The French Revolution (1789 – 1815) “A world wide revolution” The Bourbon Monarchy (1589 – 1830) Henry IV (1589 – 1610) Louis XIII (1610 – 1643) Louis XIV (1643 – 1715) Louis XV (1715 – 1774) Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) Louis XVIII (1814 – 1815) & (1815 – 1824) Charles X (1824 – 1830) King Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) Who was his wife? Queen Marie Antoinette What county was she from? What was her eventual nickname? Why did they marry? How many children did they have? How many of their children died before the French Revolution began? Feudalism U.S. Constitution: Article 1, Section 9: “No title of nobility shall be granted by the U.S.: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of Congress, accept any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.” Feudalism’s Problem Taxation Process French Feudalism French Social Class System Official Name: The Estate System Social Class = Estate 1st Estate: Members = clergy / church officials Population = 0.5% of French Population (100,000) Land Owned = 10% of French Land 2nd Estate: Members = nobility / nobles Population = 1.5% of French Population (300,000) Land Owned = 20% of French Land 3rd Estate: Members = bourgeoisie / middle class Population = 98% of French Population (27,000,000) Land Owned = 70% of French Land What is the problem? 1st and 2nd Estate Advantages: (2% of French Population) • Only 2nd Estate members could eventually become 1st Estate Members • Exempt from military service • Paid no taxes 3rd Estate Disadvantages: (98% of French Population) • Required to serve in the military • Had to pay taxes The Obvious Problem: 98% of the population is being forced to support 2% of the population. Viewing the source of this problem, how is this situation similar to the American Revolution? The Estates General “French Congress” What – French Legislative (law making) assembly (group) Who – Representatives from all three estates based on the population. Which estate had the most representatives? – 3rd Estate How It Works – An issue is brought up to vote upon and a vote is taken. Voting Process – Each estate gets 1 vote despite the number of people that are representing the estate. What is the problem with this system? Prior to 1789, the Estates General had not met for 175 years. Estates General Meeting Date: May – June, 1789 Where – Palace of Versailles Last Meeting – 1614 (Louis XIII) Why are they meeting? Process of the Estates General: 1. Each estate brings a cahier (list of complaints). 2. Each complaint is discussed and voted on by all 3 estates. Estates General Meeting 3rd Estate’s Position Main Problem (# 1 Complaint) – Unfair tax system Other Problem (# 2 Complaint) – Voting Process Proposal To Be Voted On – Wanted to base the voting power in the Estates General on the vote of all the representatives in the Estates General, not just on the 3 estates themselves. How did the Estates General vote when both problems were brought up? – No Why? What did the 3rd Estate do? National Assembly “The Old 3rd Estate” Members of this group (majority) – Members of the 3rd Estate who walked out of the Estates General in disagreement. Other members of this group (minority) – Members of the 1st and 2nd Estate who also walked out of the Estates General in agreement with the 3rd Estate. This group’s claim – This group represents the people of France. This group’s goal – Write a constitution. Original meeting place – Separate room in the Palace of Versailles. How did King Louis XVI feel about this group? Louis XVI and The National Assembly Louis XVI’s actions towards the National Assembly: Locked them out of their meeting room in the Palace of Versailles. The Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789 The Oath – “Never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution.” Who took this oath? The National Assembly (old 3rd Estate) How did King Louis XVI Respond? Called back French army from other countries in preparation to fight them. Whose idea was it to have a meeting at the nearby tennis court? Dr. Joseph Guillotine Raid of the Invalides July 14, 1789 What – French military stockpile Where – Paris Raiders – National Assembly Why– Get weapons in preparation to fight Louis XVI’s army Guards Resistance – NONE (They were outnumbered) What Did The Raiders Get? 10 cannons 28,000 guns NO GUN POWDER! Storming The Bastille July 14, 1789 Storming The Bastille What – French fort and prison July 14, 1789 Where – Paris Raiders – 800 members and supporters of the National Assembly (old 3rd Estate) History’s reason why – It is a sign of French Power • Political prisoners in the Bastille at the start of the raid – 7 • Most famous prisoners the Bastille has held – Voltaire and the “Man in the Iron Mask” Real reason why – To get gunpowder • Total amount of gunpowder in the Bastille – 250 barrels (25,000 lbs.) Guard Resistance – High but unsuccessful. They held off the mob for 7 hours, but were eventually over ran. Importance – National Assembly now has weapons and ammunition to fight Louis XVI. Main Importance – This event is the official start of the French Revolution Storming The Bastille July 14, 1789 Bastille Day – July 14th French version of Independence Day Phases of the French Revolution Phase 1: National Assembly (1789 – 1791) – Moderate Phase 2: Radical Phase (1792 – 1794) – Radical / Reign of Terror Phase 3: The Directory (1795 – 1799) – Moderate Phase 4: Age of Napoleon (1800 – 1815) – Militant French Flag “The Tri-Color” Paris (French People) King Paris (French People) Flag’s Meaning – The unity of king and the people. This was a symbol of the French Revolution Louis XVI’s Meeting with the National Assembly July 16, 1789 Why – To work out the problems between each other. Good meeting? – Very good meeting. Result – France is on the path to getting better. The Great Fear (1789) What – Widespread violence towards nobles by members of the 3rd Estate. What started it? Poor farm harvests in 1788 lead to a famine in 1789. Sources of Anger: 1 – Members of the 3rd Estate were starving and the French government was doing nothing. 2 – 3rd estate members taxes still remained high. Great Fear Incident French store owner refused to lower the prices of bread in his store . He was chased to the top of a church steeple where he was corned by the mob, stabbed to death, then decapitated. Great Fear (1789) Another Incident One grain (hay) trader, who was possibly planning a counter revolutionary movement, said “the people should just eat hay if they are hungry”. When he was captured, a necklace of thorns was tightly placed around his neck, a handful of thorns was forced into his hands, hay was stuffed in his mouth, and he was hanged on a Paris lamp post. This man’s son-in-law had his heart torn out of his body and was placed in a window of the Hotel de Ville (meeting place of the National Assembly). His head along with his father-in-law’s were placed on pikestaff’s and paraded through the streets of Paris with the carriers frequently putting the heads together making it look as if they were gay lovers. Great Fear (1789) “The Rumors” 1. Queen Marie Antoinette was plotting to blow up the National Assembly. 2. Foreign countries were working with King Louis XVI to help restore his lost power. 3. The English navy was spotted in the English Channel in preparation for invasion while France is weak. 4. Nobles had left and joined armies of other countries (Spain, Austria, and the Netherlands) in preparation for an attack on weakened France. Importance – The rumors increased the violence and made the Great Fear much worse. National Assembly Reforms (1789) Goal – End the chaos caused by the Great Fear Main Change – Feudalism is abolished French nobles publicly gave up their land rights and tax rights in an open sessions to the French people. Problem – These had to be approved by King Louis XVI, which he refused to do. Why did he refuse to approve this change? Declaration of the Rights of Man August 27, 1789 Authors / Creators – National Assembly All-Seeing Eye of Providence “The eye of god watching over humankind” Divine Providence - The sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in people's lives and throughout history . All Seeing Eye of Providence George Washington The Eye of Providence “The Model” Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness What movement did the author get these ideas from? Declaration of the Rights of Man August 27, 1789 Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality What had to happen before this document could be accepted as French law? King Louis XVI had to approve this, which he refused to do. The Man Behind The Movement Ben Franklin 1st U.S. Ambassador to France (1776 – 1785) Palace of Versailles Where – 12 miles outside of the city limits of Paris Who had this built? Louis XIV March on Versailles October 5, 1789 March on Versailles October 5, 1789 Marchers – 6,000 women and men dressed as women . What Happened – Marched to the Palace of Versailles demanding to see King Louis XVI. Chant – “Bread” Majority of Anger – Directed at Queen Marie Antoinette for lavish spending. Queen Marie Antionette’s Rumored Saying –“Let them eat cake” Marcher’s Demands – Ordered the royal family to return to Paris. Removal – Angry mob physically escorted royal family back to Paris. There were also loads of bread and flour on the wagons during the march. King’s new “old” home – Tuileries Palace in Paris , which is where the royal family lived before Louis XIV built the Palace if Versailles Importance – King is now living in Paris and the people do not have to take a long trip if they have some problems they want to get fixed. The Tuileries “The King’s New Old Home” Where – Paris Constitution of 1791 September 3, 1791 Creators – National Assembly Terms: 1. Ended Absolute Monarchy that was established under Louis XIV. 2. Established a Constitutional (Limited) Monarchy 3. A French legislature (National Assembly) oversees the actions of the Monarch. 4. The clergy (church officials) are to be elected. 5. Catholic church is now under the control of France and not Vatican City (Rome). This would be the first of four constitutions written during the French Revolution. Louis XVI’s Failed Escape June 20 – 21, 1791 The Plan – Louis XVI would disguised himself and his family as servants who leaves the Tuileries every day. Bribery Cost – Louis XVI used $600,000 to bride his way out of the Tuileries and past the guards. Where was he planning to go? – Austria Why Austria? – His brother-in-law, Leopold II (Marie Antionette’s brother), was the King of Austria. Louis XVI was hoping Leopold II would help him gain back control of France. Why was Louis XVI wanting to leave France? Louis XVI’s Failed Escape June 20 – 21, 1791 Louis XVI gets lost? – He is recognized by a person holding a piece of French currency with Louis XIV’s face on it. The Escort – The people of the village held Louis XVI there and sent word back to Paris that he had been found. Soldiers were sent to the town where they then escorted Louis XVI back to Paris where he would be placed on house arrest in the Tuileries until his execution. How did the people of France view Louis XVI after this? Louis XVI’s Failed Escape June 20 – 21, 1791 “The Escort Back” The French Promise The Promise –“France will help any people or country wanting to overthrow its government if they are unhappy.” Goal – Spread French Revolution ideas worldwide. (“Worldwide War on Tyranny”) Europe’s Reaction – Began to hate France. The Future – Led to future wars between France and many European countries. France at War (1792 – 1815) Why – Result of the “French Promise” French Revolutionary Wars: 1792 – 1802 (Coalition # 1 and Coalition # 2) Napoleonic Wars: 1804 – 1815 • How did Napoleon finance his wars? Louisiana Purchase and privateers (Acheron) French Foreign Opponents: • Austria • Prussia • England (U.K.) • Russia • Spain • Italy • Netherlands / Dutch • Holland French Civil War – France was also in the middle civil war of its own. Bottom Line – France was a mess! French Revolutionary War The 1st Coalition (1792– 1798) French Revolutionary War The 2nd Coalition (1799– 1802) Declaration of Pillnitz August 27, 1791 “All European countries should come to the aid of Louis XVI and restore his power as the king of France. Let this declaration be a promise of harm towards France if Louis XVI and his family’s rights are further infringed upon or they are harmed in any way.” The “Declarers” Leopold II Holy Roman Emperor King of Hungary Archduke of Austria King Frederick William II of Prussia Phase # 2 “The Reign of Terror” – Radical / Crazy Phase 1792 – 1794 Sans Culottes “Those who wear pants” Who – The poorest members of the former 3rd estate who traditionally wear pants compared to richer members of the former 3rd estate and former members of the 1st and 2nd estate that traditionally wore culottes. San Culottes Tendencies = Radical Goal – Make France a republic. Republic – A government elected by the people and ran by the people. NO KING OR QUEEN. Division within the Sans Culottes: • Girondins – Wanted to fix the constitutional monarchy. • Jacobins – Wanted no monarchy at all. How did they come to power? They rose through elections in the National Convention. Storming of the Tuileries August 10, 1792 Raiders / Stormers – Sans-Culottes Whose Home? – Royal family ever since they were forced to leave he Palace of Versailles. Goal – Capture the French Royal family. Result: • 300 Sans-Culottes members died. • 900 Royal guards were slaughtered. • Royal family was captured. Queen Marie Antionette and her children “Bye bye Louis” September Massacres September 2 – 7, 1792 September Massacres September 2 – 7, 1792 “An event with circumstances of barbarity too shocking to describe.” What started it? – Successful Prussian invasion of a French fortress in Verdun, France. Why was Prussia invading France? – To free Louis XVI from the control of the radical Sans-Culottes who were now running the French government. Uncertainty – In fearful panic and anger, the French people killed more that 1,200 prisoners in the French prisons located in Paris. No discrimination – Priests and many people under the age of 18 were killed during this. September Massacres September 2 – 7, 1792 British political cartoon in reference to the September Massacres. Battle of Valmy September 19-20, 1792 France v. Prussia Where – Between Verdun and Paris (French capitol) Main reason for this battle – The “French Promise” Prussia’s Motivation – Prussia was invading France in an effort to end the French Revolution and restore Louis XVI’s power as the King of France. French Revolutionary Army – “Vive La Nation”, was the French battle cry as they hoped to spread the ideas of the French Revolution to other European countries. The Armies – Prussian Army (80,000) v. the French Revolutionary Army (36,000) Result or Winner – French Revolutionary Army Importance: 1. Shows how people behind a united cause can be victorious despite the numbers. 2. Convinced France to keep upholding the French Promise, which led to more wars between France and other European countries. 3. Showed the importance of artillery (cannons) in battle. 4. The French monarchy was abolished the next day and the First French Republic was born. Napoleon Bonaparte “The Valmy Affair” “The artillery proved its worth in this battle. In the initial campaigns of the French revolution France always excelled in the artillery division.” - Napoleon Bonaparte The End of the French Royal Family Criminal charge against the entire family– Treason (a crime against your country) Public Executions: 1. King Louis XVI – January 21, 1793 2. Queen Marie Antoinette – October 16, 1793 Interesting Point – Both bodies were placed in unmarked graves and were not exhumed until 1815 when the French Revolution was over. What happened to their children? 1. Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte – She was exiled to Austria where her cousin Francis II was the emperor. She died in 1851. 2. Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François – He died of "consumption" (tuberculosis) in 1789 at the age of 8 before the French Revolution began . 3. Louis-Charles – He was imprisoned. As a part of his republican re-education, his jailers forced him to drink large amounts of alcohol between severe beatings and torture. He was officially reported to have died in the prison from “consumption” in 1795 at age 10. There are some today that believe he was secretly set free and known as the "Lost Dauphin." 4. Sophie-Hélène-Béatrix – She died at the age of 1 in 1787 before the French Revolution began. louis XVi’s eXecution January 21, 1793 "I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France." marie antoinette’s eXecution October 16, 1793 “Pardon me sir, I mean not to do it” Constitution of 1793 June 24, 1793 Creators – National Convention (controlled by the Jacobins) Terms: 1. Limited Monarchy established by Constitution of 1791 is abolished. 2. France is a republic – A government of elected representatives by the people. 3. National Assembly is now the National Convention, which is now the official French Legislature (Congress). 4. All members of the National Convention are to be elected by the people of France. 5. French universal male suffrage (all French men are able to vote). This would be the second of four constitutions written during the French Revolution. National Convention (1793) Majority Party = Jacobins Maximilien Robespierre The Head Jacobin The Jacobin Language Committee of Public Safety (C.O.P.S) 1792 – 1795 Created by – National Convention What – 12 man group responsible for running France. Leader – Maximilien Robespierre (Jacobins) Purpose: “Make France safe” • End French Civil War. • Spread French Revolution ideas throughout Europe. • Created mass tax (everybody) to create funds for wars. • Establish a court to try and execute opponents the French Revolution. C.O.P.S. controlled France during what is known as the “Reign of Terror” period within the French Revolution. the height oF the “reign oF terror” July, 1793 – July, 1794 “The Reign of the Jacobins” The Process – Anyone saying or doing anything offensive to the ideals of the French Revolution was placed on trial by order of the C.O.P.S. The Statistics – 40,000 French people either died or were executed by order of the C.O.P.S. The Girondins – All people of this political party were executed. How did the Reign of Terror end? • Jacobins lost majority power in the National Convention through elections thus losing control of the French Government. Reign of Terror Robespierre’s Capture and Execution July 26, 1794 His Capture – When being arrested he and his closest followers attempted to commit suicide. Robespierre’s attempt to shoot himself in the head only managed to shatter his jaw. His Wound – He was moved to a table in the room of the C.O.P.S. to await execution. A doctor was brought in to fix up his jaw. Last Words – “Merci, monsieur,” to a man that had kindly given him a handkerchief to sop up some of the blood from his face and his clothing. The Execution – He was guillotined without trial face-up. When clearing Robespierre's neck the executioner tore off the bandage that was holding his shattered jaw in place, producing an agonizing scream until the fall of the mouton (blade) silenced him. France At War During Phase # 2 (1792 – 1794) 1792: • France defeated Prussia at the Battle of Valmy. • France captured land in the neighboring countries Italy, Holy Roman Empire (Germany), and Belgium. 1793: • England, Spain, Portugal, and Netherlands declare war on France after Louis XVI’s execution • Battle of Toulon (Southern France) – Napoleon’s has his first impressive victory over England as he drives them out of the French town with his artillery skills. 1794: • France gained land in Spain. • France occupied all of Belgium and the Rhineland, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire. • English Navy and the French Navy fought over U.S. grain shipment coming to France. French lost half of ships but the shipment arrived safely in France. Phase # 3 “The Directory” – Moderate Phase 1795 – 1799 “A leader is born” Constitution of 1795 August 22, 1795 Creators / Authors – National Convention Terms: 1. Created the Directory. 2. Power is shared equally amongst the “Directors”. This would be the third of four constitutions written during the French Revolution. The Directory Nov., 1795 – Nov., 1799 What – A 5 man committee responsible for running France. Power – All 5 men have equal power. Paul Barras The Directors Lazare Carnot (Jacobin) Charles Letourneur (Jacobin) Paul Barras Jean-Francois Reubell (Jacobin) Louis-Marie de La Revelliere-Lepaux (Jacobin) 13 Vendemiaire Uprising October 5, 1795 Vendemiaire Uprising October 5, 1795 Reason – French people were angry about the power giving to the Directory through laws that were just recently passed in the National Convention. What Happened – An angry French mob moved in to attack the Tulieries, which had just become the new headquarters of the Directory. The “Savior” – Director Paul Barras appointed Napoleon Bonaparte, who was an unknown French General at the time, to organize an army and deal with the angry mob. Artillery – Skillfully using his artillery, Napoleon repelled the mob. At one point he put nails in cannons in place of cannon balls allowing “shrapnel” to spread with each shot. Defense of the Directory – This was the first challenge to the Directory, which was swiftly put down. This was beginning of a good relationship between the Directory and Napoleon the eventually went bad. Napoleon’s Fame – Napoleon was beginning to make a name for himself. He eventually capitalize on this fame when all of France turned on the Directory. Using his reputation through his military successes in the Mediterranean Sea would eventually help him seize power of France when the Directory crumbles. Battle of the Pyramids July 21, 1798 Where – Cairo, Egypt Who Owned Egypt at this time – England What was so important about Egypt the Napoleon wanted control of? – Nile River (It starts in Mediterranean Sea and goes through out much of Africa. What region or area was Napoleon hoping to control as a result of this battle and future battles? – Middle East Asia Where would control of the Middle East help limit English control? – India The Armies – French Revolutionary Army (20,000) v. Egyptian Army (80,000) Result / Winner – French Revolutionary Army wins easily. Battle of the Nile August 1 – 3, 1798 Where – Egypt (mouth of the Nile River) V. Admiral Horatio Nelson England General Napoleon Bonaparte France Battle of the Nile August 1 – 3, 1798 Where – Egypt (mouth of the Nile River) Mediterranean Sea Dominance – France, under the control of Napoleon, was trying to establish dominance in the areas in and around the Mediterranean Sea. Control of the Nile River would be the final step. France’s Nemesis – England’s Royal Navy . The Navies – 15 English ships v. 17 French ships Winner – English The Losses: • English – 900 casualties • French – 4 ships destroyed, 9 captured, 5,000 casualties Importance: 1. Ended Napoleon’s dominance in the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Napoleon’s army was now trapped in Egypt with no way home. 3. English colonies in the Middle East and India are now safe for the moment. The “Quasi” War The “Undeclared” War With France 1798 – 1800 France v. U.S. The Background U.S. Refusal to pay back war debts to France (1792) – U.S. refused to pay war debts to France when Louis XVI was killed claiming that the war debt was to the now dead king. Jay’s Treaty (1793) – A treaty that ended remaining hostilities between the U.S. and England and also established a 10 year trade agreement between the two countries. U.S. Neutrality (1793) – Declared itself neutral in the disputes between England and Revolutionary France. French Position – U.S. are traitors who have turned their back on the country that helped them earn their independence. French Piracy (1793 – 1798) – France began seizing U.S. ships in the Atlantic Ocean for fear the they might be supplying their enemy England. “XYZ” Affair (1798) – Three un-named French agents demanded a large bribe from the U.S. for France to stop seizing U.S. ships. The “Quasi” War The “Undeclared” War With France 1798 – 1800 France v. U.S. French Piracy (1796 – 1797) – French pirates has seized over 300 U.S. ships during this time period. U.S. Merchant Ships Protection – NONE! U.S. sold all of their war ships in 1785. U.S. Re-Builds Their Navy (1797) – U.S. government bought 12 ships and turned them into war ships. They would continue to add to this amount throughout this war. Congressional Approval (1798) – Congress approved U.S. war ships to attack French war ships. Convention of 1800 – The now Napoleon led France signed an agreement to end the war. This lead to the beginning of a relationship between Napoleon’s France and the U.S. Result / Winner – Draw War Statistics: U.S. lost 1 ship and the French lost 93 ships French Navy = Garbage Louisiana Purchase (1803) Siege of Acre March 20 – 21, 1799 Where – Syria (Ottoman Empire) Napoleon’s Move – Being trapped in Egypt he moved his army north hoping to take control of Ottoman controlled Syria. Ottoman Empire’s Help – England Result – Napoleon’s army was defeated and driven from Syria. Napoleon’s Return – Hearing that the Directory was in danger of collapsing, Napoleon left his army in Syria and returned to Paris, France in order to seize power from the Directory. the directory’s downFall November, 1799 Main Reason – Corruption amongst the five Directors. Jacobin Influence – 4 of the 5 Directors were Jacobins, who were not very popular after the “Reign of Terror”. Unpopularity – French people demanded that the Directory be ended because they were using French tax dollars for their own personal gain. Napoleon’s coup d'état – Napoleon returned to Paris, raised an army, and overthrew the Jacobin led Directory very easily. Napoleon’s “Helpers” – Paul Barras and Abbe Sieyes. These two men and Napoleon would put together the three man government known as the Consulate that would eventually control France. Phase # 4 “The Reign of Napoleon” – Militant Phase 1799 – 1815 “Napoleon The Emperor” Constitution of 1799 Creators / Authors – National Convention Terms: 1.Established the Consulate. This would be the fourth and final constitution written during the French Revolution. naPoleon’s bio The Basics and His Military Beginnings Birth – August 15, 1769 Birth Place – Corsica • Corsican Ownership – Formerly owned by Genoa (Italian city state), but it was sold to France in 1768 after a civil war. His Knowledge of Italy would contribute to his military success here later. Father – Carlo Mario de Bonaparte (Tuscany Noble) Mother – Letizia (Tusacany Noble) Siblings – 7, he would the 2nd oldest of 8. Military Training – He was admitted to a royal military training school in France at age 9 through a program which created a fund that awarded 600 placement to a high class French schools if the French parents could prove their nobility connections through their ancestry. naPoleon’s bio His Military Lessons Copied Throughout History Rank – rank and promotion in the army was achieved by your ability to complete a task and not your ancestry. Military Calculations – Distance, troop quantities, supply quantities, speed, weather, reinforcements = geostrategist. Discipline and Bearing – Always maintain a serious nature. No one can ever say that they saw Napoleon drunk. Cause Chaos – Constantly fire guns and cannons to cause nervousness and sleeplessness in your enemy. Napoleon’s specialty in the military was the artillery division. Power Concentration or “The Weakest Link” – Find the weakest part of the enemy and hit it with everything you have. Once this link folds the whole things eventually will. Divide and Conquer – A concentrated army of one is much stronger than two separated armies where communication between the two is lost. Corsican Exile – Napoleon supported the side that was against the ruling body of Corsica (General Paoli) during the Corsican Civil War (1793) and his whole family was exiled. They soon came to France where Napoleon planned to make his new home. naPoleon’s bio His Military Success and Rise Rank – He achieved the rank of 1st Lieutenant in the French Army at age 22 in 1791. Battle of Toulon (1793) – French rebels, the English, and Spanish prepared for an invasion of France in an effort to remove the C.O.P.S. • Napoleon’s Part – He led the charge of the French Army division that would eventually help France be victorious in this battle. As a result, everyone knew him. Battle of Dego (1794) – Commanded the French artillery division in this battle and helped defeated the combined Austrian and Savoy (Italian State) army. • New Concept = Divide and Conquer – He split the line between the Savoy army and the Austrian army and concentrated the bulk of armies energy on the larger Austrians army caused both enemy armies to crumble. • General Pierre Dumerbion – He was the commander of the entire French army in this battle. When he retired after the battle he praised Napoleon saying that France would not have won without Napoleon. Connection to Committee of Public Safety – He was Robespierre’s protégé. Connection to The Directory – He became Director Barras’s protégé once Robespierre was executed. • Military Victories under Directory – Against Austria (1797) and England (1799). Political and Government Beliefs – Enlightenment The Consulate 1799 – 1804 What – Three man committee responsible for running France. Consul’s Term – Each is elected by the French people for a 10 year term. Government Type – Republic (in theory) The Consuls Jean Jacques Regis de Cambaceres Charles-Francois Lebrun Napoleon Bonaparte French 1st Consul 1802 1st Consul – This title gave a person control of the Consulate putting them in control of France. Napoleon’s Goal – Napoleon had been pushing to be the 1st Consul since the Consulate formed 1799. 1st Consul Napoleon – In 1802 Napoleon arrogantly claimed the title 1st Consul. Popular Vote – There was some disagreement between the three consuls over this decision and Napoleon decided to have a popular vote by the French people to settle this disagreement. Referendum (People’s Approval Vote): • For Napoleon – 3,000,000 • Against Napoleon – 8,000 Napoleon’s Road to Emperor 1804 Duke of Enghien Affair – English funded coup de tat that was designed to remove Napoleon from power was uncovered before it could be put in motion. French Fear – There was an intense fear that the Consulate Republic would collapse with the death of Napoleon. King? – There was a push for Napoleon to be crowned king in order to establish a hereditary line of future French kings coming from the blood line of Napoleon in the event of his death. Napoleon did not like this idea. Emperor! – Napoleon thought that a king went against the ideals of the French Revolution, therefore he agreed to be crowned emperor instead. The French Empire 1804 – 1814 Government Type – Republic (in theory) Napoleon’s Coronation Ceremony December 2, 1804 This is the beginning of the French Empire. The French Empire Government Type – Republic (in theory) What series of wars created this map? Napoleonic Wars (1804 – 1814) The Napoleonic Code “Napoleon’s Domestic Greatness” What – A set of laws for the French government and people. Main Points: 1. Forbid privileges based on birth (feudalism) 2. Religious freedom 3. Government jobs are for the most qualified people What movements ideas were expressed throughout this document? How did the French people respond to this change? Other changes by Napoleon – Restructured the economy, built new roads, built new canals, and built new public schools for all French people. “Napoleonic Nepotism” Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office. Bonaparte Dynasty Relation to Napoleon – older brother Reign: 1808 – 1813 Appointment – Napoleon appointed him king of Spain after Napoleon successfully invaded and captured Spain in 1808. Russian Effect – After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia the French army was weak. Napoleon’s powerful army was the “muscle” of Joseph as king of Spain. King Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain End or Abdication – Seeing the weakness of Napoleon and Joseph, the English and Portuguese armies teamed up with Spanish rebels. This army attacked and defeated Joseph causing him to abdicate (step down) in 1813. “Napoleonic Nepotism” Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office. Bonaparte Dynasty Relation to Napoleon – younger brother Reign: 1806 – 1810 Appointment – Napoleon appointed him to be the governor of the French controlled area in 1806. Louis eventually named himself king. Russian Effect – As Napoleon prepared for his invasion of Russian he needed to build-up the French army by drafting soldiers from the areas controlled by him and his siblings. King Louis Bonaparte King of Holland and the Netherlands End or Abdication – Napoleon, using his military, forced Louis to abdicate (step down) in 1810 when Louis refused to give Napoleon the soldiers under his control to support Napoleon’s invasions of Eastern Europe and Russia. “Napoleonic Nepotism” Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office. Bonaparte Dynasty Relation to Napoleon – youngest brother Reign: 1807 – 1813 Appointment – Napoleon created this country from land he won from Prussia in the Battle of Friedland in 1807. Shortly after Westphalia’s creation he appointed Jerome King of Westphalia. Russian Effect – He and Napoleon has a disagreement over the manner in which Jerome would help support this invasion. Angered by the disagreement Jerome withdrew from the invasion and returned to Westphalia. When Napoleon was defeated, this hurt the protection that Napoleon gave him. King Jerome Bonaparte King of Westphalia End or Abdication – After the Russian defeat Napoleon’s retreated to France. On its was to France to attack Napoleon, the allied Prussian and Russian armies invaded Westphalia and forced to Jerome to abdicate in 1813. “Napoleonic Nepotism” Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office. Bonaparte Dynasty Relation to Napoleon – youngest sister Reign: 1806 – 1815 Appointment – Napoleon appointed her and her husband (Joachim Murat) King and Queen of Naples in 1806. Russian Effect– She and Napoleon did not get along. She did not like his wife Josephine because she felt Napoleon cared more for her than his own siblings. These differences allowed her to stay in power longer than the other Bonapartes after the Russian defeat because she allied with many antiNapoleon countries. Queen Caroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples (S Italy) End or Abdication – When Napoleon returned from his 1st exile in 1815, her husband supported Napoleon. He was eventually captured and executed. Fearing for her life she fled to Austria claiming that she did not support her husband. “Napoleonic Nepotism” Nepotism – Showing favoritism to relatives by a person in high office. Bonaparte Dynasty Relation to Napoleon – oldest legitimate son Reign: 1811 – 1815 Appointment – Napoleon appointed him King of Rome, which was controlled by France, shortly after he was born. He never ruled the area since he was only a baby during the time that France controlled it. He was also appointed as Napoleon’s successor in the event of Napoleon’s death. Russian Effect – Napoleon’s defeat in Russia never allowed him to truly rule Rome as a king. King Napoleon II King of Rome End of Abdication – He was briefly (15 days) appointed Emperor of France after Napoleon abdicated for the 2nd time. The Congress of Vienna eventually appointed Louis XVIII (Bourbon and brother of Louis XVI) King of France in 1815 once the Napoleon’s reign and the French Revolution were ended and Europe was put back together. Louisiana Purchase (1803) Financing for? The Napoleonic Wars 1804 – 1814 Key Players Michel Ney Napoleon I French General French Emperor Horatio Nelson England Admiral Duke of Wellington English General Nemesis – A formidable and usually victorious opponent. Battle of Assaye September 23, 1803 Where – India Indian Maratha Rebels v. England The Marathas – Indian rebels resisting the English presence and takeover of their homeland. Maratha Suppliers – Hoping to see the English lose, the French supplied these rebels. The Armies: • English – 4,500 (2,500 were Sepoys) • Marathas – 40,000 Result – English victory Importance – England remained in control of Indian and its natural resources. Arthur Wellesley Duke of Wellington Commander of British military during the Battle of Assaye. Napoleon’s Ultimate Nemesis – He would continually beat Napoleon in the Napoleonic wars. He would lead the army that defeated Napoleon for the final time at Waterloo. Robert Fulton The Nautilus Who – American Inventor living in France. Inventions – Steam Engine and the Nautilus (1st submarine) Naval Weapon – It rams the wooden ship and implants a mine in the hull. A line is attached to the mine which will trigger the mine to explode. The Nautilus the reverses and pulls the line causing the mine to explode. The line length is designed for the sub to be at a safe distance when detonation occurs. Success – Fulton had tested this with success numerous times. Meeting with Napoleon – Fulton met Napoleon in order to show and sell the submarine to him. Napoleon thought it leaked to bad and was an underwater coffin for the pilots. He dismissed Fulton as a “swindler” and refused to buy his technology. Big Mistake! Great Fear (1789) What – Widespread attacks and violence on nobles. Sparking Event – Bad Harvest of 1788 lead to widespread famine. Reasons: • Widespread hunger • Crazy rumors about France’s future • 3rd Estate’s taxes were still high Robert Fulton The Nautilus “Taking his business elsewhere” – After being turned down by Napoleon, Fulton took the Nautilus invention to England who saw great potential in it. Bigger and Better Ideas – Fulton was ordered to build a bigger version of the Nautilus for the Royal Navy. He was eventually ordered to halt construction of it after the English defeated the French at Trafalgar. No Need Now – The English saw no need to increase their naval power after the French Navy was crushed they had established dominance of the sea. Fulton’s Imprisonment – He was imprisoned by the English for a short amount of time for fear that he may sell this technology to a rival country. Battle of Trafalgar October 21, 1805 Where – coast of Spain France and Spain v. England French Plan – Invasion of England French and Spanish Alliance –18 French ships & 15 Spanish ships (33 total) • Commander – Pierre-Charles Villeneuve • Commander’s Fate – Survived the battle but killed himself upon return to France because of humiliation. England – 27 ships • Commander – Horatio Nelson, Captain of the HMS Victory • Commander’s Injuries – Blind in left eye and an amputated right arm due to his injuries at the Battle of the Nile • Commander’s Fate – He was killed during the battle by a French sniper. Result – England wins Casualties: • French and Spanish – 14,000 men and 18 ships lost • England –1,400 men and no ships lost Battle of Trafalgar October 21, 1805 Where – coast of Spain Battle’s Importance – French Navy could not advance north and invade England. Napoleon’s Weakness – France lacked a superior and knowledgeable navy forcing Napoleon to stick mainly to land battles. The Continental System Napoleon’s Economic War What – Economic blockade of all English goods in all ports controlled by France and its allies. Napoleon’s Thought Process – “If I can’t beat England on land or sea, I will hit them where it counts, THEIR WALLET. You can’t fight a war if you don’t have money.” If you trade with England = French Enemy French Enemies because of Continental System – England, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Result – England maintained their economic activity despite the continental system. The Continental System Napoleon’s Economic War Battle of Austerlitz December 2, 1805 Where – Austria (near Vienna) France v. Russia and Austria Russian and Austrian Army – 90,000 • The Lost Wave – There was another 80,000 men who could not make it to the battle because General Ney and 20,000 French soldiers had halted them in the Swiss Alps French Army – 65,000 (commanded by Napoleon) Napoleon’s Brilliance: French Weak Right Flank – Napoleon made his right flank appear to weakly fortified so he would be attacked there. However, he had the bulk of his right flank hidden to the far right under a cloud of heavy fog and smoke from fires he had his soldiers light and maintain. The Attack – When the Austro-Russian army attacked the French right flank the French swept in and swallowed those forces. The French pushed hard through the middle and split the enemy line. Result – France wins Treaty of Pressburg (1805) Terms: Austrian Land Surrender – Gave all land in the Holy Roman Empire that was not part of Austria to France. Importance of the Battle of Austerlitz and the Treaty of Pressburg: 1. Holy Roman Empire was officially dissolved by Napoleon. 2. Confederation of the Rhine was created Napoleon I year later with the land gained from Austria in the battle and treaty. 3. Napoleon’s French Empire is getting bigger. 4. Napoleon is feeling unstoppable. Confederation of the Rhine (1806 – 1813) What – German land formerly part of the Holy Roman Empire taken by Napoleon after the battle of Austerlitz by order of the Treaty of Pressburg. German States – There were 16 states when it started, with Frankfurt as the capital city. German States Leadership – Napoleon granted independent leadership of the German states based on the agreement that the German states would supply the French army with soldiers. Present Day? Peninsular War (1806 – 1813) Where – Iberian Peninsula France v. Spain, Portugal, and England Treaty of Fontainebleau (1806) – France and Spain split Portugal into three areas. Spain and France would decide at a later date who gets each of the three territories. Portuguese Royal Family – They leave Portugal to go live in Brazil (biggest colony in the New World) in fear for their lives. Importance to Latin America – Leads to Brazil’s independence and the spread of Enlightenment ideas to many other Latin American countries which contributed to their independence. Latin American Independence Simon Bolivar Peninsular War (1806 – 1813) Where – Iberian Peninsula France v. Spain, Portugal, and England Treaty of Fontainbleau Decision: 1. France gets Portugal. 2. Spanish soldiers will help French soldiers secure Portugal. 3. Spain gets the Portuguese Navy because they lost so many at Trafalgar . Peninsular War (1806 – 1813) Where – Iberian Peninsula France v. Spain, Portugal, and England French Deception of Spanish: • French soldiers traveled through Spain to get to Portugal in order to secure it as French land. • Once many French soldiers were spread throughout Spain and Portugal was secure, French soldiers seized main Spanish forts and turned on Spain. • With its soldiers spread throughout Europe to help their French allie, they did not have sufficient forces in Spain to drive the French out and surrendered to Napoleon. Spanish Abdication – Spanish King Ferdinand was forced to abdicate his throne in 1808. New Spanish King – King Joseph Bonaparte was crowned in 1808. King Joseph’s Popularity – He was not liked and his rise to the throne was resisted. Opposition and Resistance Groups: • Spanish Guerilla rebels • Portuguese rebels • English Army – Provided military and financial aid to the Spanish and Portuguese rebels. Spain and Portugal – control of these two territories bounced back and forth between France, Spain, and Portugal until 1813 after Napoleon’s failed invasion of Russia. Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) Where – Russia France v. Russia Russian Army – 76,000 French Army – 71,000 (commanded by Napoleon) Casualties – 20,000 Russian to 7,000 French Result – French victory Peace Treaty – Treaty of Tilsit Countries / Leaders Involved in Treaty Signing: • France / Napoleon • Russia / Alexander I • Prussia / Frederick William III Treaty of Tilsit (1807) Terms: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Truce –Peace Between France and Russia. Franco-Russo Alliance – Russia and France are an alliance. They secretly agreed to help one another in territorial disputes with other countries. Against England – Russia agreed to join the Continental System against England. Russian Losses and French Gains – Russia was to give the land they gained from Turkey at the point in the Russo-Turkish War if France would help Russia win more land from Turkey in the future. Czar’s Relatives – Napoleon agreed to allow German states in the Confederation of Rhine to be independent of him if the leaders of these states were relatives of the Russian Czar. Prussian Losses and French Gains – Prussia gave some of its western land to France, which later became the Kingdom of Westphalia. Prussia also gave France its land it owned in Poland which later became the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Prussian Army Reduction – Prussia must reduce its army to 40,000 men. Prussian Payment To France – Prussia must pay France $100,000. Importance: 1. 2. 3. Super Alliance – The alliance between Russia and France made France much more powerful and put another army against England. Gains and Losses – The treaty was not very fair to Prussia and Russia in regards to gained and lost land. More Land For Napoleon – Two more countries under the influence of Napoleon came about from the land gains of this treaty. Kingdom of Westphalia (1807 – 1813) Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Westphalia What and Where – German state inside the French controlled Confederation of the Rhine. King – King Jerome Bonaparte The Model – Napoleon intended for this state to be the “model” German state within the Confederation of the Rhine that all the other German states would strive to be. Present Day? “grand” duchy oF warsaw (1807 – 1815) King Frederick Augustus I King of the Duchy of Warsaw Napoleon’s King Choice – Frederick Augustus I was once allied with Prussia against Napoleon until the Battle of Friedland. However, he and Napoleon became close friends and were allies to the very end of Napoleon’s rule. Present Day? Battle of Aspern & Essling May 21 – 22, 1809 Where – Austria (near Vienna) France v. Austria and Prussia Whey Here – Napoleon was trying to advance north through Germany towards Prussia out of occupied Austria which he had occupied after the battle of Austerlitz . Austrian and Prussian army – 90,000 French army – 65,000 (commanded by Napoelon) Battle of Aspern – French were overwhelmed in Aspern causing them to evacuate to nearby Essling for fear of being flanked. Result – Austrians and Prussians win (Napoleon’s first loss in the Napoleonic Wars) Casualties – Austria and Prussians suffered 23,000 (6,000 killed) and the French suffered 23,000 (7,000 killed). Big Mistake – Instead of pursuing and crushing the French, the Austrians and Prussians let Napoleon re-group on an island on the Danube River. Importance – Napoleon’s northern advance was halted for the moment and he was ANGRY! Battle of Wagram July 5 – 6, 1809 Where – Austria (near Vienna) France v. Austria Napoleon Re-groups – After his defeat at Aspern and Essling he re-grouped, re-strategized, and reinforced his army. Austrian army – 135,000 French army – 155,000 (commanded by Napoleon) Result – France wins Treaty of Vienna (1809) Countries Austrian Provinces States Gained Grand Duchy of Warsaw West Galicia (north Austria) Bavaria (Confederation of the Rhine state) Salzburg (west Austria) Russia Tarnopool (east Austria) France Trieste and part of Croatia (southwest Austria) Who either directly or indirectly controlled all of the areas or countries that Austria lost under this treaty? Austria was also forced to reduce the size of its army to 150,000 men and pay a huge amount of money to France. Austria lost almost 17% of its population as result of this treaty. Treaty of Vienna (1809) Josephine Bonaparte Napoleon’s Wife – She was Napoleon’s 1st wife. Children – The had no children together despite many attempts. Napoleon’s Fear – Napoleon needed and heir to replace him in the event of his death and secure his emperor crown.. Divorce – Due to her infertility and her inability to produce an heir, Napoleon divorced her. Infertility Proof – Napoleon had an illegitimate son with one of his mistresses, which proved he was able to have kids. Empress Josephine Bonaparte 1st Empress of France (1804 – 1810) Queen Marie Louise Napoleon’s New Wife and New Problems Her Great Aunt – Marie Antionette Her Dad – King Francis I of Austria What was her title then? – Austrian Princess Child Birth – She gave birth to a boy shortly after their marriage. The boy was named Napoleon II , and was crowned King of Rome by Napoleon. Alliance – This marriage created an alliance between Austria and France. Importance – More control of Austria for Napoleon. Opposition to this marriage – Every European country except France. Empress Marie Louise Empress of France (1810 – 1814) WHY? War of 1812 (1812 – 1815) Where – U.S. U.S. v. England America’s 2nd War For Independence from England Causes: 1. English expansion from Canadian owned lands into the U.S. owned Northwest Territory. 2. English anger towards the U.S. trade with France. 3. Impressments of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. 4. British support of American Indian tribes against U.S. expansion into their tribal lands. English Allies – English Canada, Shawnee, Creek Red Sticks, Ojibway, Chickamauga, Fox, Iroquois Miami, Mingo, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Lenape, Mascouten, Potawatomi, Sauk, and Wyandot. U.S. Allies – Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee. War of 1812 (1812 – 1815) White House Burning Why is the U.S. Capital where it is? Washington D.C. “Our Nation’s Capital” “The Compromise of 1790” James Madison (VA) Alexander Hamilton (NY) “My northern congressional votes for your southern congressional votes” Hamilton’s Secretary of the U.S. Treasury financial plan. For Permanent national capital south of the Potomac River close to Madison’s home state. What about the name? Washington District of Columbia (D.C.) “Our Nation’s Capital” George Washington – He picked out the land where the new capital city would be built and his name would be part of the name. District – An area that is not part of a state and is under the direct control of the federal government. Christopher Columbus – Since he founded the New World and the Americas, Europeans in the 1700s and 1800s often referred to the America colonies as “Columbia”. Columbia literally translates in “The Land of Columbus”. “Stand Beside Her” – Columbia is historically recognized as a female mythical goddess that birthed the U.S. War of 1812 (1812 – 1815) Star Spangled Banner Francis Scott Key Star Spangled Banner Writer Francis Scott Key during the U.S. victory at the Battle of Baltimore. Key’s visional inspiration that he used to write the song took place as a U.S. officer negotiating a prisoner exchange aboard an English ship as he could only watch the battle and do nothing to help his country. War of 1812 (1812 – 1815) “The Big Picture” Pressure to end the war – Napoleon has returned from exile and England needed to focus their attention mainly on defeating him. Treaty of Ghent (1815) – Ended the war as a draw. All possessions and territories seized during the war were to be returned to their original owners. Battle of New Orleans (1815) – The Americans successfully defended New Orleans and the mouth of the Mississippi River in this battle. The Treaty of Ghent had already been singed but word had not made it from Europe where the treaty was signed. Connection to French Revolution – It stretched England further than it already was. However, in the big picture England still managed to handle Napoleon since his failed Russian invasion happened shortly after the outbreak of this war. The War’s Legacy – Americans were very proud of this victory. Americans felt that England thought we got lucky in the American Revolutionary War and they could still push us around. This war solidified the U.S. and gave us an international reputation. Russian Invasion (June – December, 1812) Czar Alexander I’s Position What monarchy was he part of? What was he angry about? 1. French and Austrian alliance through Napoleon’s new marriage. 2. Napoleon’s French Empire was getting to close to Russia (Grand Duchy of Warsaw and Austria were on the border Russia). What did he do? Stopped enforcing the Continental System and broke his alliance with Napoleon. What did Napoleon do? Invaded Russia Czar Alexander I of Russia Russian Invasion (June – December, 1812) Opposing Strategies French Army Soldiers – 422,000 Recruitment – Napoleon forced all countries under his control and his allies to give him their soldiers for this invasion. Strategy – Invade and re-supply at the expense of the Russian people taking shelter along the way in the homes of the Russian people. Russian Army Soldiers – Numbers are unknown, but were very small in comparison to France Preparedness – The Russian army was poorly trained and poorly equipped in comparison to France. Strategy = Scorched Earth Policy – They burned down crops and homes as they retreated leaving nothing for the French to have. Guerilla Attacks – They sporadically attacked the French Army in places where they knew the land better. Russian Invasion (June – December, 1812) The March – Napoleon’s French army marched all the way to Moscow (Russian Capital), thinking that they would find food and shelter. Napoleon’s Thought Process – “Yes they have burned the country side but no way they would burn down their capital city.” Moscow’s Condition Upon Napoleon’s Arrival – Deserted and burnt to the ground. Napoleon’s Dilemma – It was October, winter is coming, his soldiers have no shelter and no food in Russia. Napoleon’s Decision – Turn around and head back to France. General Winter – Extremely cold temperatures, starvation, and guerilla attacks crushed Napoleon’s army. Russian Invasion (June – December, 1812) “Napoleon’s Path To Self-Destruction” Russian Invasion (June – December, 1812) Napoleon’s Downfall – This failed invasion was the end of his dominance in Europe Napoleon’s Suicide Attempt – When he returns to France he attempts suicide, but his body rejects the poison. naPoleon’s satellite Countries Collapse Confederation of the Rhine – Occupied and Russian and Prussian armies in 1813 and dissolved. Kingdom of Westphalia – Occupied and Russian and Prussian armies in 1813 and dissolved. Grand Duchy of Warsaw – Occupied by Russian and Prussian armies in 1813. Later divided between the two at the Congress of Vienna. Spain – In 1813 King Joseph Bonaparte was finally defeated and driven from France. Battle of Leipzig October 16 – 19, 1813 Where – Confederation of the Rhine France v. Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden Historical Significance – Largest battle before WWI with over 500,000 soldiers involved Regrouping – Napoleon returned home after the failed Russian invasion and re-built his army getting soldiers mainly from the Confederation of the Rhine Previous Victories – Napoleon moved back into the Confederation of the Rhine and won three battles at Lutzen, Bautzen, and Dresden against the Prussians, Russians, Austrians. Confederation of the Rhine Battle of Leipzig October 16 – 19, 1813 Where – Confederation of the Rhine France v. Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden The Armies: • Quadruple Alliance (Austria, Russia, Prussia, & Sweden) – 330,000 • France – 190,000 Result – Quadruple Alliance wins Napoleon’s Escape – He escaped across a river and burnt a bridge behind him so the pursuing enemy could not catch him. Some of his rear guard were accidentally left behind leaving them to fight to heir death. Casualties: • French: 46,000 KIA or wounded and 36,000 captured • Quadruple Alliance: 52,000 KIA or wounded Importance –Napoleon is defeated! Napoleon’s 1st Abdication April 11, 1814 Abdication – To step down from power. Exiled to – Elba, an Island in Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Italy. Personal Guard – Napoleon was allowed to take 1,000 men of his men with him for protection. New Leader of France – King Louis XVIII (Louis XVI’s brother). King Louis XVIII When he was appointed what monarchy was restored in France? Did the people of France like him? Why or why not? The people France blamed him for the recession and economic problems that hit France after Napoleon abdicated. Was it his fault? naPoleon’s return March 1, 1815 Why did he return? – He had gotten word that Louis XVIII was not very well liked and many French people wanted him to return. Support – Much of France was happy to see him return. King Louis XVIII – Fled to England for fear that Napoleon may kill him. How long did Napoleon stay in power of France after his return? Battle of Waterloo (June 16 – 21, 1815) Where – Belgium France v. England, Prussia, and Austria Battle of Waterloo (June 16 – 21, 1815) Where – Belgium France v. England, Prussia, and Austria Michel Ney French General Napoleon I French Emperor Duke of Wellington English General Battle of Waterloo (June 16 – 21, 1815) Where – Belgium France v. England, Prussia, and Austria The Armies and Strategies Anti-French Alliance – 671,000 • England – 95, 000 (commanded by the Duke of Wellington) • Prussia –124,000 • Former Confederation of the Rhine German States – 210,000 • Austria – 75,000 • Russia – 167,000 French – 280,000 Napoleon’s Strategy – Facing such a large combined force Napoleon decided to attack each one separately before they could all unite and have repeat of the battle of Leipzig. Battle of Waterloo (June 16 – 21, 1815) Where – Belgium France v. England, Prussia, and Austria The Battle Anti-French armies at the start of the battle – 219,000 • England – 95, 000 • Prussia –124,000 French – 280,000 Napoleon’s Plan – Engage each army separately and the Prussians and English from uniting into one bigger army. Napoleon – Attacked the Prussians on the French right flank first and drove them back. General Ney – Attacked the English army on the French left flank to a stalemate. Battle of Waterloo (June 16 – 21, 1815) Where – Belgium France v. England, Prussia, and Austria The Results and Importance Rain – Slowed the advancing soldiers, artillery movements, and the soft ground absorbed the cannonballs = Napoleon’s specialty was a neutralized British Battle Squares – The English formed many different squares with bayonets pointed out to repel the French cavalry charge. June 18, 185 – English and Prussians armies united and began to drive Napoleon back. “Help is on the way” – The Russian, Austrians, and various German forces were now on their way and the threat of a huge army caused Napoleon to surrender. Napoleon’s Surrender – June 21, 1815 Result – France lost Importance – The leads to Napoleon’s 2nd abdication and exile. Napoleon’s 2nd Abdication (July 15, 1815) Capture and Surrender – Captured aboard a ship trying to escape to the U.S. is where he made his official surrender. Exiled to – St. Helena, and island in the south Atlantic Ocean owned by England at the time. New Leader – Napoleon II was appointed emperor for 15 days, but he was eventually replaced by Louis XVIII. Napoleon’s Life and Legacy (1769 – 1821) Fate – Died in St. Helena in 1821 Cause – Stomach cancer or poisoning at age 52. the is not really known to this day. Ironic Final Resting Place – Les Invalides in Paris, which is where the first battle of the French Revolution took place. His Legacy? Congress of Vienna (1815) Countries and Country Representatives at the Congress of Vienna. • France – Maurice de Talleyrand • England – Duke of Wellington • Prussia - Prince Karl August von Hardenberg • Russia – Czar Alexander I • Austria – Prince Clemens von Metternich (President of Congress) Overall Goal – Put Europe back together. Specific Goals – Restore the monarchies ended by Napoleon and redraw the map of Europe that Napoleon drastically changed. Accomplishments: • Old Monarchies – Restored the monarchies in Portugal, France, Spain, Naples, and Rome. • European Police – The Quadruple Alliance (England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria) will be the police of Europe to avoid the rise of another Napoleon. • German Land – It established the German Confederation, which would be controlled by Austria.