Dr. Fabricio Povh - Nitrogen Use Efficiency

Report
2012 Optical Sensing Nitrogen
Management Group
August 6-8 - Fargo, North Dakota
Results Using Optical
Sensors in South Brazil
Agronomist Engineer, Dr. Fabrício Povh
Fundação ABC – Castro – Brazil
Three Dutch Cooperatives
ABC Foundation was created in October 23, 1984.
985 associates
Arapoti - PR
601 associates
Carambeí - PR
718 associates
Castro - PR
Recently more two Cooperatives
Coopagricola
Ponta Grossa – PR
Holambra
Paranapanema – SP
Área de atuação
Holambra
Fundação ABC
Main
Capal
Partners
Fundação
ABC
Castrolanda
Batavo
Coopagrícola
67 municipals
360,000 hectares
1 million liters of milk/day
Experimental Fields
- Ponta Grossa – 74.88 ha
- Castro – 139.40 ha
- Tibagi – 21.37 ha
- Arapoti – 25.92 ha
- Itaberá – 51.64 ha
Total: 313 hectares
- For each 8 hectares from farmers, the
ABC Foundation has 1 plot
- 45,000 plots / year (Summer/Winter)
experimental fields
Annual average
temperature
• Crops in ABC group
• Summer: Soybeans, Corn (grain and silage),
Beans
• Winter: Wheat, Oats (black and white), Rye
Grass, Canola, Barley
• Sensors in Brazil
– GreenSeeker – Trimble – Santiago&Cintra;
– N-sensor – Yara – Stara;
– OptRX – AgLeader – Jacto;
– Topcon – Massey Ferguson (AGCO Group).
First Experiment (Nitrogen Rates in Wheat)
NDVI (76 DAS)
Feekes 10
y = -1E-05x2 + 0,0034x + 0,6582
R2 = 0,98**
0.900
0.850
0.800
0.750
0.700
y = -2E-05x2 + 0,0032x + 0,6878
R2 = 0,96**
0.650
0.600
0
30
60
90
N Rates
Dose
de N (kg ha-1)
Inceptisol
Cambissolo
Oxisol
Latossolo
120
70 – 120 – 25 – 70 – 0 – 120 – 25 – 70 – 25 – 120
Nitrogen Rates
Wheat (2007)
Tibagi – PR – Brazil
T3 T1 T3
600m
1
T3 T1 T3
2
23,7 m
T3 T1 T3
3
6m
11m 6m
T3 T1 T3
4
T4 T2 T4
5
6
T4 T2 T4
7
T4 T2 T4
8
T4 T2 T4
9
3,30 m
Treatments
N (sowing)
N (pre-plant)
N (Feekes 3)
N (Feekes 10)
N (Total)
1
18
0
0
Sensor
18
2
18
34
0
Sensor
52
3
18
0
102
0
120
4
18
34
68
0
120
10
20 kg N/ha
40 kg N/ha
60 kg N/ha
Elevation (m)
3
2
1
Speeds and Rates
20 kg N/ha – 9.0 km/h – 4ª II R
40 kg N/ha – 4.5 km/h – 2ª II R
60 kg N/ha – 3.0 km/h – 1ª II R
Nitro LL – 35% of N – 2:1 (water) – 2.5 bar
20 kg N/ha – 57.1 L – 171.4 L/ha
40 kg N/ha – 114.3 L – 342.9 L/ha
60 kg N/ha – 171.4 L/ha – 514.3 L/ha
18 kg/ha
52 kg/ha
It would be applied: 195 kg N
It was applied: 109 kg N
Saving: 44%
It would be applied: 250 kg N
It was applied: 76 kg N
Saving: 70%
Yield Map
VR – 3053 kg/ha
VR – 3568 kg/ha
FR – 3026 kg/ha
FR – 3546 kg/ha
Wheat (2011)
Castro – PR – Brazil
Higher NDVI:
Plots 1 to 4
Lower NDVI:
Plots 5 to 8
Sowing fertilizer: 300 kg/ha 14-34-00 = 42 kg of N
Top-dressing: 200 kg/ha 22-00-21 = 44 kg of N
N total = 86 kg/ha
Plots 1-4 – Higher response: RI = 1.07 – N Rate: 44 kg/ha
Higher NDVI Values
Plots 5-8 – Lower response: RI = 1.03 – N Rate: 18 kg/ha
Lower NDVI Values
Higher Response Index (86 kg N ha-1)
7.0
Yield (t ha-1)
6.0
5.590 A
5.439 A
Sensor
Farmer
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
Pr > F: 0,03*
Lower Response Index
7.0
Yield (t ha-1)
6.0
5.750 A
4.944 B
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
60 kg N/ha
86 kg N/ha
Sensor
Farmer
Pr > F: 0,63
Loss of yield with
high N rates in low N
response years
NDVI
Feekes 10
0.80
0.79
0.78
0.77
0.76
0.75
0.74
0.73
0.72
0.784 a
0.760 b
0.743 b
0
5.936 a
Yield (t ha-1)
5.730 ab
5.8
5.775 ab
5.720 ab
5.539 b
5.6
5.415 b
5.4
5.2
5.0
0
30
60
90
120
Nitrogen Rates (kg ha -1)
0.787 a
0.775 a
6.2
6.0
0.784 a
150
30
60
90
120
Nitrogen Rates (kg ha -1)
150
The opposite!!
Lower potential yield zone Higher potential yield zone
RI = 1,29
RI = 1,15
N Rich Strip
N Rich Strip at the wrong place!!!
Wheat (2012)
Lower NDVI zone
???
Higher NDVI zone
RI = 1.006 (Very Low Response)
SI = 0.994
110 ha – Wheat (2011)
6.00
Yield (t/ha)
5.00
4.294 b
4.642 a
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
N Rich Strip
Sensor
98 kg/ha
55 kg/ha
26 plots harvested
side-by-side (13 points)
N Rich Strip x Sensor
The use of optical
sensors to map
spatial variability
Corn – 2.86 ha – Ponta Grossa – PR
NDVI
Corn Yield (kg/ha)
Soil Base Saturation (V%)
Clay
NDVI - Wheat
Soil EC
Management
Zones
• Other uses:
– Growth regulator in wheat and cotton;
– Desiccants for potatoes and beans;
Thanks!!
Dr. Fabrício Povh
[email protected]
Phone: +55 42 2322-2662
www.fundacaoabc.org.br
Castro – Paraná – Brazil

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