JICA - Research Into Use

Report
REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON RICE AND
AQUACULTURE FOR CENTRAL, SOUTHERN
AND EAST AFRICA
Lusaka, Zambia, 7-11 February 2011
RICE DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIA:
A CASE FOR JAPAN
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
AGENCY (JICA)
By
Patrick Chibbamulilo
Senior Programme Officer,
JICA ZAMBIA OFFICE
Presentation Outline
1. The Significance of Rice in Zambia
2. The Case for Rice – Why should we intervene to promote rice?
3. Why Poor Performance of Rice? – Overview of Value Chain
Constraints
4. Are there Options for Rice Development?– strategy
5.
6.
JICA Activities and support to rice
Other Players
7. Conclusion
1. The Significance of Rice in Zambia

Government Policy turning to favour/ recognize rice:
–
–
–

In recent years, growth in production and consumption
has accelerated.
–
–

Around 2004/5 Zambia included rice as one of the major food
crops purchased by FRA (Govt Food Reserve Agency
For most of the decade of 2000 to date, rice has been part of the
GRZ Food Balance Sheet (indicator of food Requirements)
2010/11 season rice included in FISP, a GRZ subsidy program
In 20 yr period, 1988- 2008: rice production (grew 258%), from 9,
293 MT to 24, 023 MT )
In 3 yr period, of 2007 -2010, rice production almost tripled
(growing 288%) from 18,317 MT to 53,000 MT.
Option for poor small-scale farmers; grown by 90% small
scales (up-to 13,358 farmers, MACO data of 2007/8
season)
2. The Case for rice: Why support rice ?
Although production has been increasing, it has
been unsatisfactory:




Production increase was attributed to area rather than
productivity
Consumption is higher than the supply, so Zambia has to
import
Rice growing limited to few parts of Zambia
The production is uncompetitive (imports are cheaper
than local rice)
Lets scrutinise each of these!
The Case for rice: (1) Low yield about 1MT/ha
Rice yield (MT per Ha)
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
Rice yield (MT per Ha)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
19
87
19 /88
88
19 /89
89
19 /90
90
19 /91
91
19 /92
92
19 /93
93
19 /94
94
19 /95
95
19 /96
96
19 /97
97
19 /98
98
19 /99
99
20 /00
00
20 /01
01
20 /02
02
20 /03
03
20 /04
04
20 /05
05
20 /06
06
20 /07
07
/0
8
0
No improvement in recent years!
In 2008/9 yield was 1.35 MT /ha, 2009/10 it was 1.44 MT/ha (MACO, CFS 2010)
IRRI : Africa Yield = 2.5 Mt/ ha ; World = 4.15 Mt /Ha , no much difference in region
The Case for rice: (2)Consumption-Supply Gap
Needs are met by imports: Demand is higher than production and met by
imports (CSO,ADS 2009)
35,000,000
30,000,000
25,000,000
20,000,000
Import net w t kg
Export net w t
Prod kg
15,000,000
10,000,000
5,000,000
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Food Balance sheet for 2009/10 and 2010/2011 indicate rice demand of
54,000MT and 63,328 MT
The Case for rice: (2)Consumption-Supply Gap – Global (CARD)
16000
Production
Consumption
18000
Production
Consumption
16000
14000
12000
14000
12000
10000
(×1000t)
(×1000t)
Wheat
Rice (Milled)
10000
8000
8000
6000
6000
4000
4000
2000
2000
0
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
Year
1990
1995
2000
2005
0
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
Year
1990
Widening Demand-supply Gap
(Rice and Wheat)
Source: Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD) secretariat
1995
2000
2005
The Case for rice: (3) Rice grown in few areas

Map too big
Can we try other areas? e.g. in 2009, NERICA grew @ 4 - 5MT/ha Lusaka and Mazabuka
The Case for rice: (4) Low Competitiveness
*There are indications that local rice is less
competitive going by imported rice which
competes favourably
3. Why Poor Performance of Rice – Value Chain Constraints

Farm level:
–
Diseases e.g. rice blast and Pest,
–
Inappropriate mgt skills, traditional (late planting, broadcasting planting, weed
control, untimely fertilization, untimely harvesting)
–
Technology inadequacies;
- particularly impure seed varieties with low yields (purify variety)
- Tools largely hand hoes limiting to small areas,
- Irrigation in case of droughts _reliant on rains

Storage for bulking not developed, leading to
–
high transactions costs for traders,
–
Information asymmetries (e.g. mystery where farmers have no mkt and traders
complain no produce)

Processing:
–
Old Machinery leading to poor quality e.g broken rice or lower extraction rates
–
Location far hence high transport costs (35% of paddy is husk)
–
Different quality / uniform seed lead to por quality processing (sorting / gradind
needed)

Uncoordinated Marketing for export (Zambia Rice Federation Just formed)
4.
4. Are there Options for Rice Development?– Strategy
Japan
:
committed itself to assist Africa to double rice production from the level of 14m MT in
2008 to 28 m MT by 2018. Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD) was formed in 2008
with secretariat in Kenya. The Strategic Framework for rice development is as below
All aspects of
value chain
interventions
Promoting Rice
in Agro Ecol
Zones
Inputs
Irrigated
On-farm
technology
Rain-fed
Post-harvest
Marketing
Rain-fed
upland
Emphasis on
capacity
development
Promotion of
South-South
Cooperation
5. JICA and its Support to Rice (green shows interventions)
ValueChain
Chin
Value
Inputs: NERICA
Seed
Multiplication
with ZARI
Promoting Rice in
Agro Ecol Zones
Upland Rain fed:
in Non traditional areas
e.g. Chongwe
(30MT in 2009)
On Farm:
- Demonstration,
- At least 50 Camp
Extension Workers
trained in NERICA
Processing: Agro
processing in
Sefula
Low Land rain fed:
Kosh rainfed in
Sefula
Irrigation:
In July/ Aug 2010 a
Mission was sent to
Zambia to assess
prospects
Emphasis on
capacity
development
-Training in Japan
-Support to NRDS
-Visit by Expert e.g.
At FODIS
Promotion of
South-South
Cooperation
-Africa Rice Expert
-Training of CEO in
Uganda 8 visits
5. A few Pictures about Japan’s Support
in September 2010: Expert From Africa Rice Training Camp Extension Officers (15)
5. A few Pictures about Japan’s Support
in September 2010: Expert From Africa Rice Training Camp Extension Officers in class
5.Pictures of JICA Support:
Through Support from Japan in 2009 Africa Rice collaborated with ZARI and
ZAMSEED multiply NERICA seed. This a ZAMSEED contracted Farmer
JICA
JICAsupport
supportto
toTraining
Trainingin
inUganda
Uganda
Zambian Researchers sent to Uganda in August 2010 to share with
others
Current Activities of JICA
6. Other Players in Zambia
We would like to acknowledge other Players supporting the rice subsector (list not
exhaustive):






SNV – Published a book on rice Growing, involved in
capacity building and market linkage
Research In Use (RIU) – Working with COMACO to purify
local varieties of seed “supa” and market linkage
development
Production, Finance and Technology (PROFIT) – has been
supporting small to medium scale farmers in upland rice
production
ZARI/ AGRA- Development and promotion of blast
resistant and soil acidity tolerant upland rice varieties
NSTC – Evaluateion of upland rice varieties Development
of Upland rice
Others not mentioned here
7. Conclusion
Rice is becoming an increasing important crop
in and can contribute to income and food
Security.
There is need to coordinate in the area of rice
development; whereby different players should
complement their efforts.
Thank you very Much !
THINK TOGETHER, WORK TOGETHER

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