Teaching Argument Writing Reading d170

Report
Teaching Argument Across the Curriculum
for CCSS and PARCC
Reading, Writing, Science, and Social Studies
www.hydeparkeducationgroup.com
Julianna Cucci
Elizabeth (Betsy) Kahn
Shirley Morikuni
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
www.hydeparkeducationgroup.com
Hyde Park Education Group
“The federal government can make states, localities and
schools do things — but not necessarily do them well. Since
decades of research make it clear that what matters for
evaluating employees or turning around schools is how well you
do it — rather than whether you do it a certain way — it’s not
surprising that well-intentioned demands for “bold” federal
action on school improvement have a history of misfiring. They
stifle problem-solving, encourage bureaucratic blame avoidance
and often do more harm than good.”
Rick Hess and Linda Darling-Hammond
Workshop Agenda
Participants will
● examine the shift toward
argument in CCSS and
PARCC.
● develop common terms for
discussing the teaching and
assessment of argument.
● identify skills necessary for
effective argument thinking
and writing.
● explore research-based best
practices for teaching
argument well.
● apply argument writing to a
range of subject areas.
● Walk through lessons,
formative and summative
assessments for argument
writing.
A VOLUPTUARY
under the horrors of
Digestion
Argument Terms
Claim
Major Claim
Sub-Claim
Evidence
Reasoning
Formative Assessment Possibilities
• I have been invited to dinner with the Prince
Of Wales (The Voluptuary). Should I go?
• Will the Prince of Wales be a good King?
• What criticisms(s) does John Gillray’s etching
of the Prince of Wales (A Voluptuary Under the
Horrors of Digestion) level against the
prospective king?
Workshop Objective
Participants will leave here today with
ideas about how to revise or design
argument-driven instruction for their own
classrooms and with a rationale for using
engaging activities as test prep.
From The Special Place of Argument in the Standards:
The Standards put particular emphasis on students’
ability to write sound arguments about substantive
topics and issues, as this ability is critical to college and
career readiness …
Taken from Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, and Technical Subjects Appendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards
Gerald Graff (2003) writes that “argument literacy” is
fundamental to being educated...
K–12 schools should “teach the conflicts” so that
students are adept at understanding and engaging in
argument (both oral and written) when they enter
college.
Neil Postman (1997) calls argument the soul of an
education . . . When teachers ask students to
consider two or more perspectives on a topic or
issue, something far beyond surface knowledge is
required: students must think critically and deeply,
assess the validity of their own thinking, and
anticipate counterclaims in opposition to their own
position.
PARCC 4th Grade Research Task:
Your class has been studying about the survival of
ponies on Assateague Island. Using information from
the articles and video, describe the roles that both the
horses and humans play in horses’ survival. Use
evidence from the articles and the video to support
your answer.
8th Grade Research Task:
Write an essay comparing the information presented in
the video with that presented in the article “Elephants
Can Lend a Helping Trunk” and the passage from
“Elephants Know When They Need a Helping Trunk in a
Cooperative Task.”
Remember to use evidence from the video, the article,
and the passage to support your answer.
9th Grade Research Task
Write an essay that compares and contrasts a primary
argument in each text that you have read regarding the
decision to drop the atomic bomb. Your essay should
explain how effectively you think each argument
supported that claim with reasoning and/ or evidence.
Be sure to use evidence from the three texts to support
your ideas.
6th Grade Literary Analysis Task:
You have read the passage from Boy’s Life and
“Emancipation: A Life Fable.” Both texts develop the
theme of freedom. Write an essay that compares and
contrasts the approaches each text uses to develop
the theme of freedom.
8th Grade Literary Analysis Task:
In Confetti Girl and Tortilla Sun, the narrators have points
of view different from those of the parents.
Write an essay analyzing how these differences in points
of view create tension in both stories. Remember to use
details from both texts to support your ideas.
Writing Strands
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive
topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient
evidence.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey
complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the
development, organization, and style are appropriate to
task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects
based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding
of the subject under investigation.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.8
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital
sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and
integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support
analysis, reflection, and research.
Forming
an argument
by examining data
vs.
analyzing the form
What do students need to know
and be able to do?
Skills of Argument
Questions to Ask
1. Take an overall position.
Overall, what do I think? Overall, what
is my answer to the question posed?
2. Generate claims.
What can I prove?
3. Select evidence.
How do I know?
4. Explain reasoning.
So what? or How does the evidence
prove my claim?
Skills of Argument
Questions to Ask
5. Imagine arguments from other
sides. (counter-argument)
Who would disagree and why?
6. Respond to counter-argument.
Why don’t their arguments convince
me?
Why is my evidence or reasoning better?
7. Analyze the arguments of others
in different formats, i.e., videos,
images, or written text.
What are the claims? Evidence?
Reasoning? Is it effective?
Pre-test
●
●
●
●
●
●
Identify what skills students have.
Identify what skills students need to learn.
Fine tune instruction.
Provide a basis for demonstrating student growth
(post-test).
Teacher constructed.
PARCC samples (constructed response).
Sample Pre-test
Polar bears live in the Artic in a cold, aquatic environment with ice, snow,
and water. They swim and hunt seals in the Artic Ocean. Polar bears have
large front paws that are partially webbed, strong claws on all four paws,
and a thick layer of fur.
Write a scientific argument explaining why you think polar bears are
able to survive in their natural environment.
(McNeill and Krajcik, 2012)
Sample Student Response
Polar bears can live in the artic, because they have
adaptations for the environment. Their webbed paws allow
them to swim through the water to catch seals. Their claws
also allow them to catch seals. Their fur keeps them warm
in the cold environment. Adaptations are characteristics
that allow an animal to survive in its environment. Getting
food and staying warm are both necessary for an animal to
live.
Slip or Trip?
A case of who dunnit
You are a member of the
investigative team ...
Accident or Murder?
After Margaret and her husband got into a fight,
she stormed out of the house and left him at home
alone. Margaret drove to her country club where a
party was going on. Everyone there complimented
Margaret on her dress and how well it fit her
slender figure, and this made her feel better.
Margaret left just before one in the morning and
invited a few friends to follow her home for one more
drink. She got home ten minutes before they arrived,
but when her friends rang the doorbell, Margaret ran
outside, saying, “Something terrible happened! Charles
slipped and fell on the stairs. He was coming down for
another drink—he still had the glass in his hand—and I
think he’s dead. Oh my God, what should I do?”
The police concluded that Charles died from a
wound on the head, and confirmed the fact that
he’d been drunk. What do you think happened?
Accident or Murder?
Directions: You are a member of the investigative
team. You must determine whether this was an
accident or murder. Analyze the evidence in
Margaret’s story and the picture, and look for clues
to how and why the incident occurred. Once you’ve
gathered the evidence, make your claim. Was it an
accident or a murder?
Slip or Trip?
Looking at the evidence for clues
Evidence pointing toward ACCIDENT
Evidence pointing toward MURDER
Learning what questions to ask ...
Claim:
What can you prove?
Is Charles’ death murder or an
accident?
Evidence: How do you know?
Reasoning: So what?
Why does that evidence prove
that claim?
What does that mean?
Provide the reasoning:
Claim: Charles was
murdered.
Claim: Charles’ death
was an accident.
Evidence: His glass is
in his hand.
Evidence: His glass is
still in his hand.
Reasoning:
Reasoning:
The Write-Up...
Write up a report/ argument about Charles’ death in
which you have a claim, the two strongest pieces of
evidence, and reasoning for each piece of evidence.
You might start like this:
Dear Police Commissioner:
Without a doubt, Charles ___________________.
The most important evidence in this case . . .
As a rule ...
Slip or Trip
Incorporate multiple texts:
VISUAL and written data
Practice skills, with emphasis on
reasoning (linking evidence to claims)
Reinforcing Claims, Evidence, and Reasoning
Formative Assessment
1. CLAIM: The police should pull over that car.
EVIDENCE: It is swerving all over the road.
REASONING:
2. CLAIM: That man is brave.
EVIDENCE: He jumped into a pool of sharks.
REASONING:
.
3. CLAIM: Pablo is a good parent.
EVIDENCE: He buys his son whatever he wants.
REASONING:
4. CLAIM: Pablo is a bad parent.
EVIDENCE: He buys his son whatever he wants.
REASONING:
Class-Generated Data: Sticky Notes Activity
From Teaching Students to Write Argument, 2011
Class-Generated Data
Sticky Notes
What kinds of things do you like to do in your
free time?
More Class-Generated Data: Sticky Notes
What are your top three favorite pets?
• What’s the most popular favorite pet?
• Rank the favorite pets.
• Write an article about the students’ favorite pets.
Class-Generated Data
Learn to use and apply basic statistics to argument
Sticky Notes
Simple class generated data, which students evaluate
Application to science labs
Can get to more complex data
NextGen Science and Argument
“The study of science and engineering should
produce a sense of the process of argument
necessary for advancing and defending a new idea or
an explanation of a phenomenon and the norms for
conducting such arguments. In that spirit, students
should argue for the explanations they construct,
defend their interpretations of the associated data,
and advocate for the designs they propose” (73).
C E R Framework
Katherine L. McNeill &
Joseph Krajcik
Supporting Grade 5-8
Students in
Constructing
Explanations in Science
Scientific Explanation as Argument
QUESTION
CLAIM
EVIDENCE
REASONING
COUNTER-ARGUMENT (REBUTTAL)
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Grand
Canyon
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is
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●Some
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hard,formed?
cannot
How
the
Grand
water
cutting
into
and
eroding
the
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movement
of
the
earth’s
surface.
In
terms
of Canyon
the
caused
by
a
large
earthquake,
but
the
Grand
is
water, and has few plants to hold it in place.
Grand
Canyon,
the
water
moved
the soil
and
rockvery
from
not
near
tectonic
plate
boundaries.
Furthermore,
●
When
itany
rains
in the
Grand
Canyon,
it can
rain
the
sidesand
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Grand
intoand
thedo
Colorado
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earthquakes
in Colorado
are rare
not tend
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cause
flashCanyon
floods.
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it wasfloods
then washed
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a
●
Thelarge—largest
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the Colorado River.
C
E
R
Big Question: Is the sea lamprey an
invasive species that could have a major
impact on the Great Lakes?
Claim: The sea
lamprey is a super
predator.
Evidence (Text and lab)
Reasoning
Eggs
How does the evidence prove
your claim? Be sure to
connect each piece of
evidence to a scientific
principle.
Lamprey
Trout
Mouth
Lamprey
Perch
How they feed (eat)
Gills
Movement
Digestive System
C E R Writing Sample
“The sea lamprey is a super predator because, first, it
produces a lot more eggs (60,000 - 100,000) than the
perch (1,000 - 15,000) causing there to be many more sea
lamprey to be a predator of the trout/ perch. The
scientific principle that supports this is that organisms in a
food web are related through producer/ consumer,
predator/ prey relationships. If there are more of a
predator, it will cause there to be less of the prey.”
Applying CCSS Argument to a NGSS Project
Research
and Design
Test
and collect data
Present a persuasive
argument
Teacher-constructed Data
Carnegie Hero -- criteria provided, students
apply criteria
School Mascot -- complex problem, students
generate and apply criteria
Reparations (scenarios and case study) -- complex
problem, students generate and apply criteria
Examples of Official School Mascots
From Teaching Students to Write Arguments, 2011
Which makes the best school mascot?
The Corn
Huskers
The
Largemouth
Bass
The Miners
The Lowland
Gorillas
Profile of Limestone Elementary School
Limestone Elementary School opened two years ago in
Floodrock, IL. Floodrock is located in a river valley in
Saline County, a southern region of the state where
fishing is popular. The surrounding area has two major
industries: farming and coal mining. Saline County has a
strong connection to the coal mines. However, since
fewer homes and businesses depend on coal as an
energy source these days, the activities of the mines
have slowed and the mines employ fewer residents.
Many families who live in the outskirts of Floodrock
associate themselves with agriculture and farming.
Student Writing Sample
The Miners are a good mascot for Limestone
Elementary School. Everyone in the school
can take pride in their past because their town was a
mining town. Another thing, miners have to be strong
to get what they’re mining. These characteristics are
important because kids should be proud of their
mascot, and their past.
Hannah, grade 5
Case Study/Role Play
Imagining arguments of others:
Reparations for Native Americans
Scenarios Sample Student Discussion
Missy: The way she says “So there,” doesn’t sound like
she’s sorry. I don’t think that Stella is really sorry…
Ginger: Yeah, but how do you make her be sorry?
Bobby: You can’t make her be sorry, but she should at
least sound like she means it.
Teacher: OK, so you want at least for her to offer a
sincere apology, even if she might in her heart not
really be sincere?
Scenarios Sample Student Discussion
Bobby: Yeah, she has to give a sincere apology.
Suzy: But I don’t think that’s enough. She bit her
and hurt her. Doesn’t it say that she is still bruised
and sore? Stella has to do something nice to make
up for hurting her.
Teacher: So you want Stella to do something more?
What would that be?
Scenarios
Reparations
Friendship
Courageous Action
Hero
Outcast
Freedom
What is Liberty?
Justice?
Freedom of Speech?
American Dream?
Discrimination?
Assessments: Prompts and Rubrics
Formative
Follow-up writing
Criteria-guided revision
Summative
Classroom
School wide
District wide
What do all these activities have in common?
●
●
●
●
●
●
Authentic, engaging data
Complex problem(s)
Talking before writing
Internalize questions as thought
process
Process before form/product
Scaffolding for writing provided
through graphic organizers
Classroom Applications
How might you apply these ideas to
your discipline and classroom?
“It is important to note that this development of thoughtful
students takes place over many years of schooling. Argument
should be part of the educational program at early stages…. If
schools were to adopt a policy of teaching through inquiry,
making arguments would be taking place everyday in every
subject matter from language arts to mathematics. This
would make learning more exciting– and much more
meaningful” (200).
George Hillocks, Jr., Teaching Argument Writing, 2011.
Classroom Data
Curricular TEXTS
Textbook
Images
Labs
Class discussion
Questions
Articles
How can we teach
these texts through
the frame of
argument?
C3 and Argument
“The disciplines that make up the social studies,
including the behavioral and social sciences, stress
the importance of arguments, and in particular, the
necessity of constructing them in ways that make
use of sources and data as evidence.”
(C3 Framework, 57)
Social Studies Data – Primary Sources
Question: Should the United States have
dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki during World War II?
http://argument-history-science.weebly.com/class-materials.html
(Sources and graphic organizer downloadable at site.)
Primary and Secondary Sources
•Recommendation to the President by the Scientific Panel of
the Interim Committee on Nuclear Power on June 16th, 1945
•Petition to the President of the United States written on July
17th, 1945 by the scientists who created the atomic bomb
•Parts of a personal record of Takeharu Terao, a Hiroshima
Atomic Bomb Survivor written on September 8th, 2003
Primary and Secondary Sources
•Quote from an Essay of a U.S Soldier written postatomic bomb
•Snippets from a New York Times Article published
on August 6th, 1995
•Statistics of Casualties from the Pacific War as a
whole and from the atomic bomb droppings in
particular
Both Sides of the Argument
“Yes” the U.S. should have
dropped the atomic bombs
“No” the U.S. should not have
dropped the atomic bombs
Evidence #1: _________________
Evidence #1: _________________
How does this evidence support
your claim?
How does this evidence support
your claim?
Evidence #2: _________________
Evidence #2: _________________
How does this evidence support
your claim?
How does this evidence support
your claim?
Question/Claim
Pose question.
Answer question.
Reasoning: How
does evidence
connect to claim?
Evidence
Collect/select data
Modifying Primary Sources
www.teachinghistory.org
What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? [modified]
By Fredrick Douglass (July 5, 1852)
http://teachinghistory.org/system/files/adapting_documents-frederick_douglass.pdf
English Language Arts
What is courageous action?
How does an author develop a theme?
PARCC Grade 6-8 ELA Sample:
You have read a website entry and an article, and
watched a video describing Amelia Earhart. All three
include information that supports the claim that Earhart
was a brave, courageous person. Consider the argument
each author uses to demonstrate Earhart’s bravery.
Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the
arguments related to Earhart’s bravery in at least two of
the supporting materials. Remember to use textual
evidence to support your ideas.
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