Biochar 8 t C ha -1

Report
Greenhouse gas emissions and agronomic effects from
biochar applications at field scale in Norway
Adam O’Toole, Hanna Silvennoinen*, and Daniel P. Rasse
*presenting author
Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås, Norway.
www.bioforsk.no/biochar
[email protected]
Introduction
• Biochar-C stability? Is linked to pyrolysis temp. at
which biochar is produced1, however limited field
data showing the extent of biochar-C mineralization
and effects on native SOM mineralization in ag. soils
(eg. Does Priming of SOM occur?)
• GHG impact?: Previous studies2 have shown
reductions of N2O in biochar amended fields but no
field data show the duration of this effect.
• Agronomy? Meta analyses3 estimate ~10% average
yield increases in biochar studies, but little
published data avail. for Nordic countries
1Mašek
et al. 2011, Fuel. 103: 151-155 2Taghizadeh-Toosi, et al. (2011). JEQ 40(2); Zhang et
al.(2012)Fld Crps Res. 127, 153-160 3 Jefferey et al. 2011. Ag. Eco. Env. 144: 175-187
Objectives of experiments
Experiment 1: To estimate the stability of biochar-C
under field conditions and BC impact on GHG emissions
Experiment 2: Assess agronomic impacts from biochar
application as part of a Northern European ring trial.
Methods for assessing Biochar C stability
• Measuring the δ13C signature and CO2
efflux of a C3 soil after additons of
Miscanthus (C4 plant) derived biochar
C4 plants: ~ -15‰
Miscanthus
δ13C
Oats
C3 SOM: ~ -30‰
Methods: Experiment 1
• GHG measurement: Closed static
chambers, Infrared gas analyzer (IRGA)
for CO2 efflux (2 mins per chamber),
Piccaro G1101-i for δ13C measurements
• Keeling plot method used to isolate
soil respired CO2 in chamber
measurements (3, 8, 1440 min).
• Larger closed chambers for N2O, vial
measurements taken at 0,15,30, 45
min. and measured via GC
Biochar and Soil description
• Miscanthus giganteus (C4 plant) feedstock
• Produced by Pyreg Gmbh (Germany)
Pyroysis temperature 500-750 °C
• Fixed C = 70%
VM= 7%
Ash= 23%
• pH: 10
• BET: 349 m2 g-1
• Soil: Inceptisol, Sandy Clay Loam, TOC: 2.5 %
Field trials in Norway – 2010-13
• Biochar inverse ploughed
in the fall of 2010. New
application in 2012 (mini
plots for N2O study
• Crops – 2011 Oats
2012 Barley
2013 Oats
• Fertilizer: Ammonium
Nitrate (NPK 22-3-10,
550 kg ha-1)
Ås
(University of Life Sciences, field station)
Experimental Design
• 16 plots (6 x 4 m) / 4 plots (1.5 x 1.5 m miniplots)
• 5 treatments x 4 reps
• Randomized block design
1. Control – no amendments
2. Straw
8t C ha-1 (2010)
3. Biochar 8 t C ha-1 (2010)
4. Biochar 25 t C ha-1 (2010)
5. Biochar 25 t C ha-1 (New application 2012 for N2O trial)
(mini plots)
Air temp and precipitation
(Apr-Nov 2012)
Results – Soil respiration
2011
2012
Soil respiration 2011
0,800
0,700
g CO2 m-2 h-1
0,600
0,500
Miscanthus 8t C ha-1
Control
0,400
Biochar 8t C ha-1
0,300
Biochar 25t C ha-1
0,200
0,100
0,000
17.05.2011
06.06.2011
26.06.2011
16.07.2011
05.08.2011
25.08.2011
14.09.2011
No significant differences between treatments
Cumulative C loss – 2011-2012
C4 plant-C related loss
Contribution Contribution
CO2-C loss
to CO2
to CO2
Control
C loss from
straw and
biochar
g m-2
g m-2
%
%
461
-
-
-
Straw
8 t C ha-1
467
76
16
9.5%
Biochar
8 t C ha-1
439
5
1
0.6%
Biochar
25 t C daa-1
472
9
2
0.4%
~x 20
Straw and Biochar-C loss
after Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7) oxidation
(Budai et al. In prep.)
~350-450°C threshold for inc. stability
Field site char
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Straw
Bc 250°C BC 300°C BC 500°C
Bc 700°C
N2O flux 2012
fertilization
harvest
1400
µg N2O-N m-2 h -1
1200
Control
BC8
BC25
BC25 new
1000
800
600
400
200
0
apr
mai
jun
jul
aug
sep
okt
Cumulative N2O utslipp.
2012 growing season
10
16.4.- 28.9
2.5.- 28.9
kg N2O-N ha-1
8
6
4
2
0
Control
BC8
BC25 BC25 new
BiocharClimate Saving Soils project
(Interreg IV North sea programme)
Project objective:
“To develop, implement and disseminate the
biochar-strategy in the North Sea Region (NSR) for
climate change adaptation and climate change
mitigation by increasing soil quality and stability with
soil biochar amendments.”
• 7 countries around the North Sea:
UK, NO, SE, DK, DE, NL, BE
• Period 2009-2013
17
• Field trial objective:
“To test the effect of one wood based biochar on soil quality and crop
growth according to a standard protocol, across different soil types and
climates of the North Sea Region.”
• Feedstock: mix of Picea abies - Abies alba - Pinus sylvestris -Fagus
sylvatica - Quercus robur
• Pyrolysis temperature: 450-480°C
• Dose: 20t/ha
Biochar characteristics
18
Transnational field trials
• Biochar application date in Norway: spring 2012
• Treatments: 1) biochar, 2) control
• Replicates: 4
• Crop
• 2012: spring barley (DE: winter wheat)
• 2013: free crop choice
19
Grain yield (Barley) - 2012
500
Bygg kornavling (kg daa-1)
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Biokull
Kontroll
Straw yield (Barley) 2012
250
Bygg kornavling (kg daa-1)
200
150
100
50
0
Biokull
Kontroll
Earthworm count in field
80
No. of earthworms
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
biochar
control
Total Earthworms collected from field site plots
2 cores taken from 4 replicate plots per treatment (total 8 cores per treatment)
Bulk density
Experiment 1
• Control
• Biochar 8 t
• Straw 8 t
• Biochar 25 t
1.30 g cm3
1.16 g cm3
1.19 g cm3
1.22 g cm3
±
±
±
±
Experiment 2
• Biochar
• Control
1.06 g cm3
1.17 g cm3
± 0.05
± 0.09
0.04
0.11
0.07
0.05
Conclusion
• Biochar appeared to be Stabil and did not prime
native C
• Plant yields similar over all treatments in two wet
seasons in a clay loam Norwegian soil
• Reductions in bulk density and increases in worm
populations could have a benefits for root growth,
but needs more study
Thank you for your attention
Acknowledgements
- Raphael Fauches
- Monique Carnol, University of Liege
- Svend Pung – SKP, UMB
- Toril Trædal (UMB)
- Christophe Moni, Farshad Tami
and Robert Barneveld
Funding: Matprogrammet, Norwegian Research
Council. Interreg IV NSR program and SLF
Our website: www.bioforsk.no/biochar

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