spain
France and Spain v. England
French Plan – Invasion of England
French and Spanish Alliance –18 French ships & 15 Spanish ships (33 total)
• Commander – Pierre-Charles Villeneuve
• Commander’s Fate – Survived the battle but killed himself upon return to France
because of humiliation.
England – 27 ships
• Commander – Horatio Nelson, Captain of the HMS Victory
• Commander’s Injuries – Blind in left eye and an amputated right arm due to his
injuries at the Battle of the Nile
• Commander’s Fate – He was killed during the battle by a French sniper.
Result – England wins
Casualties:
• French and Spanish – 14,000 men and 18 ships lost
• England –1,400 men and no ships lost
Battle of Trafalgar
October 21, 1805
Where – coast of Spain
Battle’s Importance – French Navy could not advance north and invade England.
Napoleon’s Weakness – France lacked a superior and knowledgeable navy forcing
Napoleon to stick mainly to land battles.
The Continental System
Napoleon’s Economic War
What – Economic blockade of all English goods in all ports controlled by France and its
allies.
Napoleon’s Thought Process – “If I can’t beat England on land or sea, I will hit them
where it counts, THEIR WALLET. You can’t fight a war if you don’t have money.”
If you trade with England = French Enemy
French Enemies because of Continental System – England, Russia, Prussia, and
Austria.
Result – England maintained their economic activity despite the continental system.
The Continental System
Napoleon’s Economic War
Battle of Austerlitz
December 2, 1805
Where – Austria (near Vienna)
France v. Russia and Austria
Russian and Austrian Army – 90,000
• The Lost Wave – There was another 80,000 men who could not make it to the battle
because General Ney and 20,000 French soldiers had halted them in the Swiss Alps
French Army – 65,000 (commanded by Napoleon)
Napoleon’s Brilliance:
French Weak Right Flank – Napoleon made his right flank appear to weakly fortified so
he would be attacked there. However, he had the bulk of his right flank hidden to the far
right under a cloud of heavy fog and smoke from fires he had his soldiers light and
maintain.
The Attack – When the Austro-Russian army attacked the French right flank the French
swept in and swallowed those forces. The French pushed hard through the middle and
split the enemy line.
Result – France wins
Treaty of Pressburg
(1805)
Terms:
Austrian Land Surrender – Gave all land in the Holy Roman
Empire that was not part of Austria to France.
Importance of the Battle of Austerlitz and the Treaty of
Pressburg:
1. Holy Roman Empire was officially dissolved by Napoleon.
2. Confederation of the Rhine was created Napoleon I year
later with the land gained from Austria in the battle and
treaty.
3. Napoleon’s French Empire is getting bigger.
4. Napoleon is feeling unstoppable.
Confederation of the Rhine
(1806 – 1813)
What – German land formerly part of the Holy Roman Empire taken by Napoleon after
the battle of Austerlitz by order of the Treaty of Pressburg.
German States – There were 16 states when it started, with Frankfurt as the capital city.
German States Leadership – Napoleon granted independent leadership of the German
states based on the agreement that the German states would supply the French army
with soldiers.
Present Day?
Peninsular War
(1806 – 1813)
Where – Iberian Peninsula
France v. Spain, Portugal, and England
Treaty of Fontainebleau (1806) – France
and Spain split Portugal into three areas.
Spain and France would decide at a later
date who gets each of the three territories.
Portuguese Royal Family – They leave
Portugal to go live in Brazil (biggest colony
in the New World) in fear for their lives.
Importance to Latin America – Leads to
Brazil’s independence and the spread of
Enlightenment ideas to many other Latin
American countries which contributed to
their independence.
Latin American Independence
Simon Bolivar
Peninsular War
(1806 – 1813)
Where – Iberian Peninsula
France v. Spain, Portugal, and England
Treaty of Fontainbleau
Decision:
1. France gets Portugal.
2. Spanish soldiers will help
French soldiers secure
Portugal.
3. Spain gets the Portuguese
Navy because they lost so
many at Trafalgar .
Peninsular War
(1806 – 1813)
Where – Iberian Peninsula
France v. Spain, Portugal, and England
French Deception of Spanish:
• French soldiers traveled through Spain to get to Portugal in order to secure it as French
land.
• Once many French soldiers were spread throughout Spain and Portugal was secure,
French soldiers seized main Spanish forts and turned on Spain.
• With its soldiers spread throughout Europe to help their French allie, they did not have
sufficient forces in Spain to drive the French out and surrendered to Napoleon.
Spanish Abdication – Spanish King Ferdinand was forced to abdicate his throne in 1808.
New Spanish King – King Joseph Bonaparte was crowned in 1808.
King Joseph’s Popularity – He was not liked and his rise to the throne was resisted.
Opposition and Resistance Groups:
• Spanish Guerilla rebels
• Portuguese rebels
• English Army – Provided military and financial aid to the Spanish and Portuguese rebels.
Spain and Portugal – control of these two territories bounced back and forth between France,
Spain, and Portugal until 1813 after Napoleon’s failed invasion of Russia.
Battle of Friedland
(June 14, 1807)
Where – Russia
France v. Russia
Russian Army – 76,000
French Army – 71,000 (commanded by Napoleon)
Casualties – 20,000 Russian to 7,000 French
Result – French victory
Peace Treaty – Treaty of Tilsit
Countries / Leaders Involved in Treaty Signing:
• France / Napoleon
• Russia / Alexander I
• Prussia / Frederick William III
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
Terms:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Truce –Peace Between France and Russia.
Franco-Russo Alliance – Russia and France are an alliance. They secretly agreed to help one
another in territorial disputes with other countries.
Against England – Russia agreed to join the Continental System against England.
Russian Losses and French Gains – Russia was to give the land they gained from Turkey at the point
in the Russo-Turkish War if France would help Russia win more land from Turkey in the future.
Czar’s Relatives – Napoleon agreed to allow German states in the Confederation of Rhine to be
independent of him if the leaders of these states were relatives of the Russian Czar.
Prussian Losses and French Gains – Prussia gave some of its western land to France, which later
became the Kingdom of Westphalia. Prussia also gave France its land it owned in Poland which later
became the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
Prussian Army Reduction – Prussia must reduce its army to 40,000 men.
Prussian Payment To France – Prussia must pay France $100,000.
Importance:
1.
2.
3.
Super Alliance – The alliance between Russia and France made France much more powerful and put
another army against England.
Gains and Losses – The treaty was not very fair to Prussia and Russia in regards to gained and lost
land.
More Land For Napoleon – Two more countries under the influence of Napoleon came about from the
land gains of this treaty.
Kingdom of Westphalia
(1807 – 1813)
Confederation of the Rhine
Kingdom of Westphalia
What and Where – German state inside the French controlled Confederation of
the Rhine.
King – King Jerome Bonaparte
The Model – Napoleon intended for this state to be the “model” German state
within the Confederation of the Rhine that all the other German states would
strive to be.
Present Day?
“grand” duchy oF warsaw
(1807 – 1815)
King Frederick Augustus I
King of the Duchy of Warsaw
Napoleon’s King Choice – Frederick Augustus I was once allied with Prussia against
Napoleon until the Battle of Friedland. However, he and Napoleon became close
friends and were allies to the very end of Napoleon’s rule.
Present Day?
Battle of Aspern & Essling
May 21 – 22, 1809
Where – Austria (near Vienna)
France v. Austria and Prussia
Whey Here – Napoleon was trying to advance north through Germany towards
Prussia out of occupied Austria which he had occupied after the battle of Austerlitz .
Austrian and Prussian army – 90,000
French army – 65,000 (commanded by Napoelon)
Battle of Aspern – French were overwhelmed in Aspern causing them to evacuate
to nearby Essling for fear of being flanked.
Result – Austrians and Prussians win (Napoleon’s first loss in the Napoleonic Wars)
Casualties – Austria and Prussians suffered 23,000 (6,000 killed) and the French
suffered 23,000 (7,000 killed).
Big Mistake – Instead of pursuing and crushing the French, the Austrians and
Prussians let Napoleon re-group on an island on the Danube River.
Importance – Napoleon’s northern advance was halted for the moment and he was
ANGRY!
Battle of Wagram
July 5 – 6, 1809
Where – Austria (near Vienna)
France v. Austria
Napoleon Re-groups – After his defeat at Aspern
and Essling he re-grouped, re-strategized, and
reinforced his army.
Austrian army – 135,000
French army – 155,000 (commanded by Napoleon)
Result – France wins
Treaty of Vienna
(1809)
Countries
Austrian Provinces States Gained
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
West Galicia (north Austria)
Bavaria (Confederation of the Rhine state)
Salzburg (west Austria)
Russia
Tarnopool (east Austria)
France
Trieste and part of Croatia (southwest Austria)
Who either directly or indirectly controlled all of the areas or
countries that Austria lost under this treaty?
Austria was also forced to reduce the size of its army to 150,000 men and pay a
huge amount of money to France.
Austria lost almost 17% of its population as result of this treaty.
Treaty of Vienna (1809)
Josephine Bonaparte
Napoleon’s Wife – She was Napoleon’s 1st
wife.
Children – The had no children together
despite many attempts.
Napoleon’s Fear – Napoleon needed and
heir to replace him in the event of his death
and secure his emperor crown..
Divorce – Due to her infertility and her
inability to produce an heir, Napoleon
divorced her.
Infertility Proof – Napoleon had an
illegitimate son with one of his mistresses,
which proved he was able to have kids.
Empress Josephine Bonaparte
1st Empress of France (1804 – 1810)
Queen Marie Louise
Napoleon’s New Wife and New Problems
Her Great Aunt – Marie Antionette
Her Dad – King Francis I of Austria
What was her title then? – Austrian Princess
Child Birth – She gave birth to a boy shortly
after their marriage. The boy was named
Napoleon II , and was crowned King of Rome
by Napoleon.
Alliance – This marriage created an alliance
between Austria and France.
Importance – More control of Austria for
Napoleon.
Opposition to this marriage – Every
European country except France.
Empress Marie Louise
Empress of France (1810 – 1814)
WHY?
War of 1812
(1812 – 1815)
Where – U.S.
U.S. v. England
America’s 2nd War For Independence from England
Causes:
1. English expansion from Canadian owned
lands into the U.S. owned Northwest Territory.
2. English anger towards the U.S. trade with
France.
3. Impressments of American merchant sailors
into the Royal Navy.
4. British support of American Indian tribes
against U.S. expansion into their tribal lands.
English Allies – English Canada, Shawnee, Creek Red Sticks, Ojibway, Chickamauga,
Fox, Iroquois Miami, Mingo, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Lenape, Mascouten, Potawatomi, Sauk,
and Wyandot.
U.S. Allies – Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee.
War of 1812
(1812 – 1815)
White House Burning
Why is the U.S. Capital where it is?
Washington D.C.
“Our Nation’s Capital”
“The Compromise of 1790”
James Madison (VA)
Alexander Hamilton (NY)
“My northern congressional votes for your southern congressional votes”
Hamilton’s Secretary of the U.S. Treasury financial plan.
For
Permanent national capital south of the Potomac River close to Madison’s home state.
What about the name?
Washington District of Columbia (D.C.)
“Our Nation’s Capital”
George Washington – He picked out the land where the new capital city would be built
and his name would be part of the name.
District – An area that is not part of a state and is under the direct control of the federal
government.
Christopher Columbus – Since he founded the New World and the Americas,
Europeans in the 1700s and 1800s often referred to the America colonies as “Columbia”.
Columbia literally translates in “The Land of Columbus”.
“Stand Beside Her” – Columbia is historically recognized as a female mythical goddess
that birthed the U.S.
War of 1812
(1812 – 1815)
Star Spangled Banner
Francis Scott Key
Star Spangled Banner Writer
Francis Scott Key during
the U.S. victory at the
Battle of Baltimore.
Key’s visional inspiration that he used to write the song took place as a U.S. officer
negotiating a prisoner exchange aboard an English ship as he could only watch the
battle and do nothing to help his country.
War of 1812
(1812 – 1815)
“The Big Picture”
Pressure to end the war – Napoleon has returned from exile and England
needed to focus their attention mainly on defeating him.
Treaty of Ghent (1815) – Ended the war as a draw. All possessions and
territories seized during the war were to be returned to their original owners.
Battle of New Orleans (1815) – The Americans successfully defended New
Orleans and the mouth of the Mississippi River in this battle. The Treaty of
Ghent had already been singed but word had not made it from Europe where
the treaty was signed.
Connection to French Revolution – It stretched England further than it
already was. However, in the big picture England still managed to handle
Napoleon since his failed Russian invasion happened shortly after the outbreak
of this war.
The War’s Legacy – Americans were very proud of this victory. Americans felt
that England thought we got lucky in the American Revolutionary War and they
could still push us around. This war solidified the U.S. and gave us an
international reputation.
Russian Invasion
(June – December, 1812)
Czar Alexander I’s Position
What monarchy was he part of?
What was he angry about?
1. French and Austrian alliance through
Napoleon’s new marriage.
2. Napoleon’s French Empire was getting to
close to Russia (Grand Duchy of Warsaw
and Austria were on the border Russia).
What did he do? Stopped enforcing the
Continental System and broke his alliance with
Napoleon.
What did Napoleon do? Invaded Russia
Czar Alexander I of Russia
Russian Invasion
(June – December, 1812)
Opposing Strategies
French Army
Soldiers – 422,000
Recruitment – Napoleon forced all countries under his control and his allies to give him
their soldiers for this invasion.
Strategy – Invade and re-supply at the expense of the Russian people taking shelter
along the way in the homes of the Russian people.
Russian Army
Soldiers – Numbers are unknown, but were very small in comparison to France
Preparedness – The Russian army was poorly trained and poorly equipped in
comparison to France.
Strategy = Scorched Earth Policy – They burned down crops and homes as they
retreated leaving nothing for the French to have.
Guerilla Attacks – They sporadically attacked the French Army in places where they
knew the land better.
Russian Invasion
(June – December, 1812)
The March – Napoleon’s French army marched all the way to Moscow
(Russian Capital), thinking that they would find food and shelter.
Napoleon’s Thought Process – “Yes they have burned the country side
but no way they would burn down their capital city.”
Moscow’s Condition Upon Napoleon’s Arrival – Deserted and burnt to
the ground.
Napoleon’s Dilemma – It was October, winter is coming, his soldiers have
no shelter and no food in Russia.
Napoleon’s Decision – Turn around and head back to France.
General Winter – Extremely cold temperatures, starvation, and guerilla
attacks crushed Napoleon’s army.
Russian Invasion
(June – December, 1812)
“Napoleon’s Path To Self-Destruction”
Russian Invasion
(June – December, 1812)
Napoleon’s Downfall – This failed invasion was the end of his dominance in Europe
Napoleon’s Suicide Attempt – When he returns to France he attempts suicide, but
his body rejects the poison.
naPoleon’s satellite
Countries Collapse
Confederation of the Rhine – Occupied and Russian and
Prussian armies in 1813 and dissolved.
Kingdom of Westphalia – Occupied and Russian and
Prussian armies in 1813 and dissolved.
Grand Duchy of Warsaw – Occupied by Russian and
Prussian armies in 1813. Later divided between the two at the
Congress of Vienna.
Spain – In 1813 King Joseph Bonaparte was finally defeated
and driven from France.
Battle of Leipzig
October 16 – 19, 1813
Where – Confederation of the Rhine
France v. Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden
Historical Significance – Largest
battle before WWI with over
500,000 soldiers involved
Regrouping – Napoleon returned
home after the failed Russian
invasion and re-built his army
getting soldiers mainly from the
Confederation of the Rhine
Previous Victories – Napoleon
moved back into the Confederation
of the Rhine and won three battles
at Lutzen, Bautzen, and Dresden
against the Prussians, Russians,
Austrians.
Confederation of the Rhine
Battle of Leipzig
October 16 – 19, 1813
Where – Confederation of the Rhine
France v. Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden
The Armies:
• Quadruple Alliance (Austria, Russia, Prussia, & Sweden) – 330,000
• France – 190,000
Result – Quadruple Alliance wins
Napoleon’s Escape – He escaped across a river and burnt a bridge behind him
so the pursuing enemy could not catch him. Some of his rear guard were
accidentally left behind leaving them to fight to heir death.
Casualties:
• French: 46,000 KIA or wounded and 36,000 captured
• Quadruple Alliance: 52,000 KIA or wounded
Importance –Napoleon is defeated!
Napoleon’s 1st Abdication
April 11, 1814
Abdication – To step down
from power.
Exiled to – Elba, an Island in
Mediterranean Sea off the
coast of Italy.
Personal Guard – Napoleon
was allowed to take 1,000 men
of his men with him for
protection.
New Leader of France – King
Louis XVIII (Louis XVI’s
brother).
King Louis XVIII
When he was appointed what monarchy was restored in France?
Did the people of France like him? Why or why not?
The people France blamed him for the recession and economic problems that hit
France after Napoleon abdicated.
Was it his fault?
naPoleon’s return
March 1, 1815
Why did he return? – He had
gotten word that Louis XVIII was
not very well liked and many
French people wanted him to
return.
Support – Much of France was
happy to see him return.
King Louis XVIII – Fled to
England for fear that Napoleon
may kill him.
How long did Napoleon stay in power of France after his return?
Battle of Waterloo
(June 16 – 21, 1815)
Where – Belgium
France v. England, Prussia, and Austria
Battle of Waterloo
(June 16 – 21, 1815)
Where – Belgium
France v. England, Prussia, and Austria
Michel Ney
French General
Napoleon I
French Emperor
Duke of Wellington
English General
Battle of Waterloo
(June 16 – 21, 1815)
Where – Belgium
France v. England, Prussia, and Austria
The Armies and Strategies
Anti-French Alliance – 671,000
• England – 95, 000 (commanded by the Duke of Wellington)
• Prussia –124,000
• Former Confederation of the Rhine German States – 210,000
• Austria – 75,000
• Russia – 167,000
French – 280,000
Napoleon’s Strategy – Facing such a large combined force Napoleon decided to
attack each one separately before they could all unite and have repeat of the battle of
Leipzig.
Battle of Waterloo
(June 16 – 21, 1815)
Where – Belgium
France v. England, Prussia, and Austria
The Battle
Anti-French armies at the start of the battle – 219,000
• England – 95, 000
• Prussia –124,000
French – 280,000
Napoleon’s Plan – Engage each army separately and the Prussians and English
from uniting into one bigger army.
Napoleon – Attacked the Prussians on the French right flank first and drove them
back.
General Ney – Attacked the English army on the French left flank to a stalemate.
Battle of Waterloo
(June 16 – 21, 1815)
Where – Belgium
France v. England, Prussia, and Austria
The Results and Importance
Rain – Slowed the advancing soldiers, artillery movements, and the soft ground
absorbed the cannonballs = Napoleon’s specialty was a neutralized
British Battle Squares – The English formed many different squares with bayonets
pointed out to repel the French cavalry charge.
June 18, 185 – English and Prussians armies united and began to drive Napoleon
back.
“Help is on the way” – The Russian, Austrians, and various German forces were
now on their way and the threat of a huge army caused Napoleon to surrender.
Napoleon’s Surrender – June 21, 1815
Result – France lost
Importance – The leads to Napoleon’s 2nd abdication and exile.
Napoleon’s 2nd Abdication
(July 15, 1815)
Capture and Surrender – Captured
aboard a ship trying to escape to the U.S.
is where he made his official surrender.
Exiled to – St. Helena, and island in the
south Atlantic Ocean owned by England at
the time.
New Leader – Napoleon II was appointed
emperor for 15 days, but he was
eventually replaced by Louis XVIII.
Napoleon’s Life and Legacy
(1769 – 1821)
Fate – Died in St. Helena in 1821
Cause – Stomach cancer or
poisoning at age 52. the is not
really known to this day.
Ironic Final Resting Place – Les
Invalides in Paris, which is where
the first battle of the French
Revolution took place.
His Legacy?
Congress of Vienna (1815)
Countries and Country Representatives at the Congress of Vienna.
• France – Maurice de Talleyrand
• England – Duke of Wellington
• Prussia - Prince Karl August von Hardenberg
• Russia – Czar Alexander I
• Austria – Prince Clemens von Metternich (President of Congress)
Overall Goal – Put Europe back together.
Specific Goals – Restore the monarchies ended by Napoleon and redraw the map of
Europe that Napoleon drastically changed.
Accomplishments:
• Old Monarchies – Restored the monarchies in Portugal, France, Spain, Naples, and
Rome.
• European Police – The Quadruple Alliance (England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria)
will be the police of Europe to avoid the rise of another Napoleon.
• German Land – It established the German Confederation, which would be controlled
by Austria.

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